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Yea'booii U. S. Dept of Agt.culture. 1898. 




Jeremiah M. Rusk. 

(Secretary of Agriculture, 1889 1893.) 



YEARBOOK 



OF TUB 



UNITED STATES 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



1898. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 



1899. 



[Public— No. 23.] 

AN ACT providing for the public printing and binding and distribution of public documents. 

Section 73, paragraph 2 : 

The Annual Report of the Secretary of Agriculture shall hereafter be submitted 
and printed in two parts, as follows: Part one, which shall contain purely busi- 
ness and executive matter which it is necessary for the Secretary to submit to the 
President and Congress; part two, which shall contain such reports from the 
different bureaus and divisions, and such papers prepared by their special agents, 
accompanied by suitable illustrations, as shall, in the opinion of the Secretary, be 
specially suited to interest and instruct the farmers of the country, and to include 
a general report of the operations of the Department for their information. There 
shall be printed of part one, one thousand copies for the Senate, two thousand 
copies for the House, and three thousand copies for the Department of Agriculture; 
and of part two, one hundred and ten thousand copies for the use of the Senate, 
three hundred and sixty thousand copies for the use of the House of Representa- 
tives, and thirty thousand copies for the use of the Department of Agriculture, 
the illustrations for the same to be executed under the supervision of the Public 
Printer, in accordance with directions of the Joint Committee on Printing, said 
illustrations to be subject to the approval of the Secretary of Agriculture; and 
the title of each of the said parts shall be such as to show that such part is com- 
plete in itself. 
3 



PREFACE. 



The present Yearbook does not in form differ materially from its 
predecessors, with the exception of the Yearbook for 1897, to which, 
as explained in the preface to that publication, a special feature 
had been added by direction of the Secretary of Agriculture, con- 
sisting of articles from each chief of Bureau, Division, and Office 
outside of those that are purely administrative, presenting ''in plain 
terms the relation of the work of his Bureau, Division, or Office to the 
farmer." This addition made the Yearbook of 1897 consist of four 
distinct parts instead of three, as usual. While the form has been 
changed, the spirit of this special feature has by no means been 
neglected in the present volume. -No attempt was made to secure an 
article for this book from every chief relating to the general work of 
his Division to the farmer, as was done last year — a course which 
would have inevitably resulted in more or less repetition; but the 
chiefs understood that it was the wish of the Secretary that the prac- 
tical service rendered to the farmer by the Bureau, Division, or Office 
contributing the article should be made apparent. A perusal of the 
articles composing the present volume will show that in this respect 
the Secretary's injunction has not been overlooked. It has not, how- 
ever, been found necessary to segregate such papers; hence, the pres- 
ent Yearbook conforms to the plan originally adopted, and consists of 
three parts: (1) The report of the Secretary of Agriculture to the 
President for 1898, thus complying with the law, which prescribes 
that the volume shall "include a general report of the operations of 
the Department;" (2) miscellaneous papers, prepared, with very few 
exceptions by the chiefs of Bureaus, Divisions, and Offices of the 
Department or their assistants; and, (3) a summary of useful infor- 
mation, published in the form of an appendix. 

To the third feature of the present volume special attention has 
been given with a view to increasing its scope and usefulness. AVhile 
preserving the main features of former years, an effort has been made 
to give the Appendix of the present Yearbook the character of an 
agricultural directory. Thus, in addition to the usual Department 
directory and the directory of colleges and experiment stations, there 
have been included lists of the principal officials having charge of 
agriculture in the several States; of managers of farmers' institutes; of 
national and State dairy officials; of the several associations of cattle, 

3 



4 PREFACE. 

horse, and sheep breeders, with their secretaries; of the State veterina- 
rians and State health officers; of the forestry officers of the different 
States and of the forestry associations; of the officers of the horticul- 
tural and kindred societies, etc. In this connection the Editor maybe 
permitted to call attention to the great difficulty of securing such 
information, and to suggest that its publication in an edition of 500,000 
copies for distribution to the farmers of the country should make it 
worth while for the several officials interested, to themselves supply 
the Department with the necessary data for the presentation of this 
information in the Yearbook. If possible these data should be in the 
hands of the Editor by January 31 of each year. 

In addition also to the usual statistical matter, including the crop 
statistics and prices of farm products and the imports and exports 
of agricultural products and transportation rates, and in view of the 
natural eagerness of the people for information regarding the new 
dependencies, figures are given showing the foreign trade of Cuba 
and of the Philippine Islands. Similar figures are not given for 
Puerto Rico and Hawaii owing to the fact that in the main body of 
the book are to be found special articles upon these islands. 

Attention is also called to the review of the weather for the past 
year, prepared by an expert of the Weather Bureau, and which pre- 
sents a detailed weather record in comparatively simple form. This 
review is continued from year to year, and promises to grow constantly 
in interest and usefulness. 

Geo. Wm. Hill, 

Editor. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Beport of the Secretary 9 

Some Types of American Agricultural Colleges. By A. C. True 63 

New Work in the Weather Bureau. By Willis L. Moore 81 

The Danger of Introducing Noxious Animals and Birds. By T. S. Palmer. 87 

The Preparation and Use of Tuberculin. By E. A. de Schweinitz Ill 

The Principal Insects Affecting the Tobacco Plant. By L. O. Howard 121 

Pruning of Trees and Other Plants. By William Saunders.. 151 

Pollination of Pomaceous Fruits. By M. B. Waite 167 

Notes on Some Forest Problems. By Gifford Pinchot 181 

Weeds in Cities and Towns. By Lyster H. Dewey 193 

The Use of Kites in the Exploration of the Upper Air. By C. F. Marvin... 201 
Utilization of Residues from Beet- Sugar Manufacture in Cattle Feeding. 

By Guilford L. Spencer 213 

Birds as Weed Destroyers. By Sylvester D. Judd 221 

Insects Injurious to Beans and Peas. By F. H. Chittenden .... 283 

Work in Vegetable Physiology and Pathology. By Albert F, Woods 261 

Millets. By Thomas A. Williams 267 

Steel-Track Wagon Roads. By Martin Dodge 291 

Work of the Division of Forestry for the Farmer. By Gifford Pinchot 297 

Utilizing Surplus Fruits. By G. B. Brackett 809 

Construction of Good Country Roads. By Maurice O. Eldridge 817 

The Public Domain of the United States. By Max West 825 

Improvement of Plants by Selection. By Herbert J. Webber...: 355 

Can Perfumery Farming Succeed in the United States? By Edward S. 

. Steele 377 

The Movement and Retention of Water in Soils. By Lyman J. Briggs .... 399 

Sand-Bind mg Grasses. By F. Lamson-Scribner 405 

Keeping Goats for Profit. By Almont Barnes 421 

Some Results of Dietary Studies in the United States. By A. P. Bryant... 439 

Cattle Dipping, Experimental and Practical. By Victor A. Norgaard 453 

Grass Seed and Its Impurities. By Gilbert H. Hicks 473 

The Soluble Mineral Matter of Soils. By Thomas H. Means 495 

Agriculture in Puerto Rico. By Roy Stone 505 

Agricultural Experiments in Alaska. By C. C. Georgeson 515 

Cyclones, Hurricanes, and Tornadoes. By F. H. Bigelow 525 

Forage Plants for Cultivation on Alkali Soils. By Jared G. Smith 535 

The Present Condition of Grape Culture in California. By George Husman . 551 

The Hawaiian Islands. By Walter Maxwell 563 

Notes on Some English Farms and Farmers. By Geo. Win. Hill 583 

Appendix: 

Organization of the Department of Agriculture December 31, 1898 593 

Appropriations for the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal years 

ending June 30, 1897, 1898, and 1899 _ 596 

Agricultural colleges and other institutions in the United States having 

courses in agriculture 597 

5 



b CONTENTS. 

Appendix — Con tinned. r.ve. 
Agricultural experiment stations of the United States, their locations, 

directors, and principal lines of work 598 

Notes regarding Department publications 001 

Publications issued January 1, 1898, to December 31, 189S 603 

State officials in charge of agriculture __. 009 

Farmers' institute managers CIO 

National Live Stock Association ___ G10 

Dairy officials _ 610 

Protection against contagion from foreign cattle . _ 613 

Cattle breeders' associations 613 

Horse breeders' associations .. 613 

Sheep breeders' associations 614 

Swine breeders' associations 615 

Association of Breeders of Dogs 615 

Poultry associations 615 

State veterinarians and secretaries of sanitary boards , 616 

National League for Good Roads 620 

States having officers for forest work 620 

Forestry associations 620 

Officers of horticultural and kindred societies 621 

Patrons of Husbandry... 624 

National Farmers' Alliance 627 

Farmers' National Congress _ _. 627 

Review of weather and crop conditions, season of 1398 637 

Plant diseases in the United States in 1898 652 

Notes on soil moiature in 1898. 652 

Composition of millets and other forage plants 655 

Methods of controlling injurious insects 657 

Preparation and use of insecticides 659 

Measurement of standing trees 662 

Rate of growth of trees 664 

Legal standards for dairy products, 1898 666 

Determination of age by teeth in domestic animals 667 

Weather Bureau signals 668 

Reckoning of amount and value of hay 669 

Cuba: its population and resources 670 

A brief account of the Philippine Islands 672 

Postal regulations 674 

Coin and currency of the United States 676 

Legal holidays... 677 

Strength of ropes 677 

Mixture for cleaning a plow - 677 

Statistics of the principal crops and farm animals 678 

Imports and exports of agricultural products 705 

Average prices for imports and exports 718 

Sugar statistics _ 721 

Tea, coffee, and liquors 723 

Transportation rates 723 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATES. 

Page. 
Jeremiah M. Rusk (Secretary of Agriculture, 1689-189;)) Frontispiece. 

Plate I. Pig. L— Library and chapel building, Massachusetts Agricultural College. Pig. 

2. —College barn, Massachusetts Agricultural College 61 

II. Fig. 1.— Machine shop, Michigan State Agricultural College. Pig. 2.— Printing 

office, Kansas State Agricultural College 64 

III. Fig. 1.— Main building and Morrill Hall, Iowa State College of Agriculture and 

Mechanic Arts. Fig. 2. —Engineering building, Pennsylvania State College .. 64 

IV. Fig. 1.— Class scoring pigs, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic 

Arts. Fig. 2.— Dairv bacteriology room, Iowa State College of Agriculture 

and Mechanic Arts SO 

V. Fig. 1. —Chemical laboratory, Alabama Polytechnic Institute. Pig. 2.— Dairy 

building, Cornell University, New York 80 

VI. Fie. 1.— Townshend Hall, Ohio State University. Fig. 2. —Horticultural -physics 

building. University of Wisconsin 80 

VII. Fig. 1.— A lesson in irrigation in horticultural-physics building. University of 

Wisconsin. Fig. 2. —Agricultural hall, University of California 80 

VIII. Mongoose (Herpestes mungo) 93 

IX. Fig. 1. — a. Tubercle culture just inoculated; b, manner of transferring. Fig. 

2.— First growth tubercle culture. Fig. 3— Well-grown tubercle culture 113 

X. Fig. 1.— Band of sheep grazing ou Cascade Range Forest Reserve, Wasco County, 
Oregon. Fig. 2. —Seven-year old burn without reproduction, on Cascade Range 
Forest Reserve, Wasco County, Oregon „ 192 

XI. Fig. 1.— Western Yellow Pine scarred at the base by fire, Hay Canyon, Black 
Hills Forest Reserve, South Dakota. Fig. 2.— Timber ruiued by nre scars 
many years after the fire, near Hill City, S. Dak., Black Hills Forest Reserve. 193 
XII. Fig. 1.— Roots of Western Hemlock partly exposed by tiro, Olympic Forest Re- 
serve, Washington. Fig. 2.— Mineral soil laid bare by fire, with charred frag- 
ments of Douglas Fir (Red Fir), Lake Crescent, Olympic Mountains, Washing- 
ton 192 

XIII. Fig. 1.— Charred stub of Douglas Fir (Yellow Fir), with young trees of Douglas 

Fir (Red Fir) grown since the fire, Soleduc Valley, Olympic Forest Reserve, 
Washington. Fig. 2.— General view of old fire-killed stubs, Soleduc Valley, 
Olympic Forest Reserve, Washington 192 

XIV. Fig. 1.— Automatic kite reel, arranged for service. Fig. 2.— Kite meteoro- 

graph 204 

XV. Four common seed eating birds 224 

XVI. Millets: Common, Early Harvest, German, Golden Wonder, Hungarian, and 

Japanese Foxtail 273 

XVII. Fig. 1.— New Siberian Millet. Fig. 2.— Japanese Barnyard Millet. Fig. 3.— Ger- 
man Millet growing in the grass garden of the Department of Agriculture, 

Washington, D. C 272 

XVIII. Eleven tons hauled by twenty horses over an ordinary road 293 

XIX. Eleven tons hauled by one horse over steel- track wagon road 293 

XX. Fig. 1.— Horseless carriage propelled by electricity on steel-track wagon road. 

Fig 2. -The steel track as a bicycle path 292 

XXI. Fig. l.-A group of White Oaks, Oakland, N. J. Fig. 2.— White and Black oaks 

and Hickory, Oakland, N. J 304 

XXII. Fig. l.-Black Oak, Oakland, N. J. Fig. 2.-Blaek Oak sprouts, about fifty years 

old, Oakland, N. J f. 304 

XXIH. Fig. l.-A group of Oaks, Oakland, N. J. Fig. 2.-Scattered Red Cedar on an 

old pasture, Oakland, N.J 304 

XXIV. Fig. 1.— An ideal gravel road in Soldiers' Home grounds, Washington, D. C. 

Fig. 2.— United States object lesson road at Geneva, N. Y 330 

XXV. Fig. 1. —Surf aciug a macadam road in Massachusetts. Fig. 2.— State road in 

Massachusetts 330 

XXVI Improvement of sea island cotton by selection 358 

XXVII. Seeds of Klondike, sea island, and ordinary upland cotton 334 

XXVIII. Fig. 1.— Planting beach grass at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Fig. 2.— Natural 

growth of beach grass at Cape Cod, Massachusetts 406 

XXIX. Fig. 1 —View at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, showing general appearance of the 
country. Fig. 2 — View at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, showing sand drifts bury- 
ing forest trees. 406 

XXX. Fig. 1. -Sand dune on the Pacific coast. Fig.2.— Sand drifts along the Columbia 

River, Oregon, in peach orchard 4)2 

XXXI Fig. 1 —Angora kids. Pig. 3.— Going to pasture \ 426 

XXXII. Fig 1. -Young male goats, 8i months fleece. Fig. 1.— Female goats, 5 months 

fleece 433 

XXXIII. Seeds of Poas with impurities 480 

XXXI V. Timothy seed and its impurities 484 

XXXV. Seed of orchard grass and its impurities 486 

XXX VI. Seeds of Fescue and Brome grasses 488 

XXXVII. Fig. 1.— Seeds of Agrostis and Alopecurus with impurities. Pig. 2.— Seedlings 

of creeping bent and Rhode Island bent 492 

XXXVIII. The island of Puerto Rico 505 

XXXIX. Map of Alaska '..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'... 515 

XL. Fig. 1.— Oats, barley, flax, potatoes, and clover grown by the Department of 
Agriculture at Sitka, Alaska, 1898. Fig. 2.— Silo, belonging to Baptist Orphan- 
age, Wood Island, Alaska 518 

XLI. Fig. 1.— Cattle on Captain Feeney's ranch, Kadiak, Alaska. Fig. 2.— Barn on 

Captain Feeney's ranch, Kadiak, Alaska 522 

7 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



TEXT FIGURES. 



11. 

12. 

1H. 
11. 
15. 

ill. 
17. 

1H. 



Fio. Pago. 

1. Flying fox (Pteropus sp.) 97 

2. Map showing spread of English spar- 

row in the United States 99 

3. Starling (Sturuus vulgaris) 101 

4. Mina (Acridutherea tristis) 103 

5. Kohlmeise (Purusinajor) lot 

6. Chickadee {Pants atricapillus) 104 

7. Epitrix parrula 123 

8. Tobacco leaves damaged by Epitrix 

parvula 124 

9. Loaf spots of old tobacco leaf 125 

10. Northern tobacco worm, or '"horn 

worm" (Protoparce celeus) 126 

Southern tobacco worm (Protoparce 

Carolina) 127 

Southern tobacco worm dead and 

shriveled lrora bacterial disease ... 128 

Tho true bud worm ( Heliothis rhexia). 132 

False bud worm (Heliothisarmiyer) 132 

Work of full grown false bud worm.. 133 

Work of young false bud worm 133 

Work of false bud worm in seed pods. 133 

The "suck fly" (Dicyphus minimus).. 135 

19. Euschistus variolarius 137 

2). Tobacco split worm 137 

ill. Work of split worm 138 

22. Peridrom ia saucia - 140 

23. Agrostis ypsilon - 141 

21. Agrostis unncxa 141 

25. The cabbage Plusia 142 

20. Mamestralegitima 1411 

27. Thrips tabaci 143 

28. Untax campestris 144 

2:1. Work of cigarette beetle 145 

30. Thecigarotto beetle 148 

31. The drug-store beetle 148 

32. Enlarged section of a Bartlett pear 

flower 108 

33. Cluster of Bartlett pear blossoms 109 

34. Buds of Bartlett pear 170 

35. Flower of tho Bartlett pear 170 

30. Bud of the Bartlett pear 170 

37. Emasculated bud of tho Bartlett pear. 171 

38. Bartlett pear cross pollinated 171 

39. Self -pollinated Bartlett pear - 172 

40. Seeds from crossed and from self -polli- 

nated Bartlett pears - 172 

41. Section of an apple blossom - 173 

42. Baldwin apple cross pollinated 173 

43. Large specimen of self -pollinated Bald- 

winapplo 174 

44. Small specimonof self pollinated Bald- 

winapplo 174 

45. Cocklebur ( Xanthium canadense) 194 

40. Tall ragweed (Ambrosia triflda) 194 

47. Fine -leaved sneeze weed (Helenium te- 

iiiii/oliam) 195 

48. Galinsoga (Galinsoga parvijiora) 195 

49. False ragweed (Ivaxanthi/otia).. 190 

50. Standard Weather Bureau kite 202 

51. Standard Weather Bureau hand reel- 203 

52. Automatic hand or steam reel housed. -205 

53. Perspective view of a modern kito 208 

54. Central truss - 208 

55. Longitudinal corner spine 209 

5i>. Diagonal strut - 210 

57. First form of bridle - 211 

58. Second form of bridle J 211 

59. Four common weeds, etc 222 

69. Weed seeds commonly eaten by birds. 223 

61. Song sparrow (Melospiza fasciata) 224 

62. Goldfinch (Astragtilinus tristis) 225 

03. Dickcissel [Spiza americana) 227 

64. Lark finch (C'hondestes grammacus).. 228 

65. Mourning dove (Zenaidura maeroura) 231 

00. Bruchus pisorum, adult beetle, etc 235 

07. Bruchus pisoruni) eggs on pod, etc 230 

68. Bruchus obteclus, beetle, larva, etc 239 

69. Bruchus obtectus^heetiein profile, etc.. 240 

70. Bruchus obtectus, post-embryonic 

larva, etc 240 

71. Bruchus chinensis 243 

72. Bruchus k-maculatus, beetle, etc 245 

73. Bruchus k-maculatits, showing cow- 

pea with holes, etc 246 

74. Spermophagus pectoralis 248 

75. Macrobatsis unicolor 249 



Fio 

75. 
77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
80. 
87. 
88. 
89. 

90. 

91. 
92. 

93. 
94. 
95. 

90. 
97. 
98. 
99. 
100. 

101. 
103. 



103. 



104. 
105. 



106. 

107. 

108. 
109. 

110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 

114. 

115. 
116. 
117. 
118. 
119. 
120. 
121. 
122. 
123. 

124. 
125. 

126. 
127. 

128. 
129. 



130. 



Pago. 

Cautharis nuttalli 250 

Epilachna corrupta 252 

Cerotoma trifurcata 253 

Heliothis armiger 256 

Feltia subgothica 257 

Spilosoma viryinica ' 258 

Halticu-i uhleri 259 

German Millet 272 

Corean Foxtail Millet 276 

"Ankeo " Millet 278 

Shama Millet 279 

Broom-coin Millet 281 

Japanese broom-corn Millet 282 

Cross section of steel track wagon 

road 

Northern New Jersey, location of 

forest work at Oakland 

Wood lot at Oakland, N. J., division. 
Diagram illustrating method of se- 
lecting sea island cotton 301 

Selected rooted cutting of violet 374 

Unselected rootod cuttings of violet. 374 

Theecuclle, otc 

Sectional view of perfumery still 

Florentine recipient, etc 

Geranium leaves 

Bergamot orange 380 

Wild plant of tho true lavender 

(iMvandula angustifolia) 

Cassie (Acacia fdmesiana) 

Two soap bubbles connected by a 
tube, showing movement due to 

difference in curvature 

Capillary water held between two 

soil grains 400 

Form of the capillary water surface . 400 
Variation in direction and magni- 
tude of pressure of capillary sur- 
face due to form of surface 

Diagram showing three soil grains 

surrounded by water films 

Uniform distribution of the water 

content of an orchard soil 

Movementof water from subsoil e?tc. 
Movement of water from a heavy 

subsoil, etc - 

Formation of " littoral " sand dune . - 
Beach grass (Ammojthtta aretiurta) .. 
Sea lyme grass (Elymus areuarius).. 
Bitter panic grass (Puntcum ama- 

rum) 

Creeping panic grass (Panicum re- 
pens) 

Seaside oats ( Uniola paniculata) 

Seaside blue grass (Poa macrantha) . 
Redfield's grass (Redjieldtajlexuosa). 
Sand grass ( Calamovit/a longifolia ) . 
Yellow ly me grass( Elymus Jlavescens) 

Sand blue grass (Poa leckenbyi) 420 

Steer in dipping vat 458 

Steer emerging from dipping vat 459 

Fruit of upright chess (Bromus race- 

mosus) 475 

Chondrometor for weighing seed 477 

Australian salt bush (Atriplex semi- 

baccata) 5!0 

Annual salt bush (Atriplex holocarpa) 542 

Shad scale (Atriplex canescens) 515 

NuttaUssaltsage (Atriplexnutiallii) 546 
Temperature, etc., for the Middle 
and South Atlantic States, the Gulf 
States, the Ohio Valley and Ten- 
nessee, and the Lake region 040 

Temperature, etc., for the Upper 
Mississippi and Missouri valleys, 
the Rocky Mountain region, tho 
North Pacific coast, and California. 
Measuring height of tree by two poles 
Measuring height of tree by right- 
angled isosceles triangle _ _ 063 

Methods by use of known height to 

eye of observer 663 

Calipers for measuring the diameter 

of trees 6!>4 

Temperature and rainfall signals 008 

Storm information and hurricane 
signals for use on the coast 009 



29^ 



302 
302 



371 
380 
380 

384 



389 
392 



:i:ro 



401 

401 

402 
403 

404 
40.S 
4:19 
412 

413 

414 
415 
410 
417 
418 
419 



041 

002 



YEARBOOK 

OP THE 

II. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

To the President: 

I have the honor to submit a report of the work of the Department 
of Agriculture for tbe year ending June 30, 1898. This report con- 
tains a review of the operations of the several Bureaus, Divisions, and 
Offices through which the work is carried on. For your own conven- 
ience and that of those who shall have occasion to peruse this report^ 
I have preceded this general review with a summary, in which some 
salient feature of the work undertaken by each of these several 
Bureaus, Divisions, and Offices is very briefly indicated. Several 
considerations are also presented of a more general character relating 
to the work of the Department and the services which I conceive it 
should seek to render to the country, upon which some earnest recom- 
mendations are based, and which have also been made the basis for 
some of the estimates submitted by me for the appropriations for the 
Department for the ensuing fiscal year, and to which the favorable 
consideration of Congress is earnestly invited. 

SUMMARY. 

WEATHER BUREAU. 

Observation and forecast stations have been extended around the- 
Caribbean Sea, to warn our fleets and merchant vessels of danger from 
cyclones, and increased through the interior of the country, especially 
in the mountain States, to enable the observer to inform fruit growers, 
of precipitation and sudden changes of temperature. 

DIVISION OP VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY. 

Good work has been done by the Division of Vegetable Physiology 
and Pathology in hybridizing the orange and other citrus plants, and 
in the crossing of pineapples, whereby the sizeiind vigor of the fruifc 
are much increased and the flavor greatly improved. 

SECTION OP FOREIGN MARKETS. 

Our knowledge of the islands of the Caribbean and China seas is- 
increased by timely publications of the Section of Foreign Markets. 



10 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

Our foreign trade in agricultural products is very extensive, being 
over two-thirds of our domestic exports. It is steadily growing, while 
the production at home of field products that have been introduced 
from foreign countries is rapidly increasing, causing a corresponding 
decrease in agricultural imports. 

BIOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

While the Department is searching the world for seeds and plants 
to diversify our crops and add new varieties to meet sectional require- 
ments, the Biological Survey is determining the areas best adapted to 
various crops and mapping the natural life zones of the United States. 
It is a court of last resort, where birds and animals get a final hear- 
ing regarding their relations to the farm and orchard. Their stomach 
contents witness for or against them. 

FARMERS' BULLETINS. 

The Department is unable to give Members of Congress as many 
farmers' Bulletins as their constituents desire. As fast as scientists 
find facts bearing on production, I think it wise to send them to the 
farmers. The farmers want them, Congressmen desire to send them, 
and appropriations to this end should be enlarged. 

SCIENTIFIC EXPLORATION. 

The Department has four scientific explorers abroad, getting seeds 
and plants — one in Russia, one in the countries around the Mediter- 
ranean, one in the China seas, and one in South America. 

FORESTRY. 

The treeless region is now getting vigorous attention from our 
Forester, Mr. Pinchot. Species adapted to dry regions are being 
introduced. The destruction of forests in the Northwest leaves des- 
erts in many cases. The life history and rate of development of white 
pine have been investigated and facts concerning them are in press. 
Mr. Pinchot is planning to introduce better methods of handling forest 
lands in public and private ownership, the private owners paying the 
expenses of Department agents who give instruction. A million acres 
in twenty States are offered for experimentation and 100,000 acres are 
now under management. Economic changes in lumbering will be the 
result. Forest fires cause floods and droughts and consequently inter- 
fere with production, especially in irrigated regions. A study of fire 
prevention and fire fighting is being made. Wood supply is becom- 
ing a matter of such interest that the Department deems it wise to 
give it special attention. 

SOILS AND TOBACCO. 

Many States are interested in the heredity, flavoring, and fermen- 
tation of tobacco, and the Department has these features under 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 11 

research. Farmers in the mountain States, who are making their 
lands sterile by using too much water, require information regarding 
its use in irrigation. The Division of Soils is getting facts for them. 

POST-GRADUATE WORK IN THE DEPARTMENT. 

After graduation at agricultural colleges, the Divisions of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture might be opened for post-graduate study in 
special lines, so that the best facilities in the land may be offered for 
preparing teachers for the agricultural colleges and economic scientists 
for Department work. 

THE GRASSES. 

The best pastures produce animals at least cost. The Division of 
Agrostology studies grasses and the grass requirements of localities. 
Five hundred varieties grow in the Department gardens, and grasses 
suitable for pastures, lawns, woods, and sand are studied. Foreign 
grasses are tried in congenial zones. Legumes are brought from 
abroad to meet peculiar conditions here. We have grass gardens in 
arid and semiarid regions, where varieties from similar conditions in 
the Old World are studied. The Department is endeavoring to find 
grasses and legumes for worn-out lands in the East and South, and 
binding grasses, to arrest sand drift, are getting attention. 

DIVISION OF BOTANY. 

The Division of Botany is at work to reduce our importations of the 
little things that have been costing us $8,000,000 annually. Western 
States are now growing chicory. In 1896 we imported 10,317,888 
pounds; in 1898 we imported only 315,707 pounds of raw chicory. 
The farmers of Michigan, Nebraska, and other States will now furnish 
our supply. Ginseng is also a promising plant for cultivation. This 
Division will make tests to protect farmers and merchants against 
foul and fraudulently imported seeds, and test the importations of 
the Department before distribution. 

ECONOMIC CHEMISTRY. 

We are not giving economic chemistry the attention it deserves. 
We pay foreign countries very large sums for coal-tar products, for 
example, while we have skilled chemists, capital, and raw material 
in abundance at home. Our raw material is wasted along these 
lines, while we are content to buy abroad; we employ, indirectly, 
foreign chemists to work up for us foreign raw material. Attention 
to this by the law-making power will find the remedy. 

CROP STATISTICS. 

The reason for having a Division of Statistics is that it will collect 
and publish information regarding the condition, acreage, and tend- 
ency of production of the principal crops, and the number of farm 



12 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

animals at home and abroad, so that the isolated producer may get 
notice of quantities and probable demand as soon as those who deal 
in these commodities. When this is well done, its value to the pro- 
ducer is inestimable. Strenuo\is efforts are being made to get the 
truth concerning production, and great care is taken to publish results 
for general information only. 

AGRICULTURE IN ALASKA. 

A practical scientist was sent to Alaska to select sites for experi- 
mental work — to test grains and grasses, legumes and vegetables, 
and study the possibilities of future production. He grew all of these 
crops with great success. Alaska will grow, along the coast, oats, 
barley, flax,' rye, grasses, legumes, and vegetables of as good quality 
as many of our Northern States produce. All the conditions for mak- 
ing fine dairy products are favorable. We shall have the interior 
explored next summer, in order that its capacity to support population 
may be learned. 

ROAD INQUIRY. 

Good roads save time and expense. Steel rails are perhaps the 
coining material where hard rock is not convenient. 

EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

The experiment stations are more effective than ever before. The 
annual appropriation by Congress of $720,000 is supplemented by 
$400,000 from the States, and the stations are doing more original 
work. The Department presents their results in Farmers' Bulletins. 
The feeding of mankind is being studied in connection with State 
institutions, and information is distributed to form the basis of 
courses of instruction. All of our country west of the Missouri River 
is interested in irrigation, and facts are being collated regarding soil 
moisture, the supply and distribution of water, uniformity of laws 
and court decisions relating to irrigation, and the requirements of 
different crops in this regard. 

NATURE STUDY IN THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 

Congress endowed agricultural colleges that are revolutionizing 
methods of production. Nature studies, however, should be intro- 
duced into the common schools, so that the young farmer's mind may 
be turned early to life-work studies. The teacher should get instruc- 
tion in the normal school or agricultural college. 

ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

REMEDY FOR FEVEB TICKS OF CATTLE. 

The Bureau of Animal Industry has continued its experiments in 
dipping cattle to destroy the fever ticks, and a substance has been 
found in which cattle may be dipped and which will destroy all the 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 13 

ticks on an animal in a single dipping. This method has been in 
practical use for a short time only, and experiments are now in 
progress to perfect it, so that dipped cattle from the infected districts 
may be shipped north of the quai-antine line daring the entire year; 
heretofore they have been restricted by quarantine during ten months 
of the year. The value of this measure is beyond computation, both 
to the stockmen south of the quarantine line and to the cattle feeders 
and grain producers north of it. Demand is increasing at home and 
abroad for fine beef, and this discovery is destined to remove one of 
the impediments to its production. 

REMEDY FOR HOQ CHOLERA. 

The Bureau has continued experimentation with antitoxin serum 
for the prevention and cure of hog cholera. Congress, at its last ses- 
sion, made an appropriation for this work, which became available at 
the beginning of the present fiscal year. Buildings were erected at 
our experiment station, and animals purchased to make the serum in 
sufficient quantities to conduct extensive research. The results of 
the previous year have been corroborated. Eighty per cent of the 
animals treated were saved, while a like per cent of the check herds 
not treated died. This justifies the Department in efforts to supply 
in future to herdsmen throughout the country such serum as can be 
made. It is for Congress to determine whether serum shall be given 
free or a charge be made covering the expense of manufacture, which 
would be about 15 cents for each animal. 

EMERGENCY APPROPRIATION. 

The nature of the work in the Department is such that future 
requirements can not all be anticipated specifically in an appropria- 
tion bill. Urgent needs of producers call for expenditures in special 
directions through some of our scientific Divisions ; the sudden appear- 
ance of a bacteriological or insect pest; investigation of animal or 
crop conditions in some section of the country; inquiry into condi- 
tions in foreign countries where we sell or with whom we compete; 
assistance to a struggling scientist to complete work of general agri- 
cultural interest; exploration by scientists of islands coming into the 
possession of the United States, and such like, suggest the wisdom of 
appropriating a lump sum to be used by the Secretary of Agriculture, 
subject to the laws regarding vouchers and auditing. 

INSPECTION OP FOREIGN GOODS. 

There is an evident necessity for the inspection of many articles 
imported from foreign countries that contain substances injurious to 
the public health. The Department chemists are doing work along 
this line which suggests a more comprehensive inquiry. At present 
the Department buys samples for analysis in the open market. It 



14 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

may be necessary, where there is ground for suspicion and a necessity 
for the identification of source, to open packages at ports of entiy, as 
it is proposed in foreign countries to do with our exports in certain 
cases. 

BUTTER SHIPMENTS. 

The experimental exports of butter by this Department to Great 
Britain, which wore commenced in the spring of 1897 and partially 
reported upon a year ago, Avero continued until the close of the active 
creamery year of 1897 and resumed at the opening of the season of 
1898 upon an enlarged scale. 

Without anticipating the results of the present (or second) season 
of these trial exports, it can now be confidently stated that much 
additional information has been obtained in the line desired, and a 
decided gain is evident in the favorable impression made by butter 
of the first quality from creameries in the United States upon the 
best class of the butter trade in London and Manchester. 

THE DEPARTMENT LIBRARY. 

The books of the late Prof. F. von Baur, of Munich, have been 
added to the collection on forestry in the Department Library, mak- 
ing that collection very complete. The total number added during 
the year was nearly 5,000, bringing the whole number of volumes in 
the Library close to 65,000. This forms one of the largest collections 
of books on agricultural topics in the world. 

The Library is constantly used in the investigations conducted by 
the scientific Divisions, and is kept up to date in its various branches 
by the purchase and addition of the latest standard publications relat- 
ing to matters in which the Department is interested. It is also used 
to a considerable extent by persons not connected with the Depart- 
ment, especially by teachers in the public schools and by students in 
the science classes of the various educational institutions of the city. 

EXPERIMENTAL GARDENS. 

The distribution of young plants to various parts of the country 
was continued during the year, reaching a total of nearly 190,000, 
including bulbs. Among these were olive, fig, and camphor plants 
and cuttings. Attention is called to the fact that the growing of rub- 
ber plants even in the most favorable localities of Florida can hardly 
bo commercially successful. 

The propagation of plants for general distribution has been con- 
tinued, resulting in the accumulation of many thousands of plants of 
various kinds. 

PARIS EXPOSITION IN 1900. 

Congress has imposed upon the Secretary of Agriculture the duty 
of preparing for the Paris Exposition in 1900 an exhibit covering the 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 15 

agricultural resources of the United States (Groups VII, VIII, and 
X — Agriculture, Horticulture, and Food Products). I am fully alive 
to the importance to American agriculture of this opportunity to 
enlarge the knowledge and appreciation of the people of the Old 
"World of the extent and variety of the products which the bounty of 
nature enables the American farmer to draw from Earth's prolific 
bosom. The first steps have been taken after consultation and in 
cooperation with the Commissioner-General, and every effort will be 
made to see that American agriculture is properly represented at this 
great celebration. Should the appropriations already provided prove 
inadequate, I feel confident Congress will not hesitate to enlarge them 
rather than to have this important exhibit lacking in any single respect. 

PRACTICABILITY OF EXPORTING DAIRY PRODUCTS. 

Owing to better home demand for dairy products, it is not commer- 
cially profitable to send butter to Europe at the present time. The 
home demand for our best butters absorbs the supply. This is not 
always the case, however, and the Department regards it wise to 
obtain for dairymen all the facts relating to the export of this article 
to the several commercial centers of both continental and insular 
Europe. For this purpose the Department sent an agent to Paris to 
ascertain what encouragement there would be to ship butter to that 
point. It was found that no line of steamers sailing direct from the 
United States to French ports could furnish refrigerator space, and 
so shipments could not be made during the heated period. An agent 
was also sent to Hamburg, to ascertain for our people what the facts 
are regarding customs duties, as well as prohibitions and other diffi- 
culties that might meet exporters of butter to that country. 

Our finest butter can be profitably made and sent to both France 
and Germany whenever the home supply is greater than the home 
demand for first-class goods. The American farmer is selling cheap 
grains and mill feeds to European dairymen, who meet us in European 
markets with products made from raw material furnished by us. 
There is every reason to believe that the tendency is growing within 
our own country toward the consumption of grains and mill feeds at 
home, exporting the higher-priced products of skill. As our pro- 
ducers manufacture more and more on the farm and the great volume 
of raw materials is turned into the higher-selling articles, we can 
furnish fine dairy products to European countries at a lower rate than 
they can be produced under European conditions on dearer lands and 
with dearer feeds. 

The trade in American farm products is growing in the China seas. 
Scientific inquiry into the principles that underlie the making of fine 
daily products is preparing our people to furnish butter in condition 
to be exported in air-tight packages, so that they will remain sweet 
for long periods in tropical countries. In order that markets may be 



16 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

opened up in Japan, China, and other countries of the Pacific Ocean, 
an agent is now in that region establishing agencies to which the 
Department will make trial shipments with a view to ascertaining all 
the facts for the benefit of the dairymen. 

INSPECTION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS. 

The existing system of Government inspection and certification of 
meats and meat products for export may be extended (witli suitable 
modifications) to include butter, cheese, and condensed milk for export 
from the United States. 

The combined efforts of the Government and of commercial enter- 
prise may succeed in the early establishment of a high reputation for 
American butter in desirable foreign markets. But as soon as accom- 
plished, this becomes liable to be destroyed by the cupidity of those 
who, trading on this reputation, flood the same market with butter of 
low grade, yet still entitled to export and sale as "produce of the 
United States." This Avill disgust merchants and consumers alike 
and reverse the reputation of our butter, just as the fine market in 
Great Britain for our cheese was recently ruined by the quantity of 
low-grade and counterfeit cheese which was exported without being 
marked to show its true character. 

The remedy seems to lie in extending and adapting the provisions 
of law regarding the inspection of meats exported from this country 
so as to make them apply to butter and cheese. The brands of "pure 
butter" and " full-cream cheese " should then be affixed by United 
States inspectors to such products only as are of a fixed minimum 
standard of quality. Such precautions, duly legalized and properly 
executed, would place the good butter and cheese of this country in 
foreign markets under the identifying label and guaranty of the 
United States Government, leaving similar merchandise of lower grade 
to find a place for itself, upon its own merits. It should be borne in 
mind that dairy products of Denmark and Canada, which are the 
chief competitors of the United States in the marketsof Great Britain, 
bear the inspection certificate and guaranty of quality from their . 
respective Governments, and thereby maintain a great commercial 
advantage. 

Such a system of inspection is much desired by the most reliable 
exporters, and the proposition has met with decided approval wherever 
considered by fair-minded, interested parties. 

NATURE-TEACHING IN THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 

There is growing interest in education that relates to production. 
All classes of intelligent people favor it. Congress endowed colleges 
to teach it, and progress is being made, but not so rapidly as the 
growth of our country demands. More knowledge concerning what 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. IT 

the farmer deals with every day would enable him to control condi- 
tions, produce more from an acre, and contribute more to the general 
welfare. The education of our people in common school, high school, 
and cqllege has not been designed to prepare them for producing 
from the soil, excepting the very few who have found their way into 
our agricultural colleges. It is evident to educators in agricultural 
science that elementary study should be introduced into the common 
schools to give direction early in life. 

Agriculture, horticulture, forestry, gardening, and landscaping are 
delightful studies that attract people in all walks of life, but there is 
enough to be learned regarding each of these to require the devotion 
of a lifetime. ♦The colleges and experiment stations endowed by the 
Federal Government provide for training along this line for longer or 
shorter periods at the institutions of the several States and Territories 
designed for this purpose; but while encouraging progress has been 
made in building up courses in these institutions that teach the 
sciences- relating to production, instruction before going to college 
and after graduation is lacking. Nothing is being done in most of 
the common schools of the States to cultivate a taste for and lead the 
mind to inquire into and store up facts regarding nature, so that the 
young farmer may be directed into the path that leads to education 
concerning his future life work. 

The great prerequisite is the education of the teacher. Most of the 
States -have institutes 'where teachers are required to assemble for 
instruction in their work; there they should be met by lecturers from 
the agricultural colleges who may be qualified to outline methods of 
nature studies in the common schools. The normal schools of the 
States could give courses of instruction along these lines to those who 
are fitting themselves for teaching in the high schools, so that instruc- 
tion of a more advanced character might be giten their graduates, 
preparing them for and inclining them toward, the agricultural college. 

PRACTICAL EXPERIMENTS IN NATURE TEACHING UNDER STATE 

AUTHORITY. 

In New York, the College of Agriculture of Cornell University has 
a special State appropriation of $25,000 per annum to be used in aid- 
ing the introduction of nature teaching into the common schools and* 
the carrying on of simple agricultural experiments in different parts 
of the State. The plan followed has been to employ experts in the 
different sciences to prepare brief leaflets containing lessons on dif- 
ferent subjects for the use of teachers in the common schools. These 
leaflets are distributed to teachers throughout the State, and there 
has been such a large demand for them from teachers in other States, 
that arrangements have been made to sell them at a nominal price. 

The professors and other agents of the university attend meetings - 
of teachers from time to time, to explain'the scope of this work and to> 
3 A98 2 



18 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

show the teachers how to carry out simple instruction on nature 
topics. Many of these leaflets relate directly to agricultural subjects. 
For example, in one leaflet the teacher is instructed to have the chil- 
dren plant squash seeds, take some of them up at intervals to learn 
how the seeds germinate, and watch what happens to the little plants 
as they grow. At another time the children are encouraged to plant 
little gardens and carefully watch some of the things that grow in 
them ; or they study some insect which preys upon fruit, or make col- 
lections of the insects about their homes, or watch them to see whether 
they are doing things good or bad for the farmer. This movement 
has rapidly increased in popularity, and the leaflets are used in many 
city schools as well as in those in the country. Hundrfds of simple 
experiments with fertilizers on potatoes have been carried on in differ- 
ent parts of the State with some of the money above referred to. For 
carrying on all this work the university has employed its teaching 
force and a small corps of special agents and clerks. 

In Indiana, Purdue University has undertaken a similar work, 
though its funds have not permitted it to make this very extensive. A 
number of leaflets have been prepared by different members'of the 
faculty and have been sent out to teachers throughout the State. In 
a number of other States nature teaching has been introduced into 
the common schools, but for the most part in the schools in the larger 
towns and cities, whore there were teachers who had had some train- 
ing in natural science. As a result of the widespread interest on this 
subject, teachers' manuals and text-books for instruction in this 
branch are being prepared. 

Without doubt the greatest difficulties in this matter are to over- 
come the conservatism of local boards managing the country schools 
and to get competent teachers. 

FACILITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT FOR POST-GRADTTATE 
INSTRUCTION IN AGRICOXTT7RAI, SCIENCE. 

George Washington, by his will, left property to be devoted to 
university education in the District of Columbia. There is no uni- 
versity in the land where the young farmer may ptirsue post-graduate 
studies in all the sciences relating to production. The scientific Divi- 
sions of the Department of Agriculture can, to some extent, provide 
post-graduate facilities. Our chiefs of Divisions are very proficient in 
their lines; our apparatus the best obtainable; our libraries the most 
complete of any in the nation.. We can direct the studies of a few 
bright young people in each Division, and when the Department 
requires help, as it often does, these young scientists will be obtainable. 

They should bo graduates of agricultural colleges and come to the 
Department of Agriculture through a system of examination that 
would bring the best and be fair to all applicants. The capacity of 
the Department is limited, tyit something can be done that will indi- 
cate to Congress the value of the plan. The Department often needs 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 19 

assistants to take the place of those who are tempted to accept higher 
salaries in State institutions. The opening of our laboratories to 
post-graduate work would provide an eligible list from which to fill 
vacancies as they occur, supply temporary agents, and be a source 
from which State institutions might get assistants in scientific lines. 

INVESTIGATION OF AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES OF INSULAR 
DEPENDENCIES OF THE UNITED STATES. 

In the territories recently brought under the control of the United 
States Government the agricultural interests urgently call for atten- 
tion by this Department. While in all countries the agricultural 
industry is admittedly of the first importance, this is especially true 
of Hawaii and the West India Islands, which depend almost exclu- 
sively for their prosperity upon their agricultural productions. It 
behooves the Department to place itself at the earliest moment pos- 
sible in a position to extend to the agriculturists of those territories 
which have, or may, come under the United States flag, the services 
and benefits which it renders to the farmers of the United States. 
The increased trade relations which may be looked for between the 
United States and its insular dependencies, moreover, render the con- 
ditions of agriculture in the latter and the character and extent of their 
productions matters of profound interest to the people of the United 
States. In the interest of our own agriculture, not only must the 
agricultural resources of these islands then be studied closely and 
intelligently, but the dangers which threaten agriculture in these 
territories in the form of plant diseases or insect pests must bo made 
the subject of special investigation with a view to providing agriculture 
there with preventive or remedial agencies, and also to securing our 
own agriculture from the possibility of their introduction into this 
country. It is urgently necessary, therefore, that Congress should as 
speedily as possible provide a sufficient fund for the use of this 
Department in making such investigations as may be necessary into 
the agricultural resources and conditions in Hawaii, Puerto Rico, 
Cuba, and the Philippines. 

WEATHER BUREAU. 

Tho presence of more than two hundred naval and transport ves- 
sels belonging to tho United States in West Indian waters made it 
apparent during the latter part of the fiscal year that the methods of 
gathering information of the approach of West Indian hurricanes 
were wholly inadequate. The safety of the fleet during the time of 
severe atmospheric disturbances made it imperative that precaution- 
ary measures should be taken at once. 

OBSERVATION STATIONS IN WEST INDIES AND ON CARIBBEAN SEA. 

A bill was therefore drafted and submitted to Congress June 1G, 
1898, authorizing the establishment and operation of observation 



20 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

stations throughout the West Indies and along the shores of the 
Caribbean Sea. The provisions of the measure were incorporated in 
the general deficiency bill, but did not become law until after the close 
of the fiscal year. 

Arrangements had already been made, however, to establish sta- 
tions for making meteorological observations and displaying hurricane 
signals at Kingston, Santiago de Cuba, Santo Domingo, St. Thomas, 
Barbados, Dominica, Trinidad, Curacao, and BarraUquilla. 

When the West Indian service is fully established twice-daily 
reports will be received, not only from the stations named, but also 
from Habana, Nassau, Vera Cruz, Tampico, Coatzacoalcos, and 
Merida. 

Although the primary object of the extension of the storm- warning 
system to the West Indies was the protection of our large naval force, 
other considerations of great importance make it a wise and benefi- 
cent undertaking, and the improved storm-warning service will 
largely benefit the commercial interests throughout the West Indies. 

The Central Meteorological and Magnetic Observatory of Mexico 
has begun the equipment of about thirty stations in the Mexican 
Republic, with the most approved meteorological instruments, and will 
establish a meteorological service similar to our own. When com- 
pleted, an exchange of reports, especially those relating to the approach 
of West Indian hurricanes and "northers" in the Gulf of Mexico, will 
be effected. 

NEW STATIONS IN ARID AND SUBARID REGIONS. 

Congress last session made an appropriation for the purpose of 
increasing the number of stations in the arid and subarid regions of 
the country, and provision has already been made to establish stations 
at Kalispel, Mont.; Boise, Idaho; Mount Tamalpais, Cal. ; Flagstaff, 
Ariz., and Fort Worth, Tex. Additional "stations will soon be located 
at Meridian, Miss. ; Macon, Ga. ; Lexington, Ky. ; Elkins, W. Va. ; 
Evansville, Ind., and Escanaba, Mich. These additional stations, 
besides assisting in the development of agricultural and industrial 
interests in the States in which they are located, will be of material 
benefit in improving the warnings and forecasts, especially for the 
regions west of the Rocky Mountains. 

AERIAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Aerial observations by means of kites were continued during the 
year. It was hoped to establish at least twenty stations, but it was 
found that only sixteen could be completely equipped. The observers 
chosen for the work were called to Washington and given a practical 
course of instruction in the art of flying and managing kites. It is 
too early to express an opinion regarding the value of the observa- 
tions already secured in the aerial work of the Bureau. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 21 

LAKE CHARTS FOR VESSEL MASTERS. 

To increase the usefulness of the Bureau in the Great Lake region, 
a monthly chart was issued showing the lake ports at which storm 
warnings are displayed, the localities in ports where information 
respecting the weather can be obtained, the regions of fog, the pre- 
vailing winds, and other statistical information respecting the wind 
and weather on the lakes. 

LOSSES TO FARM PROPERTY BY LIGHTNING. 

The Bureau has begun the collection of statistics of loss to farm 
property, including live stock in the fields, by lightning, so as to 
determine the frequency of lightning stroke and the amount of prop- 
erty destroyed annually by that agenc3 r . 

EFFICIENCY OF THE BUREAU. 

The efficiency of the Bureau was fully equal to the high standard 
of the previous year. Four hurricanes which visited the Atlantic and 
Gulf coasts during the fall were duly announced. The most severe 
of t hes» i« to rms was that of October 23 to 26, which moved slowly from 
off the Florida coast to the vicinity of Hatteras. It there increased 
greatly in intensity, and caused violent northeast gales along the 
coast as far north as New England. 

Owing to the duration of the storm in the vicinity of Hatteras, the 
Bureau was enabled to make a definite prediction with regard to the 
tide at Norfolk, Va., where, owing to the low level of the city, much 
valuable property is liable to damage by inundation. Cotton and 
other property valued at $850,000 were removed to places of safety. 
As a result of the warnings issued for this storm, between 800 and 900 
vessels remained in port along the Atlantic coast. 

During the prevalence of one of three severe storms which passed 
from the interior to the eastern seaboard during November, 1897, the 
steamer Idaho, with 19 of her crew of 21, was lost on Lake Erie. This 
vessel, disregarding the warnings of the Weather Bureau, left Buffalo 
during the afternoon of the 5th in the face of storm signals which had 
been flying since daybreak. 

A remarkably violent wind and snow storm swept over eastern New 
York and New England January 31 and February 1, 1898. The great- 
est violence of the storm was fel.t along the New England coast, where 
nearly two score mariners lost their lives and many vessels were 
wrecked. Warnings of this storm were sent out the morning of the 
31st and given the widest possible circulation. 

Early in January and February, 1898, forecasts of freezing weather 
in Florida were made in time to enable the residents of that State to 
protect their early vegetables and fruit trees. Similar notices were 
given regacdiag_unusuaHy low temperature in California. 



22 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

There were five important floods during the year, and but for the 
timely warnings given by the Bureati the losses would have been 
much greater than they were. 

Forecasts and warnings were at all time3 distributed with the 
utmost dispatch, and the daily press has not only greatly contributed 
to the success that has attended our efforts in circulating forecasts, 
but has rendered valuable aid in disseminating special warnings of 
cold waves, storm winds, frosts, etc. 

There has been a great improvement in the instrumental equipment 
of the Bureau, and no other similar territory in the world is covered 
with such a complete equipment of instruments, recording climatic 
aud meteorologic phenomena. 

CLIMATE AND CROP SERVICE IN ALASKA. 

An agricultural experiment station having been established in 
Alaska in April, 1898, an official of the Weather Bureau was sent 
there to organize a climate and crop service. The central station is 
located at Sitka, and continuous registers of wind velocity, sunshine, 
temperature, and pressure will be made there. 

TELEGRAPH SERVICE. 

. At one time the Federal Government owned and operated about 
5,000 miles of seacoast and frontier telegraph lines. In 1891, 633 
miles of these lines, mainly on the seacoast, were turned over to the 
Weather Bureau. These lines enable the Bureau to receive early 
information of changes in weather at exposed points on the coast, to 
display storm warnings near several of the great highways of vessels 
entering or leaving our ports, and also to contribute largely to the 
safety of vessels navigating our coasts. . 

STUDY OP METEOROLOGY. 

The importance of the study of meteorology in the United States 
has been kept in mind, especially in the assignment of observers to 
duty at points where there are colleges or universities not already 
provided with instructors in meteorology, and during the past year 
the courses in meteorology have been strengthened in a large number 
of high schools and academies. 

NEED OF AN ASSISTANT CHIEF. - 

Almost the entire time of the Chief of the Weather Bureau has 
during the year been consumed in executive work, leaving him but 
little time to attend to other duties. That work is constantly increas- 
ing ; therefore I recommend that an assistant chief of the Weather 
Bureau be provided for. 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 23 

BUREAU 05" ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 
MEAT INSPECTION. 

The Bureau maintains a system of thorough inspection of meat 
products at one hundred and thirty-live abattoirs in thirty-iivo 
cities. This is an increase of seven abattoirs and two cities over the 
fiscal year 1897. The work done lias greatly exceeded any former 
year, especially in the matter of pork products. This necessitated a 
large increase in the force of employees, who were obtained through 
examination by the Civil Service Commission. Their service has 
been efficient and satisfactory. 

From the tables furnished by the Chief of the Bureau of Animal 
Industry it is learned that during the year there were 9,228,237 ante- 
mortem inspections of cattle, 10,028,287 of sheep, 408,199 of calves, 
and 3 1,010,075 of hogs, making a total of 51,3:35,398 inspections. This 
is a total gjyn over 1897 of 9,025,291 animals, divided as follows: Cat- 
tle, 1,178,212; sheep, 1,983,932; calves, 19,210; hogs, 0,0-13,931. The 
condemnations at abattoirs were 101 cattle, 741 sheep, 07 calves, and 
9,079 hogs — a total of 10,591. The rejections in stock yards were 27,491 
cattle, 9,594 sheep, 2,439 calves, and 00,001 hogs — a total of 105,585. 
The number of condemned animals at abattoirs was 3,275 fewer than 
in 1897, and the number rejected in stock yards was 27,247 greater. 
These differences show the careful work of the officials in detecting 
disease previous \o the slaughter of the animals. 

The records for Ihe post-mortem work show 1,433,181 inspections 
of cattle, 5,501,075 of sheep, 245,155 of calves, and 20,930,840 of 
hogs. Of the carcasses condemned, 10,018 were of cattle, 3,507 of 
sheep, 344 of calves, and 77,579 of hogs; and of the parts of car- 
casses condemned, 12,591 wore of cattle, 287 of sheep, 52 of calves, 
and 35,250 of hogs. 

In addition to the above there were killed by city inspectors 1,785 
cattle, 1,509 sheep, 192 calves, and 14,098 hogs which had been 
rejected in the stock yards by officers of the Bureau of Animal 
Industry. 

The meat-inspection tag, or brand, was placed on 14,815,753 quar- 
ters and 908,014 pieces of beef, 5,448,477 carcasses of sheep, 217,010 
carcasses of calves, 080,870 carcasses of hogs, and 394,503 sacks of 
pork. 

The meat-inspection stamp was affixed to 4,433,509 packages of beef 
products, 5,103 packages of mutton, and 10,145,048 packages of hog 
products, of which 374,131 contained microscopically-examined pork. 

The number of cars sealed containing inspected meat for shipment 
to packing houses and other places was 18,031. 

There wore issued 35,207 certificates for meat products which had 
received the ordinary inspection; these covered exports compris- 
ing 1,250,710 quarters, 07,120 pieces, and 735,814 packages of beef, 



24 



YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



weighing 339,050,091 pounds; 5,163 packages of mutton, weighing 
324,996 pounds; 39,212 hog carcasses and 053,564 packages of pork, 
weighing 244,956,482 pounds. 

The cost of this work was $409,138.09, which makes an average 
of 0.8 cent for each of the 51,335,398 ante-mortem inspections, 
besides covering all the subsequent work of post-mortem inspection, 
tagging, stamping, etc. 

The cost of inspection has been growing gradually less year by 
year. The* average cost per head was 4f cents in 1893, If cents in 
1894, 1.1 cents in 1895, 0.95 cent in 1896, and 0.91 cent in 1897. 

The number of animals inspected before slaughter is shown in the 
statement below. The figures for 1897 are given also as a means of 
comparison. 

Animali inspected before slaughter for abattoirs, 1897 and 1898. 



Fiscal year. 


Cattle. 


Calves. 


Sheep. 


'Hogs. 


Total. 


1897 . 


4,289,058 
4,552,919 


259,930 
241,092 


5,179,643 
5,706,092 


16,813,181 
20,713,863 


26,541,812 


1888 


31,213,966 








283,861 


U8.848 


526,449 


3,900,682 


4,672,154 





1 Decrease. 



MICROSCOPIC INSPECTION OP POKK. 

l 

The examination of pork and pork products shows that better 
results are obtained by making the inspection in the carcass than 
when samples from cured meat are examined. The following table 
shows this fact quite clearly: 

Comparison of inspections from carcasses and from pieces. 



Samples v 



From carcasses. 



From pieces. 



Class A... . 
Class B.— 
Class C 

Total 



Number. 

1,892,131 
15,729 
19,978 



1,927,838 



Per cent. 

96.148 

.816 

1.036 



Number. 

864,042 

5,061 

5,902 



100 



875,008 



Per cent. 

98.747 

.579 

.674 



100 



The samples of pork submitted for microscopic examination were 
classified as follows: Class A, samples in which no sign of trichinae, 
living or dead, or calcified cysts are found; Class B, samples in which 
degenerate trichinae cysts are found, but in which the body of the 
parasite is not recognizable; Class C, samples in which recognizable 
bodies, living or dead, of trichinae are found. All hogs belonging to 
the latter class must be condemned and disposed of according to sec- 
tion 20 of the regulations dated June 14, 1895. 

The number of certificates issued for microscopically examined'pork 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 25 

was 20,158, covering shipments aggregating 373,366 packages, weigh- 
ing 120,271,(359 pounds. Of this quantity, 698 packages, weighing 
161,303 pounds, were exported to countries not exacting a certificate 
of microscopic inspection. 

The cost of microscopic inspection was $171,040.94, an average per 
specimen examined of 6.1 cents, or an average of 0.142 cent for each 
pound exported. This cost per pound for the inspection of pork 
shows a remarkable reduction from the cost in 1897, when it was 
0.256 cent. The cost in JB96 was 0.264 cent; in 1895, 0.2 cent; in 
1894, 0.248 cent. 

The microscopically inspected pork for 1898 reached the enormous 
amount of 120,271,659 pounds. Only 161,303 pounds of this went to 
countries not requiring inspection. In 1897, 43^572,355 pounds of 
pork were inspected microscopically, 1,001,783 pounds of which went 
to countries not requiring inspection. f These figures show that coun- 
tries requiring inspection receiyed from us in 1898, 120,110,256 pounds 
of pork, as against42,570,572 in 1897 — an increase of 77,539,784 pounds. 
It is worthy of note here that the amount of pork microscopically 
inspected in 1898 exceeded the total amount of the three previous 
years by 18,703,906 pounds. 

The number of samples examined increased 49 per cent over last 
year, the expense increased 53 per cent, and the exports increased 
176 per cent. 

INSPECTION OF VESSELS AND OF ANIMALS FOR EXPORT. 

The number of inspections of American cattle for export was 
859,346, and 1,438 head were rejected; 297,719 inspections of Ameri- 
can sheep were made and 180 head rejected. The number of Cana- 
dian cattle inspected was 19,397, of- which 5 were rejected; 29,497 
Canadian sheep were inspected and 38 of them were rejected. 

The number of clearances of vessels carrying live stock was 971, as 
against 954 in 1897. 

Inspectors of the Bureau of Animal Industry in Great Britain 
inspected cattle from the United States to the number of 381,420 and 
sheep to the number of 151,863; cattle from Canada, 17,164; sheep 
from Canada, 27,912. This shows an increase of 20,898 cattle and a 
decrease of 9,408 sheep when compared with the report for 1897. The 
number of head of cattle lost in transit in 1897 was 2,323, or 0.61 per 
cent, as against 907 head or 0.23 per cent for this year. The number 
of sheep lost in transit in 1897 was 2,676, or 1.39 per cent, as against 
1,618, or 0.89 per cent, for this year. 

The cost of the inspection of export animals, the supervision of 
Southern cattle transportation, and the inspection of animals imported 
from Mexico was 1101,210.55. It is estimated that half of this expense 
is on account of the export inspection, and, with this as a basis, the 
cost of inspecting the 548,419 domestic cattle and sheep exported was 



26 



YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



$50,605.28, or 9.2 cents per head. The number of inspections made 
of these animals in this country was l,157 r 065, and in Great Britain 
533,283,. making a total of 1,690,348, the average cost of each inspec- 
tion being 2.99 cents. 

Following is a statement showing the inspection of domestic cattle 
and sheep for export, and number exported for 1808, compared with 
1897: 

Inspections and exports of domestic cattle and slieep, 1S07 and 1S0S. 





* 
Cattle. 


Sheep. 


Year. 


Number 
; of inspec- 
tions. 


Number 
exported. 


Number 
of inspec- 
tions. 


Number 
exported. 


1897 - 


845,110 

859.346 


390*554 
400,512 


348,108 
297,719 


184,596 
117,907 


1898 




Increase (+) or decrease (—) ._ 


+ 14,200 


+ 9*958 


— 59,369 


-38,689 



SOUTHERN CATTEE INSPECTION. 

During the quarantine season of 1897 there were received and 
yarded in the quarantine division of the various, stock yards 35,317 
cars, containing 978,224 cattle ; the number of cars cleaned and disin- 
f ecied was 35y280. 

In the noninfected area in Texas 225,096 cattle were inspected for 
the identification of brands, prior to removal to other States for 
grazing. 

INSPECTION OF IMPORTED ANIMALS. 

The number of animals imported from Mexico and.inspected at the 
ports of entry along the boundary line comprised 177,772 cattle, 64,207 
sheep, 104 swine, and 3,053 goats! 

There were imported from Canada for slaughter, milk production, 
grazing, feeding, etc., and not subject to quarantine detention, 79,907 
cattle, 184,352 sheep, 374 swine, 2,998 horses, 2 goats, 8 mules, 1 deer, 
and 6 buffalo, of which 385 cattle, 6,867 sheep, and 217 swine were for 
breeding purposes. 



INSPECTION OF HORSES AND HORSE PRODUCTS. 

The appropriation bill for the fiseal year- 1899 contains a provision 
"that live horses* and the eareasses and products thereof be entitled 
to the same inspection a* other animals, carcasses, and products 
thereof" named in the bill. Two abattoirs have so- far been estab- 
lished, one at Linnton, Oreg. , and one at Brighton, Mass. The latter 
has been in operation but a few days. The former commenced opera- 
tions on August 1, and during that month 721 horses were inspected, 
88 of which were condemned.. In September there were 905 inspec- 
tions and 33 condemnations. The percentage of condemned animals 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 27 

is largo, and is an indication that no mistake is made in extending 
inspection to horses. These abattoirs slaughter horses exclusively. 

Regulations are being formulated for the inspection of live horses 
for export. It is believed such inspection will stimulate the demand 
abroad for our horses, especially in England, where the question of 
inspection of American horses lias already been discussed to some 
extent. 

PAVJIEXT FOR MICROSCOPIC INSPECTION". 

While the work at tho abattoirs becomes more thoroughly systema- 
tized from j-ear to year and tho cost of inspection per pound of meat 
has become gradually less, the groat extension of tho work necessa- 
rily increases the total expenditures. The question as to whether the 
Government should continue to pay tho cost of this inspection, or 
whether the expense should bo borne by the slaughtei-ers, is one 
which, in my opinion, ought to receive early consideration. As bear- 
ing upon this feature of the question, I quote from my report for 1897: 

While I believe tho general inspection of meat for sanitary purposes should be 
made by the Government, without charge to the slaughterers, the microscopic 
inspection to a great extent is a commercial inspection, and the cost of it could 
be more legitimately assessed against the trade which it benefits. If the packers 
paid tho cost of the inspection there would be no longer any reason for declining 
to extend it to all who apply for it. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH HOC CHOLERA. 

The experiments conducted in the fall of 1897 upon hog cholera and 
swine plague proved so encouraging that Congress made a special 
appropriation for tho purpose of continuing tho work. The bill was 
late in passing, and further time was consumed in making the neces- 
sary preparations to carry on the work on a sufficiently practical scale. 
Material to inject about 1,000 animals was sent to the agent of the 
Bureau of Animal Industry in Iowa, where the first test is being 
made, and reports already received indicate that about 80 per cent of 
the animals treated were saved, whilein the check herds barely 20 per 
cent were saved. 

On account of tho time required to secure a supply of this serum, 
the quantity so far produced has not been adequate to give sufficient 
•data upon which to baso definite conclusions; but the results so far 
obtained are gratifying indeed, and it is deemed advisable to continue 
the work another year. The production of serum is being steadily 
increased, and in a short time a large and regular output will bo 
assured. It remains only to test the remedy upon a sufficient scale 
and to perfect the method of procedure. 

A grave question now presents itself in connection with this sub- 
ject. I refer to tho manufacture of tho serum in quantities sufficient 
to supply the prospective demand. The necessity for its manufacture 



28 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

without the temptation inseparable from purely commercial under- 
takings to cheapen the product is manifest. It is obviously of the 
utmost importance that this serum should be produced of the requisite 
strength and purity until the efficacy of the treatment is thoroughly 
understood*and appreciated and a reliable standard is established, as 
in the case of other remedial agents, and the interest of the public 
demands that this discovery, having been made by public officials at 
public expense, should not be diverted to private profit. It must be 
supplied for the benefit of all at a minimum of cost; and, under the 
circumstances, I can see no alternative but that the manufacture 
should be continued under Government control, at least for some 
years to come. 

TUBERCULOSIS. 

The study of tuberculosis, with reference to both men and animals, 
has been continued, and the results so far obtained indicate that 
experiments already begun in this line should be continued, as there 
is a prospect of more satisfactory results. 

TEXAS FEVER. 

Experiments in dipping cattle to kill the ticks which cause Texas 
fever were continued, with the gratifying result that a substance has 
been found which will destroy all the ticks on an animal at a single 
dipping. In order to test the experiment on a large scale, about a 
thousand head of cattle were dipped at Fort Worth, Tex. , and thence 
shipped to northern Illinois and placed in pastures with susceptible 
cattle. The ticks were all killed by the dipping and the cattle did 
not communicate the fever to the susceptible cattle. An equal num- 
ber were. dipped at Mammoth Spring, Ark., with equally successful 
results. The importance of this measure can hardly be overestimated, 
and prominent stockmen consider that it is worth millions of dollars, 
both to cattle raisers below the quarantine line and to the feeders 
and grain producers north of the line. 

These encouraging results have led to a demand for dipping sta- 
tions at many other points, and arrangements are now being made for 
peTfeeting the dipping process and for securing the, establishment of 
such stations before the next quarantine season at points convenient 
for shipment and inspection. 

' INVESTIGATION IN BLACKLEG. 

The demand for blackleg vaccine has increased very much during 
the year. More than 355,000 doses have been sent out. The results 
received from its use indicate that the percentage of loss in herds 
has been reduced from 10 to 20 per cent to less than 1 per cent. This 
means not only an immense saving to cattle raisers, but, if generally 
used, will tend to eradicate the disease completely. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 29 

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY. 

The Division of Chemistry during the past year has continued its 
work on the composition and adulteration of foods. An elaborate 
bulletin, treating of the composition of cereals and all cereal products, 
represents the results of the principal amount of work in this direc- 
tion. Another bulletin is devoted to the composition and uses of 
Indian corn, and this bulletin was prepared especially for presenta- 
tion at the Third International Congress of Applied Chemistry in 
Vienna, which met in July, 1898. The bulletin has proved of such- 
interest to Europeans that permission has been asked for its transla- 
tion both into Italian and French. 

OFFICIAL AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTS. 

The cooperation of the Division with the Association of Official 
Agricultural Chemists has continued with mutual benefit. As a 
result of the systematic study of methods of investigation of soils, 
fertilizers, and agricultural products, the United States has now a 
uniform method of research, everywhere practiced and recognized as 
official by both trade chemists and the courts of justice. European 
nations have been impressed with the value of this cooperative work, 
and are now organizing similar associations. In view of these facts, 
the propriety of recognizing in some official way the Association of 
Official Agricultural Chemists is evident. Congress should enact 
some special recognition of this association, so as to establish more 
fully its official character and render its proceedings more valuable, 
not only in scientific matters, but also in the covirts. 

STREET SWEEPINGS, ETC. 

The importance of disposing of street sweepings, garbage, and other 
refuse of cities has engaged the attention of the Division, and a con- 
siderable degree of progress was made in studying the agricultural 
value of these matters. 

STUDY OF TYPICAL SOILS. 

In the study of typical soils in the vegetation house it has been 
developed that meteoric influences other than those relating to pre- 
cipitation have a great influence on crop production. The solar 
influences are evidently of great importance, and the distribution of 
solar heat is a factor not to be neglected. Excessive or deficient 
temperatures at critical stages of the growth of a crop are factors of 
prime importance in final products. 
• 

COOPERATIVE "WORK. 

The Division has been engaged in important cooperative work with 
the Treasury Department and other Departments of the Government. 



30 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The Chemist was appointed, with my approval, by the Secretary of 
the Treasury, chairman of a commission charged with the work of 
preparing the regulations for determining the amount of duty to be 
collected on imported sugars. The commission also instituted a series 
of investigations in the several ports of entry to investigate the man- 
ner in which the regulations were carried out. The Chemist, as a 
member of the international commission for unifying methods of 
sugar analysis, presented at the Vienna congress an important con- 
tribution in regard to this desirable agreement. 

"A further cooperation of the Division with the Treasury Depart- 
ment resulted in obtaining data in the examinations which were con- 
ducted of a character that served to save the Treasury a very large 
sum of money claimed as rebates under a provision of the law per- 
mitting the repayment of taxes collected on alcohol which was used 
in certain arts. Important cooperation of the Division was also 
secured in connection with the Post-Office, State, and War Depart- 
ments. The Division of Chemistry holds itself in readiness to comply 
in the shortest possible time with all reasonable requests of the other 
Departments for chemical services. 

SUGAR-BEET AND FOOD INVESTIGATIONS. 

The Division continued during the year its investigations of the pos- 
sibilities of producing high-grade sugar beets in various parts of the 
United States. As a result of the extensive chemical studies con- 
ducted, the area suitable to the production of the best beets has been 
more definitely delineated. A few years more of studies of this kind 
will mark out in a practical manner the areas where beets of the 
highest grade can be produced. 

In the work on food adulteration interesting investigations have 
been instituted in the examination of food products imported from 
foreign countries. Critical studies of agricultural imports from the 
countries which exclude similar imports from our country on the 
ground of adulteration or unwholesomeness will be continued. 

NEW LABORATORY. 

The old quarters used by the Division of Chemistry having proved 
inadequate for the rapidly increasing work of the Division, a new labo- 
ratory has been leased, where more ample facilities will be afforded. 

DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

GENERAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

General investigations have been carried on in this Division through 
the year upon insects injurious to garden crops, to shade trees, and to 
citrus trees and fruits. The general experimental work, with remedies, 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 31 

has comprised especially careful investigations of the availability of 
hydrocyanic-acid gas in the disinfection of seeds in bulk and of plants 
and nursery material, and further experiments with arsenicals and 
various oil mixtures in order to determine their effects on plants in 
dormant condition and in foliage. One of the expert assistants of the 
Division visited Europe for the purpose of studying the methods of 
controlling injurious insects in the Old World, with a view to deter- 
mining their value and applicability to our own country, and in order 
to study the conditions of climate, forest growth, and method of cul- 
ture in their bearing on the abundance or absence of injurious insects 
and the methods of prevention of insect injury. 

SPECIFIC INVESTIGATIONS. 

Specific investigations of importance may be mentioned under the 
following heads: 

WORK ON INSECTS FROM ABROAD. 

Careful investigation of the so-called Morelos orange fruit worm, a 
species which it is feared may be accidentally introduced into the 
orange groves of California and Florida, has been made. The distri- 
bution of this insect in Mexico was unknown even to Mexicans, and 
the fears of this country were considered by Mexicans to be largely 
imaginary. This season's investigations, however, prove that this 
destructive fruit worm is distributed throughout all of Mexico east of 
the Sierra Madre Mountains, and that it may at any time be intro- 
duced into California in early fall oranges imported from that region. 

A preliminary attempt has been made to introduce from southern 
Europe into California an insect which is responsible for the fertiliza- 
tion of the Smyrna figs of commerce. The Entomologist visited Cali- 
fornia in the spring of 1898 and found that conditions were ripe for 
such an attempted introduction, and an agent in Europe will, during 
the eoming year, endeavor to take the necessary steps to bring about 
this introduction, which, it is hoped, will result in the production by 
California of a fig equal to the Smyrna fig. 

A successful importation has been made of an important parasite 
of certain large scale insects. 

THE GIPSY MOTH. 

By direction of Congress, the Entomologist made a careful study of 
the work which has been done by the State of Massachusetts against 
this imported insect pest, and has reported that after careful field 
study extending over practically the whole summer, he is convinced 
that Massachusetts is taking the proper course in making large appro- 
priations to exterminate the insect, and that the work is being carried 
on in a manner worthy of all praise. 



32 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

THE MEXICAN COTTON-BOLL WEEVIL. 

The work which has been carried on during the season has developed 
a new and important spring remedy against this insect, and this, 
together with earlier results achieved by this Division, have now put 
Texas cotton planters into possession of a knowledge of how to 
economically keep their fields free from this injurious species, which 
was recently thought to threaten the destruction of the entire crop of 
the State. 

CHINCH BUG AND HESSIAN FLY. 

During the year investigations have been made upon these two 
well-known and very injurious insects, and a comprehensive bulletin 
upon each species has been completed and is now ready for the printer. 

OTHER INVESTIGATIONS. 

Other important work carried on under this Division during the 
year has included the sending successfully of beneficial species to 
foreign Governments suffering from outbreaks of the white or fluted 
scale, the preparation of an account of the work accomplished during 
the past two years against the San Jose scale, an investigation of the 
injurious grasshoppers of the Western States, work upon remedies to 
be used against the house fly, suggested by the growing belief in the 
importance of this insect as a carrier of disease, work upon the geo- 
graphic distribution of injurious insects of the United States, and 
experimental work in apiculture. 

BIOLOGICAL SURVEY. 
LIFE ZONES AND CROP ZONES. 

With a view to determining the areas best adapted for various 
crops, the Biological Survey has been engaged for several years in 
collecting data for mapping the natural life zones of the United 
States. A detailed study of the distribution of the native animals 
and plants has been made in the belief that areas inhabited by indig- 
enous species coincide with those most suitable for certain varieties 
of fruit and cereals and for breeds of domesticated animals. This 
investigation has now progressed far enough to permit the publica- 
tion during the past year of a revised map of the life zones of the 
United States and two reports containing the results, of more general 
interest to farmers and horticulturists. 

One of these repoi'ts comprised a description of the life zones and 
crop zones of the United States, with lists of the more important varie- 
ties of fruits and grains adapted to each area; the other an investi- 
gation of the geographic distribution of some of the more important 
cereals. The latter bulletin, based on reports from more than a thou- 
sand grain growers, showed the areas in which about thirty of the 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 33 

more important varieties of corn, wheat, and oats are now profitably 
cultivated, and the regions where these varieties may be expected 
to sticceed. Field work was continued during the year in "Washing- 
ton, Oregon, California, Nevada, British Columbia, and northern 
Mexico for the purpose of obtaining data for use in outlining the life 
zones with greater precision than had hitherto been possible in these 
regions. 

ECONOMIC RELATIONS OP MAMMALS AND BIRDS. 

The Biological Survey is often called upon to determine the value 
of birds and animals to practical agriculture. It is in effect a court 
of appeal in which complaints are investigated concerning those 
species which are considered injurious to crops. A careful study is 
made of the food of useful and injurious birds and mammals, and 
thousands of stomachs of birds are examined in the laboratory. Two 
thousand three hundred and twenty-nine stomachs, mainly of spar- 
rows, swallows, and woodpeckers, were examined during the year. 
A report has been prepared on the native cuckoos and shrikes, and 
reports on flycatchers and native sparrows are in preparation. Sev- 
eral of the latter birds feed largely on weed seed during the winter, 
and it is a matter of no little interest to determine how far they can 
aid the farmer in checking the increase of noxious weeds. The 
importance of this work is emphasized by the increasing demand 
made on the Department for information and publications on birds, 
in consequence of the recent widespread popular interest in orni- 
thology. 

FUTURE WORK. 

As the work of the Biological Survey becomes more generally known, 
the demands for information, maps, and reports increase far more 
rapidly than the means for meeting them. Biological maps of cer- 
tain States and maps showing the distribution of particular mam- 
mals or birds are sought not only for reference but for purposes of 
instruction. Local biological surveys have been planned or have 
already been inaugurated in several of the States, and the Depart- 
ment has been appealed to for assistance in this work, but it has thus 
far been unable to actively cooperate through lack of sufficient appro- 
priations for the purpose. 

The work for the immediate future comprises a combination of field 
work outlining the life zones of the Pacific coast, investigations on 
varieties of fruits, vegetables, and field crops similar to that already 
undertaken in the case of cereals. An investigation which is of spe- 
cial interest at this time is a thorough examination of the fauna and 
flora of the tropical region which lies along our southern border and 
enters the United States at several points. Our new island posses- 
sions are entirely within this region and present an inviting field for 
2 a98 3 



34 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

exploration. As their resources become more generally known the 
question of what semitropical or tropical products can still be profit- 
ably grown in Florida and the Gulf States is likely to become a very 
important and practical one in several of the Southern States. 

DIVISION OF VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY. 

The work of this Division is carried on with a view of obtaining 
additional light on the conditions governing the growth and produc- 
tiveness of cultivated plants, with special reference to diseases, nutri- 
tion, and development of new and improved sorts by breeding and 
selection. 

RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS. 

During the year valuable knowledge was obtained relative to 
increasing the sugar and starch producing power of plants and the 
effect of soil foods on their growth and productiveness. 

The study of diseases of truck and garden crops and of crops grown 
under glass has been continued, and methods of preventing several 
of the most destructive, such as black rot of the cabbage and the leaf- 
spot disease of melons, celery, and violets, given to growers of such 
crops through bulletins or by correspondence. 

Smuts and rusts of cereals have received much attention. The 
latest and best methods of preventing smut were given to the public 
through a Farmers' Bulletin, and much valuable knowledge relative 
to rust was gained. 

In the study of diseases of citrus fruits and other subtropical plants 
special attention was given to sooty mold and blight of the orange 
and blight of the pineapple. 

On the Pacific coast peach-leaf curl, apple canker, a bacterial disease 
of English walnuts, and a new bacterial bulb disease have received 
especial attention. Important results have also been obtained from 
a study of other diseases prevalent in different parts of .the country 
on the apple, pear, peach, plum, and other fruits, on crops of various 
kinds, and on forest and shade trees. 

HYBRIDIZING. 

The work of hybridizing the sweet orange with the hardy trifoliate, 
with a view of obtaining a variety resistant to cold, was pushed, and 
about one hundred and fifty hybrids obtained. In addition to this 
about one thousand hybrids of other citrus plants were obtained. 
Considerable work was done in crossing pineapples, and as a -result 
two hundred and fifty-nine hybrid seedlings were secured. These 
produced plants of great vigo"r and confirmed the belief that by this 
means there may be produced fruits which will be larger, of better 
quality, better shippers, and more resistant to blight. Similar work 
was carried on with pears and with wheat and other crops. 



KEPOltT OE THE SECRETARY. 35 

ROUTINE WORK. 

About six thousand loiters relating to diseased plants and other 
lines of work were answered during the year, and about twelve thou- 
sand specimens of disease-producing fungi, representing six hundred 
different species, were prepared for distribution to tho experiment 
stations. Much time was also devoted to the preparation of bulletins 
and papers on results of investigations. 

SEED DISTRIBUTION. 

Finding it desirable to separate the seeds to be distributed by the 
Depart incut into three clashes and to placo the distribution of each 
class of seeds under the control of a Division or Section, which in a 
greater or less degree is interested in the character of the seeds dis- 
tributed, T assigned to tho Seed Division the distribution of vegetable, 
flower, and field seeds; to the Section of Seed and Plant Introduction, 
the collection and distribution of foreign seeds, and to the Division of 
Chemistry tho distribution of sugar-beet seed, the entire work of seed 
distribution being placed in charge of the Assistant Secretary of 
Agriculture. 

Every effort is made to so place the seed that the best results may 
be obtained. Nearly all requests were complied with, none being 
refused when it was possible to send seed. In a number of cases 
special purchases of seeds not included in our contract were made for 
that purpose. 

"With few exceptions tlio reports from persons who have received 
and planted the seed have been favorable. 

"While it is too early to determine the value of the seeds introduced 
from foreign countries, I am satisfied that some varieties will prove 
very desirable. 

The vegetable, .lower, and field seeds were distributed by our con- 
tractor at Toledo, Ohio, under tho supervision of the special agent 
and with the aid of clerical help sent from this Department. 

CONGRESSIONAL AND AilSCELLANEOUS tiEEO DISTRIBUTION. 

The seeds distributed under direction of the Seed Division dining 
the fiscal year ending Juno -SO, 1898, aggregated 15,702,914 papers and 
cloth bags, as follows: Vegetable, papers, 14,2-13,527; flower, papers, 
1, 254,037; field, papers and bag;:, 205,. '550. 

Of the 15,702,9.14 papers and bags of seeds distributed, 13,599,580 
papers and cloth sacks of vegetable and field seed were distributed 
to Senators, Representatives, and Delegates in Congress (by their 
allotments); 751,170 papers of flower and vegetable seeds to corre- 
spondents of the Division of Statistics; and 889,460 papers and bags 
of vegetable, flower, and field seeds to the State granges. The re- 
mainder were distributed to Weather Bureau observers, experiment 
stations, etc. 



36 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

DISTRIBUTION OP FOREIGN SEEDS AND PLANTS. 

Prof. X. E. Hansen was appointed a special agent of the Depart- 
ment for tho purpose of securing foreign seeds and plants valuable 
for introduction into this country. Under the direction of the Sec- 
tion of Seed and Plant Introduction, Professor Hansen during the 
past year visited portions of Russia and Siberia and succeeded in 
collecting 57 varieties of vegetable seed, 289 of melon, 75 of fruit 
and berry plants, 150 ornamental plants, 70 wheal?, 14 barley, 20 oats, 
6 rye, 70 forage plants, 5 oil-producing plants, and a large number of 
miscellaneous seeds of desert plants, etc. 

Upon arrival, these seeds and plants were put up into about 5,000 
packages by the Section of Seed and Plant Introduction and sent out 
largely to State agricultural experiment stations, and to such reliable 
cultivators as had shown a willingness to cooperate with the Depart- 
ment by making reports as to the success of these imported plants. 

While it is too early to predict the value of most of the introduc- 
tions, the most promising are a variety of alfalfa, seedlings of the 
Siberian apple (imported for experimenting in the Dakotas), a new 
orange-fruited raspberry, and a Russian sand vetch. 

DISTRIBUTION OF SUGAR-BEET SEED. 

In the distribution of sugar-beet seed, they were sent to the sections 
that were thought best adapted to their use. The agricultural experi- 
ment stations were included in the distribution, and persons to whom 
sugar-beet seed were sent were advised that the State experiment 
stations would make analyses of the sugar beets grown in each State. 
Very cordial cooperation has been brought about between the Depart- 
ment and the State experiment stations. 

The sugar-beet seed were purchased from Vilmorin, Andrieux & 
Co., in Paris, and from Dippe Brothers, in Quedlinburg, Germany, and 
distributed by the Division of Chemistry. In all, 34,436 pounds of 
seed were purchased, and partly distributed in bulk and partly in 
packages containing about 18 ounces each. Large quantities were dis- 
tributed by Members of Congress, and 40 pounds of extra high-grade 
seed were distributed among experiment stations for use in the pro- 
duction of seed. 

SECTION OP FOREIGN MARKETS. 

In the Section of Foreign Markets a radical departure was made in 
the study of our relations with foreign markets by promptly diverting 
it to the field opened by the prospect of changes in Hawaii and the 
West Indies. The advantage of this was demonstrated by the 
demand for publications in that connection. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 37 

REPORTS ON COMMERCE OF HAWAII, SPAIN, AND PUERTO RICO. 

A report on the commerce of the Hawaiian Islands was issued dur- 
ing the discussion of annexation. It covered the past ten years and 
gave special attention to trade with the United States. 

When war with Spain was imminent, a rapid investigation of the 
extent and nature of the commerce of the people of that country was 
made. By quick and intelligent action information was obtained 
from Spanish official reports showing the foreign trade of Spain in 
detail, and the amount and direction of shipping under the Spanish 
flag. This information was made public at the critical moment, just 
preceding the declaration of war. It was followed a few days later 
by a more detailed statement of the trade between Spain and the 
United States. 

The likelihood that Puerto Rico would become a possession of this 
Government'called for a statement of the trade relations of that island, 
and it was made. Full details were presented of the exports and 
imports of the island. These furnished a basis for estimating its pro- 
ductive capacity and its requirements from other places. The statis- 
tics were from Puerto Rican official sources, and as they were made 
public for the first time were particularly valuable as well as timely. 

REPORTS ON TRADE WITH AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

Reports were issued during the year on the foreign trade of the 
United States in agricultural products and 6n the wheat production 
of Austria-Hungary. In the first of these the classification of agri- 
cultural imports and exports was carefully revised and a comprehen- 
sive and instructive presentation of the important facts was made. 
The demand for the report on foreign trade in agricultural products 
was so strong that the essential information was embodied in a cir- 
cular, of which 85,000 copies were distributed. 

In compliance with a request from the Secretary of State, much 
time was devoted to the compilation of information for the use of the 
special commissioner appointed to negotiate.reciprocity treaties. 

OFFICE OF ROAD INQUIRY. 

EFFORTS FOR GOOD ROADS. 

The problem of securing good roads continues- to be a very impor- 
tant branch of work. Publications upon the subject of the best 
methods for road improvement have been distributed freely. Care 
has been taken to send them where they would be most effective in 
stimulating activity in the movement. Representatives of the Office 
have attended many important meetings for the discussion of roads, 
and in this way valuable information has been both gathered and 
disseminated. 



38 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

In localities where construction of roads according to tlio most 
approved methods lias been in progress a representative of the 
Department has made a study of the operations and extended such 
assistance as was possible. The Office of Road Inquiry has also 
actively cooperated with two of the State agricultural experiment 
stations in spreading the work of good roads. The road laws of sev- 
eral of the most progressive States have been collected and studied. 

These efforts have met with hearty appreciation in every direction, 
and there has been a steady increase in the demand for assistance. 
Both countiy papers and the metropolitan dailies have become inter- 
ested in the movement and have printed very much upon the subject, 
in many instances reproducing Department circulars and bulletins 
in full. 

OBJECT-LESSON KOADS. 

The object-lesson road at the Rhode Island Agricultural College 
has been completed, and a report of the details of the work, along 
with the results of other inquiries, will be presented in the Yearbook 
for 1898. Owing to lack of funds it has been impossible to comply 
with calls for similar aid elsewhere, and it has been necessary to dis- 
continue these object lessons in connection with agricultural colleges 
and experiment stations, although many of these institutions are still 
calling for aid. They are ready to bear most of the expense, asking 
of the Department only the payment of freight on machinery and of 
part of the salaries of experts. The help given from this Department 
usually proves sufficient to secure the financial support of the towns 
and farming communities in the vicinity of the experiment. Numer- 
ous letters received by the Office of Road Inquiry testify to the great 
value of these cooperative experiments. Everywhere the plan meets 
with the highest commendation, but it can not be extended Avithout 
an additional appropriation. 

STEEL, ROADS. 

The aim of the Office of Road Inquiry is. to cooperate with people 
of the several States in making the best possible use of material within 
their reach in road making. Large areas in many of the States have 
no gravel, rock, or other hard material with which to make roads. I 
have had experiments made during the present year with steel as 
extensively as our means would permit. 

An experiment of this kind is being conducted at Cleveland, Ohio. 
A section of 500 feet of steel track has been laid on a street in the 
suburbs where the traffic is heavy, and its value is already generally 
acknowledged. A sample steel road 510 feet long has been laid upon 
the grounds of the exposition at Omaha. It is proposed to make 
traction tests upon this track to show how much less power is required 
to move a load over such a road. 



EEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 39 

The steel road is not excessively costly by comparison with other 
roads and will last much longer with less repair, and is probably the 
most economic road for localities where material is not obtainable for 
macadamizing. 

SENTIMENT IN FAVOR OF GOOD ROADS. 

The growth of sentiment in favor of good roads is shown by the 
passage of progressive laws in New York, Pennsylvania, and other 
States, and by the appointment of a highway commission in Maryland, 
and also by the reports of increased sales of road-making machinery. 

DIVISION OF AGROSTOLOGY. 

EXPERIMENTS IN THE GRASS GARDENS. 

Through the efforts of this Division we are learning the needs of the 
several sections of the country and the forage problems which they 
have to meet. We are acquiring a betterjuiowledge of the distribu- 
tion and value of our native grasses and forage plants, as well as the 
peculiar conditions of soil and climate best suited to their growth. 
More than 500 varieties of grasses and forage plants valued for forage 
have been grown in the grass garden on the grounds of the Depart- 
ment during the past season. Visitors from all parts of the country 
have been much interested in this exhibition, which has afforded 
many lessons, not only of interest but of real practical value. 

The garden contains plats of grasses suitable- for lawns, besides 
many species from the East and from the South, and especially from - 
the West, all growing together with apparent success, and it is inter- 
esting to note the peculiar habits of the grasses of the moist and 
wooded regions of the East and those of the arid, treeless regions of 
the West as here displayed. A large number of leguminous plants 
have been given a place in the garden, and one of the most interest- 
ing experiments has been a trial of alfalfa grown from seed obtained 
from more than twenty different sources. Trial samples of these 
seeds were sent to a large number of experiment stations who volun- 
teered to undertake comparative experiments in their cultivation. 
Up to the present time it has not been possible to detect any marked 
variation in the plants grown. Turkestan alfalfa, the seed of which 
was introduced last year in large quantities from Russia, has made a 
remarkable growth in some of the experiments conducted in the West. 
At North Yakima, Wash., it made a growth of over 3 feet in seventy- 
nine days, sending up many stems from each root. It is believed that 
this alfalfa will prove to be more hardy than the ordinary sort, and it 
may be distinguished by minute hairiness on the under surface of the 
leaves. 

Many varieties of grasses and forage plants have been tested at the 
grass garden at Knoxville, Tenn., during the year. It has, however, 



40 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

been thought best to discontinue official connection with this garden 
and select a station farther south, which shall be more typically 
Southern in its character, both in soil and climate. The problem in 
Tennessee is not so much what can be grown as how to grow the 
largest amount of the best quality with the least expense, problems 
which the agricultural experiment station at Knoxville is now well 
prepared to solve. 

INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF FORAGE RESOURCES. 

In connection with the investigations in the Southwest two stations 
have been established, one at Abilene and one at Channing, the 
former presenting conditions characteristic of the center of Texas 
and the latter of the great region of northwest Texas, known as the 
Panhandle. The experiments carried on at these stations were made 
with a view of determining how the cattle ranges may be improved 
by practical methods. At the station at Abilene more special lines 
of investigations and experiments are being carried on, especially in 
the way of testing varieties which may be suited to that region. 

Comparative work of the Division is being performed by many vol- 
unteer experimenters, especially among the more intelligent farmers 
in Colorado, Texas, Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. The object of 
these experiments is the introduction of new or little-known and 
desirable hay and pasture grasses, as well as soiling crops. A num- 
ber of the more progressive ranchmen and stockmen of the Northwest 
have agreed to devote from 1 to 5 acres of cultivated land to the more 
promising native grasses or those introduced from foreign countries, 
seed of which we may be able to furnish them. 

.Seeds of grasses and alfalfa imported from Russian and eastern 
Asia were sent in amounts sufficient to sow from one-twentieth of 
an acre to an acre of each variety to 479 parties who had previously 
agreed to give them careful cultivation and report fully at the close 
of the season the results obtained. The data thus secured can not 
fail to be of great interest and value to all interested in the improve- 
ment of the forage resources of our country. Eleven hundred pack- 
ages of seeds of native grasses, salt bushes, wild clovers, wild beans, 
and lawn grasses, mostly collected by the employees of the Division 
while in the field, were distributed to our correspondents, who 
expressed a desire to aid the Division in its investigations. 

Field investigations in the States along tho Gulf coast have been 
carried on during the past two seasons and one report upon the work 
done in this section is now in the hands of the printer. Work, as 
already indicated, has been carried on in the Southwest, and in the 
Northwest investigations have been made by special agents, whose 
reports have already been published. 

The field work so far has been confined to the Atlantic slope, but 
there is being manifested among the farmers and ranchmen of the 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 41 

Pacific coast a marked interest in grass and forage-plant questions, 
and a demand for an extension of our work 
States west of the Divide is now being made. 



and a demand for an extension of our work along these lines in the 



THE GRASS COLLECTION. 

Over 5,000 specimens of American grasses have been identified 
during the year and nearly 3,000 sheets of herbarium specimens 
mounted and added to the National Herbarium. The grass collection 
now in the Department numbers over 30,000 sheets. 

DIVISION OF SOILS. 

The Division of Soils has continued the investigation of the physical 
properties of soils and their relation to crop production, and work has 
now been started upon the mapping of soils on a scale of 4 inches to 
the mile, to be published probabty on a scale of 2 inches to the mile. 
These maps will show in great detail' the soil areas adapted to the 
different agricultural crops. Considerable advance has also been 
made in devising methods of investigating soil conditions where crops 
suffer, or where the soil conditions are not well adapted to crops 
which the location and markets demand. 

RECORDS OP MOISTURE CONTENT OP SOILS. 

Records have been continued of the moisture content of some of the 
principal soil areas in the country with the electrical method of mois- 
ture determination. As the soil is the immediate source of the water 
supply of plants, this record becomes an essential part of climatology, 
and it seems probable that this work of the Division of Soils, in con- 
nection with the_present work of the Weather Bureau and of the 
Division of Statistics, will develop a distinctively new line of agricul- 
tural climatology. This work is closely related to the work of the 
Weather Bureau, but is supplementary to it. It includes the record 
of evaporation to which the plant is subjected, the water supply main- 
tained by the soil for supplying the loss due to this evaporation, and 
the intensity of the actinic and heat radiations which influence the 
physiological activities of the plant. Numerical values can be given 
to the evaporation and to the soil-moisture conditions, so that it is-, 
possible to express numerically the relative conditions of plant growth 
from day to day so far as these two important factors of evaporation 
and water supply are concerned. This will add greatly to the prac- 
tical value of our knowledge of climatology. 

INVESTIGATION OP ALKALI SOILS OP YELLOWSTONE VALLEY. 

The electrical method of salt determination in soils has been used 
in the exploration and investigation of the alkali soils of the Yellow- 
stone Valley. An examination was first made of the general conditions 



42 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

in the valley, and then a very minute study of a section of land 
which was just being ruined by the rise of alkali. This examination 
amounted to an underground survey of the field, and maps have been 
made showing the distribution of alkali at different depths. A great 
number of borings were made to a depth of 10 or 15 feet, and salt 
determinations were made in every 6 inches or each foot in depth. 
Accurate maps have been made showing the amount and distribution 
of the alkali at several of these depths. 

The result of this investigation will bo issued in the form of a bul- 
letin. Briefly, it was found that in the original prairie soil above the 
ditch there is not sufficient alkali to be injurious to vegetation. The 
amount of alkali was greater in the lower depths of the subsoil. As 
a rule, water is used in excess on all of these lands under irrigation, 
and to such an extent that it accumulates in the subsoil. When the 
depth to standing water is not more than 2 feet from the surface, 
alfalfa turns yellow and dies out. In all cases the first injury was 
from the accumulation of water from excessive applications through 
irrigation. Where this water remains for some time in the subsoil the 
alkali leaches down through seepage from higher lands, and is brought 
up from the subsoil and accumulates at the surface in quantities suffi- 
cient to prevent the growth of cultivated plants. Other problems of 
great value to the agriculturist were worked out in the course of this 
investigation. Such work will bo invaluable in the treatment of 
alkali soils. 

This underground survey of the alkali lands has given the most 
important information in regard to the amount and distribution of the 
soluble salts and the way in which they accumulate in certain locali- 
ties through overirrigation. 

TOBACCO INVESTIGATIONS. 

The tobacco business has become very highly specialized. Each 
market has its own requirements, each class of users has its own par- 
ticular style, and each season brings some change of style which must 
be met by the tobacco grower. There is a great deal of competition 
in our own country and very serious competition from abroad, espe- 
cially from Cuba and Sumatra. In several of our tobacco districts 
the acreage has been reduced one-half in the past ten or fifteen years. 
Some of the districts have almost completely abandoned the culture of 
tobacco. On the other hand, several new localities are being opened, 
with prospects of good prices for the better grades of wrapper leaf 
both for cigar and manufacturing purposes. The best we can do, 
however, in the cigar leaf is far below the product of foreign coun- 
tries. The Cuban filler sells for ten times as much as the Pennsyl- 
vauia and Ohio filler; the Sumatra wrapper is worth ten or fifteen 
times as much in the markets as the Connecticut wrapper. To meet 
this competition it is absolutely necessary that our farmers should 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 43 

have at their disposal a thorough knowledge of their own conditions 
and of the conditions of the soil, climate, methods, and labor condi- 
tions of competing districts. 

SOIL MAPS OF THE TOBACCO DISTRICTS. 

One of the first necessities in the development of a new district or 
in the improvement of an established distoict is an accurate soil map 
of the locality, on which the soils adapted to the different types and 
grades of tobacco are plainly shown. In all of our tobacco districts 
there are large areas of land sown to this crop which are not adapted 
to a good grade of tobacco. There are also large areas well adapted 
to a fine grade of leaf which have never been used for this purpose. 
Enough is known of the relation of soils to tobacco to warrant the 
preparation of very accurate maps, indicating the character of the 
tobacco from each of the soil areas in the district. After these types 
have been established and the soil areas have been mapped, the 
experiment stations can take up a study of the cultural methods 
adapted to each of the types of soil. In this study of the influence 
of the soil upon the quality of the leaf it is important to extend the 
study to all localities, and to gather information from Cuba and 
Sumatra as well as from Kentucky, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Con- 
necticut. This is work that the experiment stations can not do for 
themselves. 

CURING AND FERMENTATION. 

Among the most important lines of work which the Department can 
take up for the'tobacoo grower is the study of the diseases in the 
tobacco bed and the comparatively few diseases in the field, and par- 
ticularly the study of curing and fermentation. A large amount of 
research work has been done, particularly in Germany, in the fer- 
mentation of tobacco, but very little is yet known of the changes 
which go on in the process or regarding the specific agents which bring 
about these changes. So much information and practical benefit 
have been derived from a study of butter and cheese, in the control 
of the ferments and bacteria which produce the texture and flavor 
of the product, that it is very desirable that similar knowledge in 
the curing and fermentation of tobacco and similar control of the 
finished product should be secured. This work will require very 
careful study of the changes in the fermentation pile in the different 
tobacco districts. 

It is important to know exactly to what organisms the peculiar flavor 
and aroma of the tobacco is due; what influence is exerted by the 
character of the leaf, by climatic conditions, and by methods of manipu- 
lation. This work can only be thoroughly done by systematic work- 
ing in different tobacco districts in our country with different varieties 
of tobacco and different climatic conditions. It should certainly 



44 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGliH.'ULTl'RE. 

embrace a .study of fermentation in the; tobacco of Cuba and of 
Sumatra. If our tobacco growers are to attempt to raise a product 
equal to that of Cuba and Sumatra, and if this is to be done not by 
chance, but. through systematic, scientific invest igal ions, then the soils 
and oilier conditions of growth must, be thoroughly understood and 
the fermentation changes carefully worked out in Cuba and Sumatra. 
It; is necessary, therefore, that a soil expert and a bacteriologist extend 
their work to these foreign countries. 

In view of the great, importance of the tobacco industry in this 
country and of the very important practical results which are likely 
to accrue from the investigation of the subjects herewith presented, I 
have submitted in my estimates to Congress a special appropriation 
for tobacco investigations. 

DIVISION OF FORESTRY. 
CIIAXOE IX (•[HEP OF DIVISION. 

At the end of the fiscal year the creation of the New York State 
College of Forestry and the election of Mr. J>. E. Fernow to the direct- 
orship created a vacancy in the position of Chief of the Division, 
which Mr. Fernow held for twelve years, and Mr. Gilford I'inehot, of 
New York, was appointed his successor. 

TREE PLANTING IX THE TuEREESS RE(![ONS. 

Relieving that the attention of this Division should be directed 
rather more to the tree-planting interests of the treeless regions, I 
directed the discontinuance of the series of investigations which had 
in view a better knowledge and use of our economic timbers, in order 
that the funds might become available in the aforesaid direction. 
The forest-planting experiments in cooperation with the State agri- 
cultural experiment stations were, therefore, prosecuted more vigor- 
ously and extended to Texas, Oklahoma, and Montana, besides adding 
another station in Pennsylvania, where the methods of reclothing 
cut-over lands were to be demonstrated. 

By my direction a plan was elaborated for the introduction of 
species adapted to dry climates, and a competent agent appointed to 
carry out the plan, which contemplates the establishment of a num- 
ber of arboreta in our dry regions, in which are to be assembled such 
trees and shrubs from all parts of the world as might eventually 
prove; adapted to these regions. One of the most useful lines of work 
has been a canvass of the forest conditions of the State of Wisconsin, 
in cooperation with the Slate geological survey, which has brought 
out i he significant fact that, through careless 1 umbering, followed by 
destructive fires, over 8, 000, 000 acres of lhat Stale have been rendered 
practically useless and one-half that arcn a veritable desert as far as 
present economic conditions are considered. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 45 

TIMBER PHYSICS INVESTIGATIONS. 

The accumulated data of the investigations in timber physics have 
been worked over in part and yielded some most important results, 
among which the law that the strength of a beam at the elastic limit 
is equal to the compression strength of the material, which was estab- 
lished by the tests of the Division, will influence the practice in the 
use of wood for construction most advantageously. 

PLANS FOR THE COMING YEAR. 

The plans for the Division of Forestry, approved by me, for the com- 
ing year cover the following lines of work, all of which are dh'ectly 
related to the welfare of our people : 

Practical assistance to farmers, lumbermen, and others in handling 
private forest lands. Since these lands exceed by far in area those 
of the Government and the States combined, woodland in farms alone 
covering more than 200,000,000 acres, this attempt to increase their 
present as well as their future value, and thus secure their preserva- 
tion, has before it a field of wide usefulness. 

An attempt to find the best trees for planting in the so-called tree- 
less regions of the West, a matter of far-reaching importance to a 
very large percentage of the farming population of this country. 

A study of the history, nature, and ways of action of forest fires 
in the United States and their effect on the composition and repro- 
duction of forests. The prime object of this work, which covers a 
field practically untouched until now, is to develop better methods 
of preventing and extinguishing these fires than have yet been 
employed. 

A study of the effect of lumbering on the forests, in order to 
devise improved methods advantageous both to the lumberman and 
to the forest. Combined with this work, detailed investigations of 
the growth of trees of special commercial importance will be made, 
with the object of ascertaining whether and how much it will pay to 
hold timber land for future crops. 

Investigation of the timber resources and requirements of Alaska, 
Cuba, and Puerto Rico, which is needed to meet the numerous requests 
for information made to this Department. 

In addition, a classified series of forest photographs, intended to 
furnish illustrations of the results of the various lines of work, will be 
begun during the year. 

The extremely practical character of these lines of work is evident. 
Their popular standing is indicated by the fact that the assistance of 
the Division has been asked in the handling of nearly a million acres 
of forest land, under an arrangement by which, in the case of all but 
farmers' wood lots, the Department is relieved of all expenses except 
salaries for its agents in the field. 



46 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

In view of these facts, I have been impelled to lay before Congress 
the urgent need of a considerable addition to the appropriations at 
my disposal for the use of the Division of Forestry. 

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 
THE STATE EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

The examination of the work and expenditures of the agricultural 
experiment stations by the Office of Experiment Stations during the 
past year has shown that these institutions are, as a rule, working 
more thoroughly and efficiently than ever before for the benefit of 
American agriculture. More than six hundred persons are employed 
in the work of administration and inquiry. About four hundred re- 
ports and bulletins were issued by the stations in 1897, which were 
directly distributed to over half a million addresses, besides being 
widely reproduced in the agricultural and county papers. The appro- 
priation of $720,000 from the National Treasury for the support of the 
stations was supplemented by State funds aggregating over $400,000. 

The need and value of scientific researches on behalf of agriculture 
are now very clearly understood, and the number and importance of 
institutions organized for this work are constantly increasing in all 
parts of the world. Nowhere has so comprehensive and efficient a 
system of experiment stations been established as in the United States. 
In the scope and amount of their operations, and in the thoroughness 
with which the useful information they obtain is disseminated among 
the farmers, our stations are unsurpassed. During the ten years 
which have elapsed since the Hatch Act went into effect a very large 
amount of accurate information of direct practical benefit to our farm- 
ers has been piiblished by the stations. Not only have the numerous 
bulletins and reports of the stations been freely distributed in all parts 
of the country, but many valuable books largely based on the work of 
the stations have been written for the farmers' use, while the agricul- 
tural press has busily collated and disseminated a vast mass of 
information directly relating to the work of the stations or supple- 
mentary to it. The contrast between the correct information regard- 
ing the principles and practices of his art easily obtainable by the 
farmer of to-day and that available for his predecessor of a generation 
ago is very wide and striking. 

NEED OF MAKING OUR STATIONS STILL MORE EFFECTIVE. 

The general success of our agricultural experiment stations makes it 
all the more important that they should everywhere be organized and 
conducted with a view to securing the most economical and efficient 
service for the benefit of agriculture. It were well if the farmers in 
every State and Territory were alive to the importance of making each 
and every experiment station a thoroughly effective institution for 
agricultural reseai"ch. There are certain principles which experience 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 47 

has shown must be followed in the management of stations if they are 
to be most highly useful. Attention has been called to these from 
time to time in the reports of the Department, but there is still need 
to urge upon appointing officers, governing boards, and all the friends 
of agricultural progress that, in order to make the experiment stations 
what they ought to be, they must be organized on a permanent basis, 
and their plans of work must be carefully made and carried out by 
thoroughly trained experts, who are so circumstanced that they can 
give time and energy in full measure to the research work. 

Political considerations should have no place in the choice and reten- 
tion of station officers, college duties should not be allowed to encroach 
on the time set apart for original investigation, and the compilation 
of old information should always be made secondary to the acquire- 
ment of new knowledge. Our farmers are worthy of the best that 
science and expert skill can win for them out of the realm of the facts 
and principles which nature will reveal to the diligent student of her 
mysteries. To divert from their highest and best uses any of the 
funds which the people have freely given to bring the aid of science 
to agriculture is most reprehensible. The stations which are held in 
the highest honor alike by scientists and farmers are those in which 
there has been most original and thorough work. 

The stations are not the only means for the education of the farmer. 
Agricultural colleges, farmers' institutes, boards of agriculture, and 
various other agencies have been established to instruct the farmer 
regarding the present status of agricultural science as applied to his 
art. It is the business of the experiment stations, on the other hand, 
to advance knowledge of the facts and principles underlying success- 
ful agriculture and to teach the farmer new truths made known by 
their investigations. The act of Congress creating the stations clearly 
defines their functions to be the making and publishing of original 
investigations. Wherever a station has neglected this and merely 
endeavored to educate the farmer, we find a weak station, and where- 
ever a station has earnestly devoted itself to original investigations, 
we find a strong station. The station may very properly lend its 
assistance in strengthening the influence and work of the educational 
agencies established for the farmers' benefit, but it fails to fulfill its 
real mission when it resolves itself into a bureau of information or 
devotes a large share of its energies to the compilation of popular 
treatises on agriculture. It is gratifying to observe that the original 
investigations at our stations are increasing in number and improving 
in quality. In some places, however, there is still need of decided 
changes in policy and work. 

WORK OF THE OFFICE. 

In connection with its supervision of the expenditures of the experi- 
ment stations, representatives of this Office have visited the stations 



48 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

in all the States and Territories. During the year the Office issued 
43 documents, among which were included the ninth volume of the 
Experiment Station Record, 12 bulletins, and' 7 Farmers' Bulletins. 
The review of the literature of agricultural science in the Experiment 
Station Record has been made more complete than heretofore, and 
embraces all the countries in which agricultural investigations are 
conducted. No such comprehensive survey of this field of scientific 
research is made elsewhere. With the aid of the Record our inves- 
tigators are kept well informed regarding the progress of agricultural 
science throughout the world. 

In accordance with my instructions, the Office has systematically 
engaged in the preparation of popular resumes of the work of the 
experiment stations for publication as Farmers' Bulletins. Several 
of the bulletins have been issued and are grouped together in a sub- 
series denominated Experiment Station Work. Each of these bulle- 
tins contains a number of short articles, summarizing the results of 
recent investigations in different lines, and explanations of the tech- 
nical terms necessarily employed in describing the results of investi- 
gations. As stated in a prefatory note in each number, "the chief 
object of these publications is to disseminate throughout the country 
information regarding experiments at the different experiment sta- 
tions, and thus to acquaint our farmei's in a general way with the 
progress of agricultural investigation on its practical side." One of 
the chief reasons for establishing an Office of Experiment Stations in 
the Department was that it would be able to collate and disseminate 
the information obtained by the individual stations for the benefit of 
farmers throughout the country. It is believed that this new series 
of popular bulletins makes the work of the Office much more effective 
in this direction. Now that the purpose of those bulletins is being 
understood there is a large demand for them. 

The Office has somewhat extended its work in collating and publish- 
ing information regarding the agricultural colleges, and in promoting 
the general interests of their work. It has also continued in charge of 
special agricultural investigations in Alaska and of the researches on 
the food and nutrition of man which the Department is conducting 
in cooperation with colleges and experimental stations. Investiga- 
tions on irrigation, to be carried on in a similar way, have recently 
been intrusted to this Office. 

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 

The past year lias been marked by considerable progress in the 
more complete organization of courses of instruction in agriculture in 
our colleges and universities. The general subject of agriculture is 
being divided in these courses with a view to securing more efficient 
teaching in the several branches. Instead of having one professor of 
agriculture as in the past, a number of our colleges have separate 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 4£ 

chairs of plant production, animal husbandry, and dairying. Depart- 
ments of soil physics with separate laboratories are being established. 
The buildings, apparatus, and other facilities for agricultural educa- 
tion have been materially improved during the year. The improve- 
ment in the equipment and methods of instruction has resulted in 
bringing more and better students into the agricultural colleges. 

The movement for the extension and popularization of'agricultural 
instruction is growing in importance. The short and special courses- 
in the colleges, the farmers' institutes, and the home-reading circle* 
are attracting larger numbers of farmer students. The effort to- 
introduce nature teaching, largely on subjects relating to agriculture, 
is being actively prosecuted in several States. The time seems ripe 
for the introduction of outline courses in the theory and practice of 
agriculture into the secondary schools in or near our rural commu- 
nities in much the same way that business courses are employed in? 
the city high schools. 

There is a growing demand that this Department shall furnish our 
people with information regarding the progress of agricultural educa- 
tion at home and abroad. The necessity for the more careful study 
of the problems of education as related to the progress of our country 
in agriculture, as in the other arts and industries, is being forced home 
upon us by the closer relations of the United States with the rest of 
the world which recent events have done so much to promote. The 
Department of Agriculture, sustaining close relations with the workers- 
on the farms and the educational institutions already established for 
their benefit, might accomplish much more toward the improvement 
and wide extension of agricultural education. I have therefore rec- 
ommended a small increase in the appropriation for the Office of 
Experiment Stations to enable it to extend its work in this direction, 

AGRICULTURAL INVESTIGATIONS IN ALASKA. 

The first appropriation "to enable the Secretary of Agriculture to- 
investigate and report to Congress upon the agricultural resources of 
Alaska, with special reference to the desirability and feasibility of the 
establishment of agricultural experiment stations in said Territory," - 
became available July 1, 1897. The general supervision of the work 
under this appropriation was assigned to the Director of the Office of 
Experiment Stations. Special commissioners were appointed to visit 
the coast and island region of Alaska, and by the courtesy of the 
honorable Secretary of the Interior the superintendent of Government 
schools in Alaska collected information regarding the agricultural 
capabilities of the Yukon Valley. Collections were made of soils and 
of native plants, especially those used for food and forage. Data 
were obtained regarding the general topography, climate, and soils; 
natural and cultivated products and methods of cultivation; stock 
3 A98 4 



50 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

raising; area of arable lands; agricultural difficulties and possibili- 
ties; desirability of experiment stations, and the locations suitable 
for them. 

Specimens of vegetables and small fruits, in no way inferior to those 
grown elsewhere in the United States, were collected in different parts 
of Alaska, and analyses of the grasses which grew very luxuriantly in 
many localities in that region showed them to be fully as nutritious 
as those produced in the most favored agricultural regions of this 
country. The reports of our agents, prepared under the direction of 
the Director of the Office of Experiment Stations, were transmitted to 
Congress last December and were published as Document No. 100 of 
the House of Representatives, Fifty-fifth Congress, second session, 
and afterwards as Bulletin No. 48 of the Office of Experiment Stations. 

In accordance with my recommendation, Congress continued the 
appropriation for work in Alaska during the current liscal year, 
increasing the amount to $10,000. Prof. C. C. Georgeson, a native of 
Denmark, and thoroughly familiar with the conditions of agriculture 
in northern Europe, who had had a long experience as professor of 
agriculture and an experiment-station officer in Japan and Kansas, 
was transferred from the Division of Agrostology to the Office of 
Experiment Stations and made special agent in charge of the Alaska 
investigations. lie has made his headquarters at Sitka, in the vicin- 
ity of which place experimental plantings of seed of over 100 varieties 
of vegetables, grasses, and forage plants have been made. 

Seeds have also been distributed to a number of different localities 
in Alaska, and agreements for cooperative experiments in a number 
of places have also been made. The building of a silo for the prcser- 
vation of native grasses and the feeding of the silage to horses and 
cattle liave been arranged for on a farm in the vicinity of Juneau. 
After careful examination Castle Hill, a lot in Sitka, which a number 
of years ago was set aside as a site for Government buildings, which 
were afterwards located elsewhere, has been reserved by an order of 
the President as a proper place on which to erect a building to servo 
as headquarters for the experiment station and weather service in 
Alaska. About 110 acres of partly cleared land have also been reserved 
in the immediate vicinity of Sitka for experimental purposes. A 
similar reservation has been made on Kadiak Island, and it is pro- 
posed to make a third reservation on the Kenai peninsula. 

The botanist of the Office of Experiment Stations has continued the 
botanical survey of the region in the vicinity of Sitka and Cook Inlet 
begun last year. 

The reports of the officers engaged in the Alaskan investigations 
during the present season have not yet been prepared, but it is 
expected that they will be ready for transmission to Congress early in 
its coming session. Enough has, however, been done to show that it 
is both desirable and feasible to carry on agricultural investigations 



REPORT OF THE SECRET ART. 51 

in Alaska. To accomplish results of any value it will, of course, be 
necessary to plan these investigations to cover a series of years, and 
comparatively little of practical importance can be expected from 
them until they have been in progress for some time. The experi- 
ments and observations made in the field should be supplemented by 
work in the laboratory. No provision has thus far been made for the 
erection of such buildings as will be needed in connection with these 
experimental investigations. It is also very desirable that experi- 
ments with live stock should be undertaken in the near future. The 
appropriation for these investigations should also be made with refer- 
ence to the difficult conditions under which the work must be prose- 
cuted. I therefore urge that the recommendation of the Director of 
the Office of Experiment Stations, that the appropriations for Alaska 
investigations for the ensuing year be the same in amount as that for 
experiment stations in other parts of the United States, be adopted in 
the appropriation bill for the next fiscal year. As it will be very 
desirable to enlarge our experimental operations in Alaska at the 
outset of the season of plant growth, commencing with the spring of 
1899, I hope that the next appropriation for this work will be made 
immediately available. 

NUTRITION INVESTIGATIONS. 

The investigations upon the "nutritive value of various articles 
and commodities used for human food" have been pursued as hitherto, 
in cooperation with agricultural colleges and experiment stations and 
other educational institutions. In this way the Department has 
secured the services of experts and facilities for its work on very 
advantageous terms. There have been many indications that public 
interest in these inquiries is widespread. Special investigations with 
the respiration calorimeter have been made, in which not only the 
nutritive value of the food consumed but also its relation to the heat 
and energy evolved by the human body during periods of rest and 
work have been measured with a completeness and accuracy hitherto 
unknown. These investigations are not only of very high scientific 
importance, but have also already given promise of useful practical 
application. The results of the careful studies of the dietaries of 
people of different occupations, made in connection with the nutrition 
investigations, have been widely republished in this country and 
abroad. 

It is believed that the nutrition investigations of the Department 
have already done much to establish a scientific basis for the courses 
of instruction on the food and nutrition of man, which are rapidly 
increasing in number and importance throughout the country. The 
amount of information which the Department has published in con- 
nection with these investigations has already been relatively large, 



52 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

and the accumulation of unpublished data will make it possible to 
publish a mimber of bulletins on this subject during the present fiscal 
year. 

IRRIGATION INVESTIGATIONS. 

The friends of the development of irrigation as applied in agricul- 
ture in the vast region west of the Missouri River secured from 
Congress at its last session an appropriation of $10,000 for the current 
fiscal year, to be expended under the direction of the Secretary of 
Agriculture "for the purpose of collecting from agricultural colleges, 
agricultural experiment stations, and other sources, including the 
employment of practical agents, valuable information and data on 
the subject of irrigation, and publishing the same in bulletin form." 

With a view to securing economy in the general administration of 
this fund it was decided not to create a separate division for this work. 
As by the terms of the act the work was largely to be done in cooper- 
ation with the agricultural colleges and experiment stations, its gen- 
eral supervision was intrusted to the Director of the Office of Experi- 
ment Stations. Special effort has been made to secure the services of 
experts who have had not only scientific training but also practical 
experience in irrigation as conducted in the great West. With a view 
to formulating plans of work along the most useful lines, a confer- 
ence of experiment station officers and irrigation engineers was held 
at Denver last summer under the direction of the Director of the Office 
of Experiment Stations. The problems of irrigation were earnestly 
and freely discussed at this conference and the needs of the farmer 
for information on irrigation subjects were carefully considered. As 
a result of the expert advice which the Department thus received, it 
has been determined to confine the work on irrigation at present to 
two general lines: (1) The collation and publication of information 
regarding the laws and institutions of the irrigated region in their 
relation to agriculture, and (2) the publication of available informa- 
tion regarding the use of irrigation waters in agriculture, as deter- 
mined by actual experience of farmers and experimental investigations, 
and the encouragement of further investigations in this line by the 
experiment stations. 

Arrangements have already been made for the preparation of sev- 
eral bulletins by competent experts, and it is hoped that during the 
present fiscal year considerable useful information will be published 
and distributed by the Department. It is obvious that the present 
appropriation will enable the Department to go only a little way in 
the accomplishment of the work which is urgently demanded by the 
growing agricultural interests of the irrigated region. I heartily 
concur with the opinion set forth in the report of the Director of the 
Office of Experiment Stations, that Congress should establish a settled 
policy regarding the work of this Department on irrigation, and that 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. _ 53 

if it is deemed wise to continue such work under my direction appro- 
priations should be made which will enable the Department to plan 
irrigation investigations on a comparatively large scale and continue 
them through a series of years. Some of the reasons which seem to 
make it very desirable that investigations on irrigation should be 
systematically pursued by this Department are set forth in the report 
above referred to, and I ask that careful consideration be given to the 
arguments there made in support of this proposition. 

It is clear that a crisis has been reached in the life of the commu- 
nities in which agriculture is dependent upon irrigation for its suc- 
cess. The laws and institutions relating to irrigation, which have 
grown xip in these communities, have in many ways proved so inade- 
quate and unsatisfactory that there is a widespread feeling that 
radical and immediate action is demanded for their reformation. 
Unfortunately, the accurate information on which alone intelligent 
reforms can be based is almost wholly lacking. As the problems 
which confront these communities are, in a general way, the same, 
and in many particulars affect the national as well as local interests, 
it is highly appropriate that the National Government should under- 
take investigations to aid in the solution of the problems of irrigation. 
As many of these problems are directly connected with those in other 
agricultural lines in which this Department and the experiment sta- 
tions are working, it is my judgment that this Department should be 
put in a position to efficiently organize and conduct important inves- 
tigations in this line. 

As already stated, the investigations of the Department may prop- 
erly follow two general lines : First, a careful study should be made 
of the laws and institutions of the irrigated region with special refer- 
ence to their improvement. The objects of this work will be (1) to 
aid courts and administrative officers in the adjudication of claims 
respecting water rights; (2) to bring out the defects in existing laws 
and methods of administration, and to furnish impartial and ade- 
quate information on which wiser and more equitable legislation and 
court decisions may be based ; and, (3) to assist farmers in the acquire- 
ment of water rights and to protect their interests in the appropriation 
and use of water for irrigation. The other branch of work which the 
Department should take up is the carrying on of thorough original 
investigations- along a number of different, lines. The agricultural 
experiment stations in the irrigated regions have already shown the 
way in which such investigations should be conducted. Their means 
have, however, been too limited to enable them to make more than a 
beginning of the work in this direction. 

One fundamental investigation which should be immediately under- 
taken relates to the correct determination of the practice of successful 
farmers in the use of water for irrigation with different soils and 
crops. At present such information is almost wholly lacking. The 



54 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

collation of such information in sufficient amount to warrant the con- 
clusions on which agricultural practices, laws, and judicial and admin- 
istrative proceedings may properly be based is in itself a large task. 
The data thus obtained would be of great value, not only for practical 
purposes, but also as a guide to investigations by the experiment sta- 
tions and other agencies. When once the actual amounts of water 
used by farmers in the irrigated regions have been determined, investi- 
gations should be undertaken to find out what is the minimum of 
water required by different soils and crops, in order that we may know 
to what extent the available water supply of the irrigated region may 
be utilized in the development of its agriculture. There are numerous 
other irrigation investigations which the Department and the experi- 
ment stations might well undertake; such are those which relate to 
the most economical methods for the application of water to crops, the 
utilization of the rainfall as affecting the need for irrigation waters, 
the problems of seepage and drainage, the effect of irrigation water 
on the growth and productivity of plants of different kinds, the pre- 
vention of the accumulation of alkali in the surface soils, and the 
reclamation of the alkali lands. 

L believe that the importance and variety of the work demanded 
in the interests of irrigation in this country will justify a large increase 
in the appropriation for irrigation investigations by the Department. 
I hope that at the coming session of Congress a well-defined policy 
regarding the work of the Department on this subject will be defi- 
nitely adopted. 

DIVISION OF BOTA1TY. 

SHEEP GRAZING IN THE FOREST RESERVES. 

At the request of the Secretary of the Interior, the Botanist of the 
Department was directed early in July, 1897, to proceed to the Cas- 
cade Forest Reserve of Oregon to investigate and report upon the 
effect of sheep grazing on the forests of that region, an agricultural 
investigation for which his long experience in Western botanical 
exploration had well equipped him. The report demonstrates that 
the old system of unrestricted use of the forest lands as a grazing 
common is a public evil and is a menace to other branches of agricul- 
tural and State prosperity. A feasible way of removing this menace 
is conclusively pointed out, and fortunately the method proposed not 
only is not antagonistic to the interests of those engaged in stock 
grazing, but is distinctly favorable to them. The adoption of the 
proposed system gives every promise of contributing materially to the 
solidity of agricultural institutions in the West, more especially to 
the range-stock industry itself. 

CHICORY GROWING, ETC. 

In my last Annual Report attention was called to the fact that the 
United States imports annually at least $8,000,000 worth of minor 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 55 

agricultural products, nearly all of which could undoubtedly be grown 
with profit by the farmers of this country. The first of these crops 
taken up for investigation was chicory. Following the Department's 
support of the chicory-growing industry, which consisted, first, in 
indorsing a tariff of 1 cent per pound on imports of the crude root, and 
secondly, in publishing, after a careful investigation, a full report 
on the methods of chicory growing, the imports of chicory, which in 
the fiscal year 1896 amounted to 16,317,888 pounds, and in 1897 to 
17,329,170 pounds, dropped in the fiscal year 1898 to the astonishing 
total of 315,707 (raw) pounds. Making due allowance for the heavy 
antetariff imports of May and June, 1897, it is clear tliat a very large 
percentage of the chicory consumed in the United States during the 
last fiscal year was grown by American farmers. Not only does this 
result appear from the import statistics just cited, but the Depart- 
ment has direct information of the establishment and successful opera- 
tion of chicory farms in Michigan, Nebraska, and other States. In 
several respects methods of chicory growing as now practiced in the 
United States are superior to the Belgian methods in the substitution 
of horsepower for hand cultivation, the use of superior plows, new 
and much cheaper method of digging the root, and more efficient 
slicing and evaporating machinery. 

Investigations of other miscellaneous agricultural imports of the 
United States are now under way. 

SEED TESTING. 

To the Division of Botany has been intrusted the task of testing all 
the seeds sent out by the Department, not only those of the regular 
departmental distribution, but those imported through the recently 
established Section of Seed and Plant Introduction and those procured 
in other ways for the experimental work of the various Divisions. 
Never before has the Department .distributed seeds of higher purity 
and germinative capacity than during the past year. Furthermore, 
an elaborate series of field tests was made to ascertain whether the 
seeds were really of the varieties stipulated in the contract. It was 
found that in several cases the varieties were wholly at variance with 
the contract, seeds of cheaper varieties having been substituted, pre- 
sumably by the subcontractors. The fact that these varieties were 
not true to name could not, of course, be ascertained for several 
months after the seeds were distributed, but a portion of the purchase 
money was withheld, pending the result of the field tests, and a com- 
mensurate reduction was made in the price paid for the seed. The 
principal beneficial result of this action is expected to lie in its warn- 
ing to future contractors that they will be paid for no inferior seed, 
whether this inferiority is due to themselves or to their subcontractors. 

The seeds purchased in Russia by Prof. N. E. Hansen, special agent 
of the Department, for 'introduction into the United States, upon 



56 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

their receipt in Washington were found to contain a large amount of 
weed seed, in many cases of kinds not yet known in the United States. 
On account of the lack of seed-cleaning machinery in the districts in 
which the seed was purchased it was impossible to get clean seed. 
Every package, therefore, was carefully tested in Washington City 
for purity, and if found to contain weed seeds was carefully cleaned, 
either by machinery or by hand. Furthermore, the seeds when dis- 
tributed were accompanied by a memorandum calling attention to 
the danger from foreign weeds and directing their extermination, 
should any appear. 

GINSENG. 

The efforts of the Department in encouraging the cultivation of 
ginseng have met with gratifying success. An investigation of the 
subject was begun in 1893 and a report issued in the following year. 
At that time the Department announced the cultivation of the root 
as feasible, but could of course give no information as to the manner 
in which cultivated root would be received in the Chinese market. 
During the past four years, however, experimentation in ginseng 
culture has gone steadily on. The cultivated product has been mar- 
keted, and the commercial status of cultivated American ginseng 
established. First-class cultivated roots, dried, have been selling 
during the past year at $5.50 to $6 per pound, slightly in advance of 
the best wild root. The Department, therefore, fully indorses the 
cultivation of American ginseng as an additional resource of the 
American farmer. 

DIVISION OF POMOLOGY. 

WORK DURING THE YEAR. 

The distribution among experimenters, in different sections of the 
country, of trees, scions, cuttings,- plants, vines, and seeds of fruit- 
bearing varieties and species amounted to 200 lots, including 185 
varieties and 26 species. 

In preparing an exhibit of fruit models for the Trans-Mississippi 
International Exhibition at Omaha a plan was adopted by the Division 
which would furnish information to observant visitors as to the 
appearance and varied characteristics of important fruits. The 
exhibit was divided into groups illustrating the principal commercial 
apple grown in the trans-Mississippi region, the varieties adapted to 
dessert and other uses in the same region, Russian and crabs, new 
and small varieties, and specimens of the leading commercial and 
dessert fruits of the United States. 

A special investigation of the fruit districts of the Pacific slope was 
made during the year, and the results will be included in the next 
revision of the Fruit Catalogue, to be issued during the coming fiscal 
year. For this purpose, I appointed Prof. E. J. Wilson, of the 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY. * 57 

University of California, a special agent of this Division for a period of 
six months; also Prof. W. H. Ragan, of Greencastle, Ind., as special 
agent for three months. Professor Ragan is chairman of the com- 
mittee on revision of Catalogue of the American Pomological Society, 
and the appointment was made in recognition of the cooperative 
work undertaken by this Division with the society in the revision of 
this catalogue. 
' Descriptions of 485 fruits were added to the flies, 75 wax models 
were completed, and 200 water colors were made during the year. 

WORK IN PROGRESS. 

An investigation of the present status of the cultivation of the 
European grape in the Southeastern section of the United States is 
being made. This is being done in cooperation with the Section of 
Seed and Plant Introduction, for the purpose of determining the 
advisability of renewed efforts in the introduction and cultivation of 
varieties of Vitis vinifera on resistant stocks in that region. 

Many of the promising fruit-bearing species of foreign countries 
referred to in last year's report will soon be introduced into this coun- 
try for experimental cultivation. 

DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS. 

MEDIUM FOR DIFFUSION OF INFORMATION. 

The Division of Publications is the medium for the djffusion of the 
information acquired by the various Bureaus, Offices, and Divisions of 
the Department. The results of the investigations for the promotion 
of agriculture and the information acquired by the corps of scientists 
and experts are made available through various forms of publica- 
tions, of which 501 were issued during the year, and the total number 
of printed copies amounted to 6,280,365. These publications com- 
prised technical reports and popular bulletins, and circulars on agri- 
cultural and kindred subjects, and they were distributed as promptly 
as our facilities afforded to the very large proportion of our people 
interested in or actually engaged in farming pursuits. Notwithstand- 
ing the large number of copies of publications distributed, they were 
not sufficient to meet the demands; and it is evident that only by an 
increased appropriation will it be possible to place the results of the 
work of this Department in the hands of all who are justly entitled 
to the same. 

It is extremely gratifying to know that a knowledge of the Depart- 
ment and its usefulness is more widely prevalent than at any time in its 
history. This is due in a measure to the great increase in the number 
of small popular pamphlet3 and the wide distribution of them. At 
the same time there has been no retrogression in the scieutiflc and 
technical reports which record the investigations and researches 



58 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

made by our scientists and experts, and afford a permanent record of 
our achievements in the various realms of inquiry. These bulletins 
have been distributed with the greatest possible discretion. As 
regards all the bulletins and reports, the effort has been to place 
them in the hands of the persons who actually need them, and to deny 
the publications to all who apply for them simply to gratify a desire 
to obtain something because it is free. 

THE YEARBOOK. 

An inteiesting feature was added to the Yearbook fo*r 1897, consist- 
ing of a series of 19 papers, aggregating 220 printed pages, prepared 
by the various chiefs of Bureaus, Offices, and Divisions, setting forth 
the work of each in relation to the farmer. The Yearbook also con- 
tained 18 miscellaneous papers on agricultural and kindred subjects, 
besides my preliminary report and the appendix of useful informa- 
tion, aggregating 78G pages. In this connection, I am constrained to 
recommend an increase in the quota of this publication allotted to the 
Department. For several years this allotment has consisted of only 
30,000 copies, which is inadequate to supply the correspondents and 
others who receive no other compensation for the valuable services 
they render the Department, to say nothing of the demands from mis- 
cellaneous applicants, both domestic and foreign. For such purposes 
there should be at least 20,000 copies, making the entire quota of the 
Department 50,000, while Congress might order for the exclusive use 
of its Senators and Members such number as it sees fit, its proportion 
now being 470,000 copies. It is safe to say that the growing popular- 
ity of the Yearbook is due to its improved character and to the 
increased knowledge in regard to it. 

The preparation of the volume for 1898 is already far advanced, 
and for 1899 I am considering the propriety of making a special 
effort to prepare a publication which shall contain a resume of the 
achievements in the United States in every branch of science as 
related to agriculture during the nineteenth century for distri- 
bution at the Paris Exposition. At least 50,000 copies could be 
advantageously distributed, and I have no doubt Congress will vote 
an increased appropriation for such purpose. 

farmers' bulletins. 

The amount expended for printing Farmers' Bulletins during the 
year was 132,756.46, the total number of copies being 2,170,000, of 
which 1,580,000 were distributed upon the order of Senators, Repre- 
sentatives, and Delegates in Congress, the quota of each being 4,000 
copies. Heretofore the quota was 5,000 copies, which was reduced 
because of the insufficiency of the appropriation for these bulletins. 
Requests from Members of Congress for additional copies aggregat- 
ing over 100,000 copies had to be refused, owing to this cause. The 



EEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 59 

growing demand for these bulletins warrants the recommendation 
that adequate funds be made available for their preparation, print- 
ing, and distribution. 

THE DISTRIBUTION OF DOCUMENTS. 

The distribution of the publications of the Department has pro- 
ceeded in accordance with the law of January 12, 1895, occupying the 
time and energies of the considerable force of employees necessary to 
mail, including publications and circulars, more than 7,000,000 docu- 
ments. A special effort has been made to prevent duplication, and 
this precaution has made it possible to supply many deserving persons 
who would otherwise have been deprived of the publications. 

The documents turned over to the Superintendent of Documents 
have met with ready sale, outnumbering those of all the other Depart- 
ments combined, the amount which he realized from such sales being 
$2,089.15. The sum so realized should be made available for reprint- 
ing the publications that become exhausted, thus renewing the supply 
for the benefit of those who are willing to pay the nomyial price affixed. 

AN UNJUST RESTRICTION. 

I feel constrained to again recommend the repeal or alteration of 
the provision of the act providing for the public printing and binding 
and the distribution of public documents, approved January 12, 
1895, which restricts to 1,000 copies in any one year all publications 
exceeding in size 100 octavo pages. Not infrequently a most val- 
uable report is necessarily larger, and the restriction referred to 
prevents its proper dissemination, withholding from many people, 
specially interested, valuable information to which they are entitled. 
It is earnestly hoped that Congress will speedily remove this and 
every other barrier, so as to allow the widest possible diffusion of 
the information acquired by the Department. 

DIVISION" OF STATISTICS. 
INVESTIGATIONS OP THE YEAR. 

The principal work of the Division of Statistics consists of the col- 
lection and publication of information concerning the condition, acre- 
age, and production of the principal products of^the soil, and the 
number, value, and condition of farm animals. / 

Among the subjects which have been investigated by the experts 
of this Division are the consumption of commercial fertilizers, the 
changes in the rate of charge for railway and other transportation 
services, the cost of raising a bale of cotton, the production of sugar 
in the United States, the world's production and consumption of wool, 
and the application of the principle of cooperation to farming or for 
the farmers' benefit. Reports on the two first mentioned have been 
published. The others are in progress. 



60 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

IMPROVEMENT IN CROP REPORTING SYSTEM. 

One of the most important duties devolving upon this Division is 
crop reporting. The Statistician has devoted special attention to the 
subject of improving these reports and organizing a system which shall 
he less cumbersome and more efficient. During the year the number 
of State agents has been increased from twenty to forty-one, and the 
relative increase in the reports received from voluntary reporters, 
both county and township, has been very considerable. The Statis- 
tician earnestly recommends, as a further step in securing efficient 
service and adding to the value of the improvements already secured, 
the appointment of five traveling inspectors, whose duties shall include 
the periodic visitation of State and county agents, and who shall visit 
the principal agricultural regions after seedtime and during critical 
periods of the growing season, and finally, after harvest, reporting 
the results of their observations to the Statistician. In view of the 
value of these reports, it is to be regretted that Congress reduced the 
appropriation for this Division for the current year. 

IMPOSSIBILITY OF ANTICIPATING FINAL OFFICIAL FIGURES. 

For many years charges have been made that certain operators on 
the different produce exchanges have had in their possession, several 
hours in advance of publication, statements relative to the crop 
reports alleged to have been obtained from official sources. In many 
cases the figures closely corresponded with the figures subsequently 
announced by this Department. It was evidently necessary to make 
such allegations impossible, and without reflecting upon anyone of 
the employees of the Division, changes have been made in the han- 
dling of the returns which make it practically impossible for anyone 
to anticipate the final official figures. The fact that since these 
changes were made the discrepancy between the figures claimed to 
have been prematurely obtained and those actually published by the 
Department has been marked is a matter of congratulation, and 
should confirm the falsity of any such allegations in the future. 

INVESTIGATION OF THE CONSUMPTION OF WHEAT. 

Owing to the uncertainty that prevails as to the annual per capita 
consumption of wheat and the difficulty of obtaining absolutely 
reliable information concerning the amount produced from year to 
year, it is proposed to so extend the work of this Division as shall 
enable the Department to speak with a greater degree of confidence 
and authority concerning the much-discussed food problem of the 
United States and the world at large. To this end it is proposed to 
establish a record of movement and supply, which will prove a 
valuable check upon the statistics of production and pave the way for 
an investigation of the consumption of wheat in certain typical 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 61 

communities that would be of the highest statistical and economic 
value. 

In connection with this work the five traveling inspectors already 
recommended could be employed to great advantage. 

CROP-REPORTING SYSTEM FOR NEW TERRITORY. 

The recent acquisition of territory brings under control of the 
United States islands the products of whose soils are so large and of 
such vital importance that adequate provision must be made for the 
establishment of an efficient system of crop reporting in all these 
islands. 

DIVISION OF ACCOUNTS AND DISBURSEMENTS. 
IMPROVED BUSINESS METHODS. 

The regulations governing financial transactions with the Depart- 
ment have been thoroughly revised during the year and made to con- 
form with new and amended laws, as well as with recent rulings of 
the Treasury and the Department of Justice. Thus revised, the regu- 
lations have been published and supplied to persons interested. 

The Accounting Officer of the Department has performed an impor- 
tant service during the year by aiding in the formulation of a more 
satisfactory method of public advertising and settlement of accounts 
in that connection, by Avhich uniformity, accuracy, and a permanent 
record of details have been secured and a great saving of money 
effected. In the consideration of such questions he acted in connec- 
tion with a committee of representatives from the Executive Depart- 
ments, with the Chief Clerk of the Treasury as chairman. A better 
form for requests for transportation for persons traveling on Govern- 
ment business was adopted at the same time. Another step in the 
direction of improvement of business methods was the assignment of 
a well-qualified official to the duties of law clerk. 

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES. 

During the year there were received, audited, and paid by the 
Department 15,576 accounts, including supplemental accounts for 
1896 and 1897, as follows: Divisional, 4,658, amounting to $847,621.64; 
Bureau of Animal Industry, 3,606, amounting to $733,901.66; Weather 
Bureau, 7,312, amounting to $830,437.55; and the settlement of these 
accounts required the issuance of 25,593 checks. 

From the appropriations for 1898 the total disbursement through 
the Department prior to July 1, 1898, was $2,245,334.08. There 
remained at that date unpaid bills for that year aggregating $170,000. 
When these shall have been paid there will be a final balance to return 
to the Treasury of nearly $50,000. 



62 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The total amount paid out during the year was $2,411,960.85, which 
includes supplementary payments for 1800 and 1897. The accounts 
for 189G were finally closed and $488,833.58 was covered into the 
Treasury as an unexpended balance. 

During the year $8,071.00 was received from sales of Government 
property and for services, and will go into the Treasury as part of the 
surplus for the year. Of this amount, §4,220.19 is made up of receipts 
from the seacoast telegraph lines and $3,404.01 is from sales of con- 
demned property. 

A perusal of the foregoing review of the operations of the Depart- 
ment during the past fiscal year justifies the statement that the 
record of the year has been one of the most satisfactory growth and 
development. There has been manifested in many ways a wide- 
spread interest in the work of the Department and an appreciation of 
the value of its investigations to the producers of this country. The 
demand for information from the Department has been unprece- 
dented, and covers the greatest variety of agricultural problems. 
Day by day the fact is more and more fully acknowledged that the 
services of the Department to the producer are of the first importance, 
and such as can be rendered to him through no other agency. 

Respectfully submitted. 

James Wilson, 

Secretary. 
Washington, D. C., November 28, 1898. 



SOME TYPES OF AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. 

By A. C. True, Ph. D., 
Director of the Qpee of Experiment Stations. 

In papers in the Yearbooks of the Department for 1894 and 1897 the 
history and general organization of the institutions for agricultural 
education in the United States were outlined, and the general fea- 
tures of the various agencies for the more elementary education of 
the farmer were described. It is now proposed to set forth more defi- 
nitely the chief characteristics of different kinds of institutions in 
which agricultural instruction of college grade is provided. To do 
this in any satisfactory way is by no means a simple matter. The 
colleges of agriculture in the several States and Territories have 
been so fashioned by the conditions of their local environment that 
each of them has developed individual peculiarities of form and life 
to such an extent that classification of them is more or less open to 
objections. It will not do at all, for example, to classify these insti- 
tutions according to the names which they bear. Some which are 
denominated simply agricultural colleges are really institutions of 
quite complex structure, while others in whose title the term "agri- 
cultural" does not appear have thoroughly organized »nd well-attended 
courses in that branch of learning. 

CLASSIFICATION OF THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. 

With this caution we will, however, proceed to do what for the 
purposes of this paper seems quite essential, namely, to divide the 
agricultural colleges according to Jfche, general differences in their 
organization into three classes: (1) Colleges having only courses in 
agriculture; (2) colleges having courses in agriculture along with 
those in a variety of subjects, including, especially, mechanic art's; 
and, (3) colleges (or schools or departments) of agriculture forming a 
part of universities. Or, more briefly and conveniently, the institu- 
tions having collegiate courses in agriculture may be designated as 
(1) agricultural colleges; (2) agricultural and mechanical colleges; 
and, (3) universities. The only institution in this country which is 
simply an agricultural college is the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College. 

Agricultural and mechanical colleges have been organized in Ala- 
bama, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Ken- 
tucky, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, 

63 



64 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, 
Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South. Carolina, South Dakota, 
Texas, Utah, Virginia, and Washington. Separate institutions of this 
class for colored students are maintained under the Morrill Act of 1890 
in Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, and Virginia. The instruction in these institutions has, 
however, very wisely been confined for the most part to courses 
below the college grade. A similar institution, maintained by private 
funds, is the well-known Tuskegee Industrial Institute, in Alabama. 

Colleges of agriculture (or equivalent schools or departments) in 
universities are maintained with the aid of national funds in Arizona, 
Arkansas, California, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, 
Maine, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New York, Ohio, 
Tennessee, Vermont, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. In 
Massachusetts, Harvard University has a school of agriculture known 
as Bussey Institution. 

To bring out the main features of each of the three groups of agri- 
cultural colleges, it seems best to describe briefly a few institutions, 
which may thus serve as types of the rest, and for this purpose insti- 
tutions are selected which are relatively well equipped for agricul- 
tural instruction. 

THE MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

The Massachusetts Agricultural College, which, as has been- stated, 
is the only exclusively agricultural college in the United States, is 
located on a farm of about 400 acres at Amherst, Mass. , in one of the 
most beautiful localities in the picturesque valley of the Connecticut 
River. It is in a region where public and private schools of all grades 
are numerous and thoroughly organized. The neighboring colleges 
"are Amherst and Williams for men and Smith and Mount Holyoke for 
women. The mechanical and other branches of industrial education, 
exclusive of agriculture, are provided for in the State by the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology at Boston and the Worcester Poly- 
technic Institute, both strong and high-grade institutions.* The 
Massachusetts Agricultural College has an annual income of about 
$45,000, one-half of which is derived from the United States and the 
other from the State. In addition to this the college receives about 
$30,000 annually for the maintenance of an agricultural experiment 
station, nearly ' equally divided between national and State funds. 
Two-thirds of the land-grant fund of 18G2 and of the annual appro- 
priation made to Massachusetts by Congress under the Morrill Act 
of 1800 are -given to this college, the remaining third going to the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1897 the college had per- 
manent endowment funds aggregating $360,000, and its buildings, 
farms, and equipment were valued at about $315,000. The college 
buildings include combined dormitory and class-room building, chapel 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 1898 



Plate I. 



























S 






ydf 




1 

1 
f 










i 


rii 






■ 




r 


w 







Fig. 1. -Library and Chapel Building, Massachusetts Agricultural College 




Fig. 2.— College Barn, Massachusetts Agricultural College. 



Yearbook u S. Oept of Agriculture, 1898 



Plate II. 




Fiq. 1.— Machine Shop, Michigan State Agricultural College. 




Fig 2. — Printing Office, Kansas State Agricultural College. 



Yearbook U. S. Oept. of Agriculture, 1898 



Plate III. 




Fig. 1. — Main Building and Morf.ll Hall. Iowa State College of Agriculture 
and Mechanic Arts. 




Fig. 2. -Engineering Building, Pennsylvania State College. 



SOME TYPES OF AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. 65 

and library (PI. I, fig. 1), laboratory for chemistry and physics, ento- 
mological laboratory with insectary, botanic laboratory and museum, 
drill hall, dormitory, president's house, several residences for profes- 
sors, farm house, boarding house, horticultural plant houses, and 
barn, including creamery and dairy laboratory. Two buildings for 
the use of the veterinary department are being erected. The experi- 
ment station also has a chemical laboratory, botanical laboratory 
with plant house, and barns. On the farm 150 acres are under culti- 
vation with a variety of field crops, and the extensive college barn 
(PI. I, fig. 2) is stocked with 100 head of cattle and equipped with the 
most improved agricultural implements and machinery. The horti- 
cultural grounds cover 100 acres, with orchards, vineyards, small fruit 
and vegetable plantations, and groves of forest trees. Much atten- 
tion is given to floriculture and landscape gardening, and the ample 
plant houses are well stocked with numerous varieties of exotics. 
Some 80 acres are devoted to the work of the experiment station, 
including numerous plat experiments with varieties of field and horti- 
cultural plants, fertilizers, methods of culture, etc.; feeding experi- 
ments with animals; soil investigations, etc. The laboratories of the 
different scientific departments are well equipped Avith apparatus for 
experimentation and demonstration and with illustrative material, 
such as specimens of plants, insects, animals, and machines, particu- 
larly those of importance in their relation to agriculture. The library 
of 18,000 volumes has been carefully collected with reference to the 
needs of an agricultural college, and is thoroughly catalogued and 
managed with a view to providing the students every facility for 
obtaining the information they desire to gather from books. It is 
one of the most extensive and valuable collections of books on the 
science and practice of agriculture to be found in this country. The 
instruction is given by a corps of 18 professors and assistants. 
The chairs include chemistry, botany, agriculture, horticulture, 
zoology, veterinary science, mental and political science, English - 
and Latin, modern languages, mathematics and civil engineering, 
and military science and tactics. There is also a lecturer on farm 
law. In 1897 there were 132 students in attendance, of whom 8 
were in post-graduate courses. During the thirty years of its 
active life the college has given instruction to about 1,100 men, of 
whom almost one-half have graduated. Of the living graduates, 
some 350 are engaged in agricultural pursuits. The student is re- 
quired to follow a definitely prescribed curriculum during three years, 
and in the fourth and last year of the course he is allowed wide lati- 
tude of choice among numerous specialties, English and military 
science being the only required studies. In freshman year the fol- 
lowing subjects are included in the course: Agriculture, botany, 
chemistry, algebra, geometry, bookkeeping, English, French, military 
tactics, and mechanical drawing; in sophomore year, agriculture, 
3 A98 5 



66 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

horticulture, botany, chemistry, anatomy and physiology, trigonom- 
etry, surveying, English, and mechanical drawing; in junior year, 
agriculture, horticulture, chemistry, zoology, entomology, physics, 
English (including rhetoric and literature); in senior year, together 
with the required English and military science, at least three elective 
studies must be taken, which may be selected from the following: 
Agriculture, botany, chemistry, entomology, veterinary science, civil 
engineering, analytical geometry, calculus, English, German, Latin, 
political economy, history, and farm law. Eleven short winter 
courses are also offered, the instruction in which is elementary -and 
practical. The college has hitherto, been open to men only, but 
women may now attend special elective courses in such branches as 
botany, entomology, floriculture, fruit ctilture, market gardening, and 
dairying. 

On the completion of the four years' course students receive the 
degree of Bachelor of Science, "the diploma being signed by the 
governor of Massachusetts, who is president of the corporation." 
The college is so affiliated with Boston University that upon gradua- 
tion the students may also receive the diploma of that institution. 
Post-graduate courses leading to the degree of Master of Science are 
also offered. 

Candidates for admission must be at least 16 years old, and are 
required to pass examinations in English grammar, geography, United 
States history, physiology, physical geography, arithmetic, the metric 
system, algebra (through quadratics), geometry (two books), and civil 
government. 

The students, as a rule, room in the college dormitories and are 
boarded in clubs or private families. The expenses for room rent, 
board, fuel, washing, and military suit for the college year are esti- 
mated to range from $150 to $300. For residents of Massachusetts, 
scholarships covering tuition have been established for each of the 
thirteen Congressional districts of the State, together with 80 scholar- 
ships divided among the State senatorial districts and awarded on 
the basis of competitive examinations. Five thousand dollars are 
provided by the State to pay students performing labor at the college, 
and there are small endowment funds for the assistance of needy 
students. Small money prizes are also given for excellence in decla- 
mation, oratory, agriculture, botany, and military science and tac- 
tics. The undergraduates conduct a 16-page biweekly journal, 
known as Aggie Life, and publish a college annual called the Index. 
They also maintain a natural history society, reading room associa- 
tion, "Kollege Kemical Klub," and four secret societies. There are 
glee and banjo clubs, a general athletic association, and special asso- 
ciations for football, baseball, polo, and tennis. The moral and reli- 
gious interests of the students are cared for by a requirement to 
attend prayers every week day and public worship every Sunday in 



SOME TYPES OF AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. 67 

tho eollogo chapel, and by tho work of a Young Men's Christian 
Association. 

Tho college is under the general management of a board of 14 
trustees appointed by the governor in such a way that their terms 
of office expire in different years, together with i ex-offlcio members, 
the governor (president of tho board), tho president of the college, 
I he secretary of tho State board of education, and the secretary of 
the State board of agriculture. The board of agriculture also acts 
as a board of overseers for tho college. 

THE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGES. 

The agricultural and mechanical colleges have such different organi- 
zations that no one institution will servo a3 a typo of them all. In 
many respects their facilities for instruction in agriculture are simi- 
lar to those already described as belonging to tho Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College. In speaking of these colleges we shall therefore 
omit some of the details given for that institution, and state only the 
chief distinguishing features of several of the colleges of the second 
class, in which there are considerable numbers of students pursuing 
agricultural courses. 

MICHIGAN* STATK AfiRIOULTURAIj COIXEGE. 

The Michigan State Agricultural College if" the oldest agricultural 
college in this country, having been established by an act of the State 
legislature passed February 12, 1855, and opened for students May 13, 
1857. For more than thirty years it was like tho Massachusetts col- 
lege in having only an agricultural course, but after tho passage by 
Congress of tho Morrill Act of 1890, which gave tho college a mate- 
rially increased income, a mechanical course Avas added, and later a 
woman's course. The laws of tho State under which the college is 
organized prescribe that it shall be a "high seminary of learning in 
which the graduate of the common school can commence, pursue, and 
finish a course of study terminating in thorough theoretic and prac- 
tical instruction in those sciences and arts which bear directly upon 
agriculture and kindred industrial pursuits." Students are admitted 
at 15 years of age, and are examined in reading, spelling, penman- 
ship, grammar, geography, arithmetic, and history of the United 
States. They may also be admitted on a certificate from approved 
graded schools or on a teacher's certificate. There are preparatory 
classes for students unable to meet these requirements. The regular 
college courses cover four years, and lead to the degree of Bachelor 
of Science. Tho course in agriculture is arranged as follows: Fresh- 
man year, algebra, English, military drill, botany, agriculture, black- 
smithing, carpenter work, drawing, physics, chemistry, geometry; 
sophomore year, chemistry, anatomy, military science and drill, Eng- 
lish, geometry, physics, agriculture, physiology, botany, veterinary 



68 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

science, entomology, horticulture, trigonometry, and surveying; 
junior year, military drill, English, history, agriculture, horticulture, 
fungous diseases of plants, rhetoric, agricultural chemistry, English 
literature, civics, forestry, botany, together with special elective 
courses in agriculture or horticulture; senior year, bacteriology, 
constitutional history, economic zoology, meteorology, physics, vet- 
erinary science, engineering, English literature, geology, psychology, 
entomology, logic, political economy, together with special electives 
in agriculture or horticulture, and in some other branches, including 
French and German. There are also short winter courses of six 
weeks in dairy husbandry, live-stock husbandry, fruit culture and 
floriculture, and winter vegetable gardening. A farm home reading 
circle is conducted by the college. Provision is made for post- 
graduate studies leading to the degrees of Master of Science, 
Mechanical Engineer, and Master of Agriculture. The Michigan 
college has well-equipped laboratories in botany, physies, chemistry, 
agriculture, horticulture, and zoology, which are very largely used 
in connection with the course in agriculture. There are in addition 
laboratories and shops for the courses in civil engineering and 
mechanic arts. (See PI. II, flg. 1.) The library contains over 20,000 
volumes. 

The college land, comprising G7C acres-, is divided into the farm of 
230 acres, devoted to field crops grown under a system of rotation, 45 
acres of woodland pasture, 114 acres of very attractive lawns, gar- 
dens, and orchards, 240 acres of forest, and 47 acres of experimental 
fields and plats. The farm is equipped with cattle, sheep, and swine 
of the principal breeds. There is an arboretum of 150 species of 
trees, a botanic garden containing some 1,200 species of native and 
foreign hardy herbaceous plants with some shrubs, a grass garden 
of 200 species of grasses and clovers, and a weed garden of 100 or 
more species of the most troublesome weeds. The students in agri- 
culture are required to work two and one-half hours a day on the 
farm or garden. 

The students for the most part room in dormitories and board in 
clubs. The average annual expenses of students for board , room rent, 
heat, light, books, laboratory, and other fees are estimated at about 
$125. These expenses are oftentimes reduced by.receipts from labor 
performed on the farm or elsewhere about the college. 

The college is under the management of the State board of agricul- 
ture of which the governor and the president of the college are mem- 
bers ex officio. There are somewhat over 30 professors and assistants 
in the faculty. In addition to the chairs provided, by the Massachu- 
setts college, there are in the Michigan college professors of mechanical 
engineering and domestic economy and household science. In 1897 
the Michigan college reported 211 students in agricultural courses 
out of a total attendance of 425. 



SOME TYPES OP AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. 69 

MISSISSIPPI AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 

The Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College is similar to 
the Michigan Agricultural College in providing separate courses in 
agriculture and mechanic arts, in having the same general require- 
ments for the admission of students, and in offering preparatory 
courses. It differs from the Michigan college in not admitting women 
or persons of the negro race. The State, however, has made provision 
for colored students in the Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege. The courses in agriculture give especial attention to the crops 
and methods of farming peculiar to the Southern States. As is com- 
mon in the South, the college has a more strictly military organization 
and discipline than pertain to institutions of this class in the North 
and West. The expenses of the students average about the same as 
at the Michigan college. Student labor in the field or garden is paid 
for at the rate of 8 cents per hour, and in this way students may 
reduce their expenses to $100 per annum. The college is under the 
general management of a board of 9 trustees, and the governor of 
the State is a member ex officio. The faculty comprises 22 members. 
In 1897, 316 students out of a total of 368 were reported as pursuing 
courses»in agriculture. 

KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

The Kansas State Agricultural College was first established in 1863, 
and has been maintained in its present location at Manhattan, Kans., 
since 1875. The State has generously supplemented the United States 
grants by the erection of substantial buildings, including a main 
building, chemical laboratory, mechanics hall, horticultural hall, 
armory and entomological hall, library and agricultural science hall, 
domestic science hall, horticultural laboratory with six propagating 
houses, farm and horticultural barns, and other buildings, valued at 
over $350,000. The college farm comprises over 300 acres, and is well 
equipped with live stock. The faculty includes 45 professors and 
assistants, and over 800 students were in attendance last year. Stu- 
dents of both sexes are admitted at 14 years of age after passing 
an examination in reading, spelling, writing, arithmetic, geography, 
English grammar, and United States history. Candidates are also 
admitted without examination on presenting satisfactory diplomas 
or certificates from county or city superintendents. Preparatory 
classes are provided "for those over 18 years of age who have not 
been able to make their preparation in the common schools." Four- 
year courses are offered as follows: Agricultural, engineering, general 
and household economics. " Closely adjusted to the course of study 
is industrial training in several of the arts, to which each student is 
required to devote at least one hour a day throughout almost his entire 
course. Among the lines of training each student may select, with 
the approval of the faculty,*except in terms when special industrials 



70 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

are required. Young men may have farming, gardening, fruit grow- 
ing, woodwork, ironwork, or printing. Young women may take cooking, 
sewing, printing, floriculture, or music. The training in these depart- 
ments is designed to be systematic and complete in each, so that a 
student following a single line diligently through the four years' 
course gains the essentials of a trade and a reasonable degree of skill. 
Those who wish only a general training in the arts can take shorter 
courses in several of them." 

There is also a dairy course of twelve weeks, and apprentice courses 
in blacksinithing, foundry and machine-shop practice, printing (see 
PL II, fig. 2), and sewing, which run from forty to eighty weeks. 
Opportunities are offered for graduate study, and original investiga- 
tions in a number of agricultural lines are carried on at the experi- 
ment station connected with the college. Tuition is free, and the 
annual expenses of students range from $100 to $200. Considerable 
work is furnished to students at 10 cents per hour. Besides a weekly 
paper edited by the students, the college publishes a journal called 
the Industrialist, which is edited by the faculty. Both these publi- 
cations are printed at the college. 

IOWA STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND MECHANIC ARTS. 

The Iowa Stato College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts was 
established under an act of the State legislature passed in 1858, but 
was not opened to students until March 17, 1869. The college has in 
recent years enjoyed a large measure of prosperity and has been 
broadened and made stronger in a number of ways. It has fifteen 
college buildings erected by the State at a cost of about $500,000, 
including a main dormitory and class-room building (with botanical 
laboratory), two smaller dormitories, Margaret Hall for women (includ- 
ing a dining room for all the students), chemical and physical hall, 
veterinary hospital, sanitary hall, engineering hall, wood shops, power 
house (with facilities for mechanical and electrical engineering), 
music hall, administration building, Morrill Hall (containing chapel, 
library, museum, lecture rooms, and laboratories of natural history 
and geology, PL HI, fig. 1), agricultural hall, and greenhouse. There 
are also ten dwelling houses for professors and other employees, a 
creamery, barns, stables, seed houses, etc. The college lands com- 
prise about 900 acres, of which 120 acres are set apart for college 
grounds, and with their gardens, trees, and shrubs constitute a large 
and beautiful park. "The farm consists of rolling prairies, bottom, 
and woodland, and is stocked with good representatives of five breeds 
of horses, six breeds of cattle, seven breeds of sheep, and six breeds 
of hogs. These animals are used in class illustrations and for the 
various experiments in breeding and feeding for milk, meat, wool, 
growth, and maintenance, conducted by the experiment station as a 
department of the college. All the crops of the farm are grown for 



SOME TYPES OF AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. 71 

some educational purpose ; all the animals are fed by rule and system 
and the results of their management reported upon and used in class 
work. (See PI. IV, fig. 1.) Labor is not compulsory, but students in 
the agricultural courses are given work that is educational and 
parallel with their studies. Some students pay for their board by 
work in the mornings and evenings." Especial emphasis is at present 
laid on instruction in dairying. (PI. IV, fig. 2.) There is a practical 
working creamery and cheese factory in operation throughout the 
year. " During the summer season from 15,000 to 25,000 pounds of 
milk are taken in daily and manufactured into butter and cheese ; 
during the winter somewhat less." Experiments in dairying are 
always in progress and different kinds of improved machinery are 
tested in practical operations. In 1897 the number of professors and 
assistants in the faculty Was reported as 55, and the number of 
students (men and women) as 573. Eight courses of study leading to 
a bachelor's degree are offered, as follows : Agriculture, veterinary 
science, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineer- 
ing, mining engineering, science, woman's course. These cover four 
years, except the course in veterinary seienee, which is of three years' 
duration. There is also a two-year course in agriculture, a one-year 
course in dairying, and summer and winter schools in dairying. The 
subjects taught in the four years' agricultural course correspond in a 
general way with those in similar courses in Michigan and Massachu- 
setts. During freshman and sophomore years the student pursues a 
prescribed curriculum, but during junior and senior years he is 
offered a considerable number of electives. In senior year the sub- 
jects of instruction are so grouped that the student may give much 
attention to general agriculture or he may specialize in animal hus- 
bandry, dairying, or horticulture. 

Students are admitted to the college courses at 16 years of age, after 
passing an examination in spelling, English grammar, geography, 
arithmetic, United States history, physiology, and (except. in veteri- 
nary and agricultural courses) algebra through simple equations. 
The requirements for admission will be somewhat increased after the 
present year. Students are also admitted on certificate from a select 
number of high schools and academies. Preparatory classes are con- 
ducted during the last half of each college year. 

The Iowa college represents those institutions whose development 
has been along broad lines and in which the agricultural course, main- 
tained side by side with a number of courses in the arts and sciences, 
is being more thoroughly organized and specialized in accordance with 
the general advance movement in education along industrial lines. 

PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE. 

The Pennsylvania State College was begun as a "Farmers' High 
School " in 1859, became "The Agricultural College of Pennsylvania" 



72 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

in 1802, and with the broadening of its scope has been known by its 
present name since 1874. It now offers thirteen four-year courses, 
grouped as follows : (1) Classical course; (2) general courses, includ- 
ing general science, Latin-scientific, philosophy; (3) technical 
courses, including agriculture, biology, chemistry, civil engineering, 
electrical engineering, mathematics, mechanical engineering, mining 
engineering, and physics. The classical course leads to the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts, the other courses to the degree of Bachelor of 
Scienee. The requirements for admission to scientific and industrial 
courses differ from those of the Latin-scientific and classical courses, 
and include arithmetic (with the metric system), English classics, 
United States history, algebra (through quadratics and progression), 
plane geometry (five books), and physics (elements). It will be seen 
that these requirements are higher than those of the institutions 
thus far mentioned. In fact, the Pennsylvania college is being 
developed into a high-grade technical, scientific, and classical college. 
It is well equipped with buildings, laboratories, workshops, appa- 
ratus, farm and live stock, and other facilities for its work. (See PI. 
Ill, fig. 2.) Its faculty numbers 50 prof essors and assistants, and the 
number of students, increasing with the strengthening of its courses 
of instruction and its equipment, has reached 350. Both sexes are 
admitted. While devoting its main attention to the work of the 
regular college classes, the Pennsylvania college reaches down and up 
in its efforts to meet the special needs of students desiring to avail 
themselves of its facilities for education. For those who are so situ- 
ated that they can not gain the. necessary qualification for admission 
in the public schools of the State, the college provides preparatory 
classes. In agriculture, besides the thorough four years' course, 
there is a special course of one year and short winter courses in agri- 
culture, creamery work, cheese making, and private dairying. Much 
attention has been given to the organization of correspondence courses 
in agricultural subjects, and five distinct, courses of this character are 
now offered, as follows: Crop production, live-stock production, hor- 
ticulture, dairying, and domestic economy. Provision is made for 
advanced courses leading to the degrees of Civil Engineer, Mechanical 
Engineer, Engineer of Mines, Electrical Engineer, and Master of 
Science. Original investigations in agriculture are being systemat- 
ically pursued by the agricultural experiment station, which here, as 
in the other institutions of this class, is organized as a depai'tment of 
the college. 

ALABAMA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE. 

An institution organized in much the same way as the Pennsylva- 
nia State College is the State Agricultural and Mechanical College of 
Alabama, or, as it has more recently been denominated, the Alabama 
Polytechnic Institute. This institution offers four-year courses in 



SOME TYPES OF AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. 73 

chemistry (PI. V, fig. 1) and agriculture, civil engineering, electrical 
and mechanical engineering, and pharmacy, together with a " general 
course," the scope of which would be more definitely indicated by the 
term Latin-scientific. The requirements for admission for men are 
not so high as in Pennsylvania, including only geography, English, 
arithmetic, algebra to quadratics, and United States history. While 
men are admitted at 15 j^ears of age, women are excluded until they 
are 17 years old, and are required to pass examinations in English " 
grammar and rhetoric, United States and general history, arithmetic, 
algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and Latin. There are preparatory 
classes and two-year courses in agriculture and mechanic arts. Post- 
graduate courses lead to the degrees of Master of Science, Mining 
Engineer, Civil Engineer, Electrical and Mechanical Engineer, and 
Pharmaceutical Chemist. In 1897 the faculty Of this institution num- 
bered 31 professors and assistants, and the number of students was 
361, of whom 112 were in agricultural courses. 

COMMON FEATURES OF AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGES. 

The general conditions of student life in the agricultural and 
mechanical colleges are much alike. For general culture and recrea- 
tion there are literary societies, student periodicals or annuals, music 
clubs, and athletic organizations. The moral and religious life is 
promoted through services on week days and Sundays in the college 
chapel and through the work of voluntary organizations, especially 
the Young Men's Christian Association. In many ways the students 
keep in close touch with the common life of the communities in which 
the colleges are located. The general atmosphere of these institutions 
tends to keep the students in sympathy with whatever promotes the 
advancement of American arts and industries. Agriculture has an 
honorable place in these colleges, and the strengthening of the agricul- 
tural courses tends to bring into them a more earnest and successful 
class of students. Through their experiment stations, short courses, 
home reading circles, and lectures at farmers' meetings these institu- 
tions are also doing much to diffuse useful information among the 
farmers: In their organization it will be seen that they vary consider- 
ably, ranging from institutions in which agriculture and one or two 
branches of the mechanic arts receive almost exclusive attention to 
those which approximate the State universities in the variety of sub- 
jects in which courses are offered. In general, it may be said that the 
present tendency is to make these colleges schools of technology (or 
polytechnic institutes) in which there shall be a great variety of tech- 
nical and scientific subjects taught in direct relation to their applica- 
tion to many arts and industries and with special reference to the bet- 
terment of our industrial organization and life. This is in accordance 
with the general trend of educational movements in our day, which, in 



74 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

harmony with the expansion in variety and the concentration in effort 
of our industrial and social life, are seeking to adapt courses of instruc- 
tion to the varied needs of the modern man and at the same time to 
secure economy in equipment and teaching force by combining related 
courses of instruction in single institutions. 

STATE UNIVERSITIES HAVING COURSES IN AGRICULTURE. ' 

Another phase of this movement is presented by the third class of 
institutions in which college courses in agriculture are maintained, 
and the remainder of this paper will be devoted to a brief consideration 
of the State universities having agricultural schools or departments. 

CORNELL UNIVERSITY. 

In this class of institutions Cornell University, in the State of New 
York, is preeminent as regards the resources at its command for educa- 
tion and research. This institution was incorporated by the State 
legislature April 27, 1865, and opened to students October 7, 1868. 
" The existence of the university is due to the combined wisdom and 
bounty of the United States, the State of New York, and Ezra Cor- 
nell." The oft-quoted words of the founder of this great university 
have done much to inspire the establishment of similar institutions in 
many of our States: "I would found an. institution where any per- 
son can find instruction in any study." In 1897 Cornell University 
reported that its endowment funds, buildings, and equipment were 
valued at more than $9,500,000, of which $688,572 belonged to the 
land-grant funds of 1862, and that its income for that year was 
$576,154.82, of which $70,087.24 was derived from the United States. 
There were 220 professors and assistants in the faculty, and the num- 
ber of students was 1,868, of whom 127 were pursuing courses in 
agriculture. The university is divided into graduate and academic , 
departments, and colleges of law, civil engineering, mechanical engi- 
neering, and mechanic arts, architecture, agriculture, veterinary medi- 
cine, and forestry. All of these are amply equipped with buildings, 
laboratories, apparatus, and museum collections, and the students 
enjoy the privileges of the university library of 200,000 volumes. 

The college of agriculture comprises the departments of general 
agriculture, animal industry and dairy husbandry, horticulture and 
pomology, agricultural chemistry, general and economic entomology, 
the agricultural experiment station, and university extension work in 
agriculture. One hundred and twenty-five acres of arable land are 
used as the college farm, which is well stocked with dairy cows, sheep, 
horses, pigs, and poultry. The dairy building (PI. V, fig. 2), erected 
in 1893, is fully equipped with modern machinery and appliances for 
butter and cheese making. Ten acres are devoted to the gardens, 
orchards, and nurseries of the horticultural department, which also 



SOME TYPES OF AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. 75 

has eight forcing houses, covering about G,000 square feet of ground, 
and a museum containing a large garden herbarium and an extensive 
collection of photographs. 

Candidates for admission must be at least 1G years old, and pass 
examinations in English, geography, physiology and hygiene, history 
of the United States and England, Greece or Rome, plain geometry, 
elementary algebra, and at least two of the following subjects : Greek, 
Latin, French, German, and advanced mathematics. The four years' 
course in agriculture "is designed to afford an education as broad 
and liberal as that given by other departments of the university, and 
leads to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture." A large 
number of electives are open to the students in agriculture, especially 
during junior and senior years. Besides those of the college of agri- 
culture, the following departments give instruction to students in this 
course : Botany, free-hand drawing, physics, political economy, physi- 
ology, vertebrate zoology, hygiene, mathematics, French, German, 
military drill and gymnasium, geology, veterinary science, civil engi- 
neering, and mechanical engineering. There are special courses and 
winter courses in agriculture and dairy husbandry for those who can 
not take the four years' course. The college of agriculture is also 
actively engaged in introducing nature studies into the public schools 
of the State, as described in the Yearbook for 1897 (p. 286). The 
university affords many opportunities for graduate study in agricul- 
ture, horticulture, and allied sciences. Tuition is free to students 
pursuing agricultural courses. The yearly expenses of students are 
estimated to be from $300 to $500. 

OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY. 

West of the Alleghenies the idea that the State is the proper agency 
for the maintenance of broad institutions for higher education, which 
shall thus be the crown of the public-school system, has taken a strong 
hold upon the public mind during recent years. There has, therefore, 
been a rapid increase in the number of students attending the State 
universities, and the equipment of these institutions has been greatly 
enlarged. A representative university of this kind in the eastern 
part of this region is the Ohio State University at Columbus, Ohio, 
which in 1897 reported a total attendance of* 1,019 students; 78 pro- 
fessors and assistants in its faculties; endowment funds, buildings 
and equipment aggregating nearly $3,000,000 in value, and an income 
of $349,000. 

The university is briefly described in its publications as "simply 
the thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth grades of the State 
system of public, free education. It is related to the high schools 
just as they are related to the grades, and it ought to be quite as 
natural for a pupil to look forward from the high school to the 
university as from the eighth grade to the high school." Its aim is 



76 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

"to give to the young men and young women of Ohio the largest pos- 
sible opportunity for both general and special training, to prepare 
them for life, and to touch in a practical and helpful way every 
interest of this 'State." The university is divided into six colleges, 
agriculture and domestic science; arts, philosophy, and science; engi- 
neering; law; pharmacy, and veterinary medicine. 

In the college of agriculture and domestic science four-year courses 
are offered in agriculture, horticulture and forestiy, and domestic 
science ; two-year courses in agriculture and domestic science, and a 
short course in dairying. There are also opportunities for graduate 
study. Candidates for admission to the four-year courses must be 16 
years old and pass examination in arithmetic, elementary algebra, 
English grammar and rhetoric, plane geometry, geography, United 
States history, physics, botany, and either civil government or gen- 
eral history. Graduates of accredited high schools are, however, 
admitted without examination. Tuition is free. The average annual 
expenses are estimated to be $250. "Students room and board where 
they please." 

The university has a well-stocked farm of 200 acres and is otherwise 
well equipped for agricultural instruction. The State has recently 
added several fine buildings to the equipment of the university. 
Among these is Townshend Hall, erected at a cost of about $100,000, 
for the use of the department of agriculture. A brief description of 
this building may serve to show something of the latest stage of 
the development of facilities for agricultural instruction in a State 
university. 

Townshend Hall (PI. VI, fig. 1) is built of cut stone and gray 
pressed brick, with terra cotta trimmings, tile roof, interior brick walls, 
expressed beams, maple floors, and hard-pine finish. In the dairy 
department, which has about 6,000 square feet of floor space, the floors 
are of tile and the walls wainscoted with enameled brick. The build- 
ing is 260 feet long and varies in width from 64 to 78 feet. It has 
two stories and a basement. 

"On the left of the entrance, which is 28 feet wide, is the office of 
the department of agriculture and a private office, a stenographer's 
room, and fireproof vault. Connected with the office on the south is 
an assistant's room, opening into a laboratory for advanced students. 
At the extreme south end of this floor is a large laboratory for student 
work in soils and farm crops. Connected with this laboratory is a 
balance room, a storeroom, and an instructor's laboratory. On the 
west side of the main corridor and connected with the instructor's 
room, is a large class room opening into a preparation room with a 
dark room. This class room is fitted with all appliances for showing 
lantern slides of live stock, buildings, machinery, etc. On the same 
side of the corridor and on the right of the stairway leading to the 
basement and second floor are the class room and instructor's room 



SOME TYPES OP AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. 77 

for dairying. On the right of the main entrance is the department 
reading room. The north end of this floor is occupied by the museum 
(which is 54 by 67 feet), with an attendant's room. The north end of 
the high basement is occupied by the dairy department. This con- 
sists of receiving room, pasteurizing room, storeroom, refrigerator 
room, lavatory, butter-making room, cheese-making room, two cheese- 
curing rooms, and instructor's room. 

"In the south end of this floor is a live-stock room about 40 feet 
square. One-third of this room is occupied by raised seats, the 
remaining floor space being used for exhibiting and judging live stock. 
Connected with this is a room fitted with stalls for the temporary 
accommodation of live stock when needed for class exercises. The 
basement also contains soil-storage room, bath room, toilet rooms, 
repair shop, locker rooms, bicycle room, and janitor's room. A small 
detached building will furnish steam and power for the dairy depart- 
ment. Detached from the main building, but connected with the 
soil-storage room by a tramway, is a glass house 30 by 40 feet for the 
study of soils and the experimental growth of plants. 

"The north end of the second story contains a large student 
laboratory for the department of agricultural chemistry, connected 
with an organic analysis laboratory, a balance room, a storeroom, 
and a private laboratory. The lecture room of this department, with 
a preparation room adjoining, is at the south end of this floor and 
will seat 160 students on raised seats. 

"There is also on this floor a class room connected with preparation 
room, storeroom, and instructor's room which will be used temporarily 
by the department of veterinary medicine. There is also an extra 
class room, ladies' toilet and locker rooms, and a hall for the use of 
the Townshend Society, designed to seat about 200 persons." 

UNIVERSITY OF WISCpNSIN. 

The University of Wisconsin is "picturesquely situated at Madi- 
son," the State capital, on the shore of Lake Mendota, and is sup- 
ported "partly by the income of Federal grants, partly by taxation 
of the people of the State, and partly by private gifts. " It has received 
the benefit of no less than five Federal grants and six permanent 
grants from the State in addition to appropriations for buildings and 
other specific purposes. In 1897 the total value of its endowment 
funds, buildings, and equipment was reported to be $2,057,000, the 
faculties included 130 professors and assistants, and the number of 
students was 1,767. The university is divided into four colleges, let- 
ters and science, mechanics and engineering, agriculture, and law, 
and two schools, pharmacy and music. The college of agriculture 
embraces (1) the experiment station; (2) the graduate course; (3) 
the long (four-year) agricultural course; (4) the short agricultural 
course; (5) the dairy course; and, (6) the farmers' institutes. In this 



78 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

institution the division of the subject of agriculture into special sub- 
jects with different teachers has been pushed to a considerable extent. 
There are professors of agriculture, animal husbandry, and dairy- 
husbandry, and instructors in cheese making, milk testing, butter 
working, separating of milk, pasteurizing, farm dairying, greenhouse 
practice, and stock judging. There are also separate chairs of agri- 
cultural physics and bacteriology. Especial attention has been given 
to providing facilities for research and instruction in agricultural 
physics and dairying. 

The horticulture-physics building (PI. VI, fig. 2), completed in 1896, 
is three stories in height and has a frontage of 78 feet by 60 feet in depth. 
"At the rear are glass houses covering a space of 88 by 75 feet. The 
right wing of the building, with its greenhouses, is devoted to plant 
life and horticulture. The left wing, with its large glass house, is 
devoted to instruction and investigation in the physics and mechanics 
of the farm." The course in agricultural physics includes meteor- 
ology, drainage, irrigation (PI. VII, fig. 1), road building, construction 
of farm buildings, soil physics, and original investigations in the 
physical laboratory and field. 

Hiram Smith Hall, a building with a frontage of 95 feet by 48 feet 
in depth and three stories in height is devoted entirely to dairying. 
" It contains an office, lecture room, reading room, dairy laboratory, 
and rooms devoted to creamery practice, cheese making, farm dairy- 
ing, pasteurizing, cheese curing, etc." The student here has an 
opportunity to observe and take part in all the operations of farm 
and commercial dairying conducted with the most approved machinery 
and by the methods which have been found most successful in recent 
years. The course in dairying includes (1) lectures and class-room 
work under eight different professors and specialists, embracing the 
chemistry and bacteriology of milk and its products, breeding, selec- 
tion, feeding, and management of dairy stock, heating, ventilation, 
and other physical problems connected with dairy practice, care and 
management of the boiler and engine, creamery management, and 
accounts; (2) milk testing or the estimation of the fat in milk, butter, 
and cheese by methods adapted to the factory and factory operatives; 
(3) butter making on the creamery plan, including the use of power cen- 
trifugal separators, the ripening of the cream, churning and packing 
butter, and, in general, practical work in all the operations of a mod- 
ern creamery; (4) cheese making, including instruction in all the regu- 
lar factory operations involved in the manufacture of Cheddar cheese. 
There are also opportunities for advanced studies in the chemistry 
and bacteriology of dairying and experimental investigations in 
butter and cheese making. 

In Wisconsin the farmers' institutes are organized and conducted 
as a part of the university courses in agriculture. They are under 
the immediate charge of a superintendent who is an officer of the 



SOME TYPES OP AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. 79 

college of agriculture. Members of the agricultural faculty assist in 
the institutes as far as their other duties will permit. Experts in dif- 
ferent branches of agricultural science and practice from Wisconsin 
and other States are employed to give instruction on special topics. 
Above sixty institutes are held annually, and a selected portion of 
the material presented at the institutes is published -each year in 
bulletin form in an edition of 60,000 copies, 8,000 of which are placed 
in the school district libraries of the State. 

UNIVKRSITY OP CALIFORNIA. 

On the Pacific coast the University of California has played an 
important part in the agricultural development of that great region. 
This work has been very largely accomplished through the extensive 
and varied researches of the agricultural experiment station, which 
for more than a score of years has pursued its labors as a department 
of the university. In recent years it has become in a large way the 
policy of the State to concentrate the management of its agencies for 
the improvement of agriculture, horticulture, and forestry in the 
State university. Naturally in a State whose agriculture is so young 
and so flourishing comparatively few students have been found to 
pursue regular college courses in agriculture. The university has, 
however, provided ample facilities and thorough instruction for such 
students as have been qualified to undertake college work in this 
department. The requirements for admission to the four years' 
course in agriculture are English, algebra, geometry, civil govern- 
ment, physics, Latin or French or German, and two of the following 
subjects: Advanced mathematics, chemistry, botany, and zoology. 
"In the college of agriculture (PL VII, fig. 2) about two-thirds of the 
course is prescribed in preliminary, liberal, and technical studies. 
The remainder is distributed among free eleetives and electives con- 
sisting of agriculture and cognate studies. " The university comprises 
the following departments of instruction: (1) At Berkeley, colleges 
of letters, social sciences, natural sciences, agriculture, mechanics, 
mining, civil engineering, and chemistry ; (2) at Mount Hamilton, the 
Lick Observatory; (3) at San Francisco, the institute of art, college 
of law, two medical departments, colleges of dentistry and of phar- 
macy, and veterinary department. In 1897 the colleges at Berkeley 
reported faculties numbering 149 professors and assistants, and stu- 
dents numbering 1,498 men and women. The permanent endow- 
ments, buildings, and equipment were valued at $4,879,857 and the 
annual income was $326,212. 

GENERAL STATUS OF AGRICULTURE IJf STATE UNIVERSITIES. 

In the universities in which courses in agriculture are maintained, 
it may be said in general that the tendency is to make the regular 
college courses in agriculture correspond in scope and thoroughness 
with those given in the other departments, to divide the instruction. 



80 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

in agriculture among an increasing number of specialists, and to pro- 
vide buildings, apparatus, and illustrative material on a scale com- 
mensurate with those in other branches. At the same time there is 
increased effort to bring the university into close touch with the masses 
of farmers through special schools, farmers' institutes, nature teach- 
ing, and other forms of university extension work. Along with this 
is the deepening and strengthening of the scientific and practical 
researches carried on with a view to widening our knowledge of the 
facts, laws, and processes required for the improvement of agriculture. 
In a word, each year the universities are seeing more clearly that 
agriculture is an important human interest, rightfully claiming the 
best efforts of the most thoroughly trained minds for its advancement, 
and that on the basis of agriculture may be built a system of instruc- 
tion in language, literature, mathematics, science, and technology 
which shall be well adapted to produce scholars, investigators, and 
leaders in industrial progress. 

SOME FEATURES OP STUDENT LIFE IN STATE UNIVERSITIES. 

The limits of this paper forbid more than a brief reference to the 
more general features of student life in the State universities. These 
do not differ materially, however, from what are found throughout 
the length and breadth of our land wherever college students are 
congregated. There is the same enthusiastic, and, in some respects, 
extravagant, devotion to athletics; there are the musical, literary, and 
social societies with more or less of clannishness and secrecy; there 
are the college papers and annuals in which some serious journalistic 
work is done, and in which humor and wit are more frequently 
attempted than realized. As these institutions are under the patron- 
age of the State, there is less formal attention to the externals of 
religion, but in all of them there are stated religious observances 
and nourishing voluntary religious organizations. More and more 
the students are made subject to the moral and religious influences 
which pervade our best American communities, and in their college 
life are judged by the same moral standards as are men and women 
throughout the country. 

In general, it may be said that the 30,000 young men and women 
pursuing courses of instruction in the land-grant institutions of the 
United States are, as a rule, leading earnest and serious lives, doing 
much severe mental work, enjoying the sports and social recreations 
of college life to the full, and preparing for careers of usefulness and 
leadership in the multitudinous occupations of our complex civiliza- 
tion. Our agriculture is every year feeling more fully the influence 
of the trained mind, and it is not easy to measure the benefits which 
may come to this branch of human activity when instruction and 
research shall have reached their full development in the institutions 
which have so rapidly been put in working order during the past 
quarter of a century. 



Yearbook U S. Dept. of Agriculture, 18 



Plate IV. 




Fig. 1. -Class scoring Pigs, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic 

Arts. 




Fig. 2.-Dairy Bacteriology Room, Iowa State College of Agriculture and 

Mechanic Arts. 



Yearbook U. S Dept. of Agriculture, 1898. 



Plate V. 




Fig. 1. Chemical Laboratory, Alabama Polytechnic Institute. 




Pig 2— Dairy Building, Cornell University, New York. 



Yearhonk U. S. Dept. ot Agriculture, 1898. 



Plate VI. 




TrTyfTFF 

Frrjiii n ] [be 



Fiq. 1.-Townshenc Hall, Ohio State University. 



/, 



f z 





Fig. 2.-Horticultural-Physics Building, University of Wisconsin. 



Yearbook U S. Dept of Agriculture, 1898. 



Plate VII. 









Fig. 1.-A Lesson in Irrigation in Hort'CULTural-Physics Building, University 

of Wisconsin. 





Vi 



Fig. 2. -Agricultural Hall, University of California. 



NEW WORK IN THE WEATHER BUREAU. 

By Willis L. Moore, 
Chief of Weather Bureau. 

During the past year the work of the Weather Bureau of the 
Department of Agriculture has been considerably expanded. The 
most important new lines of work have been as follows : 

(1) Additional stations of observation in the arid and subarid West 
and in the principal cotton-producing regions of the South. 

(2) The establishing of seventeen aerial meteorological stations. 

(3) The inauguration of a tentative West Indian daily cablegraphic 
meteorological service. 

THE ADDITIONAL STATIONS IN THE WEST AND SOUTH. 

For several years it has been apparent that there was a lack of 
meteorological stations in the ltocky Mountain region; that the, places 
of observation were so widely scattered as to render it possible to 
secure only an imperfect survey of the distribution of temperature 
and pressure, which conditions are so essential to the making of 
accurate forecasts, not only for that region, but for the extensive 
area lying farther east. Therefore, under an appropriation specific- 
ally made on the recommendation of the Secretary of Agriculture, 
stations have been established at Kalispell, Mont.; Boise, Idaho; 
Mount Tamalpais, Cal. ; Flagstaff, Ariz., and Cedar City, Utah. Addi- 
tional stations have also been established at Fort Worth, Tex. ; Merid- 
ian, Miss. ; Macon, Ga. ; Lexington, Ky. ; Elkins, W. Va. ; Evansville, 
Ind., and Escanaba, Mich., and a climate and crop service is being 
established in the Territory of Alaska, with headquarters at Sitka. 

It is known that the cold waves which cause frost in the fruit dis- 
tricts of California are due to high-pressure areas drifting southward 
from the Canadian Northwest Territories along the Rocky Mountain 
plateau, and that when these large masses of dry, clear air become 
central over Utah or Nevada, notwithstanding the fact that the whole 
eddy-like system is slowly moving. southeastward, they push out from 
their centers a low layer of frosty air, which flows westward over the 
Sierra Nevada range into the interior basin of California. The exten- 
sive fruit industry of California will materially profit by the establish- 
ment of the first few of the additional stations above named, as these 
will enable the Bureau more accurately to measure the development 
and drift of the air conditions which at times become so destructive 
in California. Already the frost and rain warnings of the Bureau 
have, in the j udgment of the raisin and other fruit growers themselves, 
been worth millions of dollars annually. 

3 a98 6 81 



82 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The stations recently established will not only assist in the develop- 
ment of the agricultural and industrial interests of the States in which 
they are respectively located, but they will be of material benefit in 
improving the weather warnings and forecasts for the regions lying 
both east and west of the Rocky Mountain plateau. 

The section director of the climate and crop service of Wyoming, in 
cooperation with a special agent of the Office of Experiment Stations 
of the Department of Agriculture, has been directed to make a careful 
study of the precipitation at voluntary stations in mountain regions, 
with a view to determining the amount of snowfall at high levels. 
He has been directed to secure as many additional voluntary observers 
as possible, and, wherever the reports are especially desirable, to 
arrange for paid observers. It is desired to know if a uniform ratio 
exists between precipitation at moderate levels and precipitation on 
high mountain ranges. It is true that the amount of snowfall deter- 
mines in a great measure the volume of water available for the pur- 
pose of irrigation during the crop-growing season. If the ratio between 
mountain snowfall and the precipitation at lower levels be always the 
same, it will, of course, be possible to determine the amount of snow 
by the precipitation measured at our many stations on low levels; but 
if the ratio be not constant, it is apparent that accurate measurements 
of precipitation should be made along the elevated zone that supplies 
the streams in summer. From this and similar investigations, it may 
be possible to make a fairly accurate estimate of the volume of water 
to be expected during each growing season. The subject is one that 
requires careful investigation, so that faulty conelusionsbe not reached. 

Recently a tentative station was established on top of Mount Tamal- 
pais, California. This peak rises abruptly to a height of 2,600 feet 
above sea level, at the entrance of San Francisco harbor. Observations 
at this level are, in most cases, above the fog common to this vicinity 
during a considerable portion of each year. They show some sur- 
prising results. Out of the fifteen eases in which rain fell in the 
interior valley of California, fourteen were preceded twelve to twenty- 
four hours by strong westerly gales at the mountain station, and as a 
rule marked changes of temperature east of the coastal and Sierra 
Nevada ranges were preceded many hours by changes at the top of 
the mountain; hence, it is deemed advisable to establish a perma- 
nent meteorological station on Mount Tamalpais. An observatory is 
now being erected which will be continuously occupied by trained 
observers. It is hoped that, as a result of these observations, the 
Bureau will be able to materially improve the character of its service 
in the region contiguous to San Francisco. 

THE NEW AERIAL STATIONS. 

About three years ago the development of the kite along mechani- 
cal lines was undertaken by the Weather Bureau. An artisan and a 
skilled mechanical engineer were assigned to this important duty. 



NEW WORK IN THE WEATHER BUREAU. 83 

They were also charged with the construction of an automatic mete- 
orological instrument which would register pressure, temperature, 
wind velocity, and humidity, and yet not be too heavy to be carried 
by kites. They have succeeded fairly well in these undertakings, and 
to-day the Bureau constructs kites which, with favorable wind move- 
ment, will fly to a height of from 1 to 2 miles. The automatic mete- 
orograph, for securing a registration of the air conditions at high 
levels, weighs but 2 pounds and 2 ounces. 

During the past summer aerial stations have been established at 
the following cities: Washington, D. C. ; Knoxville, Tenn.; Memphis, 
Tenn. ; Cincinnati, Ohio; Lansing, Mich.; Saulte Ste. Marie, Mich.; 
Duluth, Minn.; Dubuque, Iowa; Omaha, Nebr. ; North Platte, Nebr. ; 
Pierre, S. Dak. ; Dodge City, Kans. ; Topeka, Kans. ; Fort Smith, Ark. ; 
Cairo, 111.; Springfield, 111., and Cleveland, Ohio. 

At these stations daily observations at heights ranging from 1,000 
to 7,000 feet are regularly secured, and a considerable amount of 
meteorological data collected which will be used in the study of 
important meteorological problems. This is the first time in the his- 
tory of meteorological science that such an extensive system of obser- 
vations has been maintained at great altitudes in free air. It is 
hoped that a considerable addition to our knowledge of storms and 
weather will result. By these observations we shall, among other 
things, arrive at a more correct knowledge of the vertical distribu- 
tion of temperature during the passage of rain storms and cold waves. 
This knowledge is especially important in our efforts to secure a more 
accurate system of reducing barometric readings to sea level. 

The vertical distribution of pressure and temperature and the hori- 
zontal gradients of pressure and temperature at some considerable 
elevation above the surface of the earth are important information 
for the use of our forecasters in making accurate storm warnings. It 
is yet to be determined whether or not a sufficient number of flights 
to high levels can be secured simultaneously at many stations to 
justify the use of the kite in taking observations to be used in mak- 
ing daily maps and forecasts. This can not be determined until a 
thorough test is made during actual atmospheric conditions in the late 
fall, winter, and early spring. 

THE INAUGURATION OF A TENTATIVE WEST INDIAN CABLEGRAPHIC 

SERVICE. 

A study of a long series of international observations and of obser- 
vations taken on shipboard has rendered it possible to accurately 
determine the region of formation of the storms known in this country 
as West Indian hurricanes. These are the most destructive storms 
that approach our continent. The successful warning of one storm 
may be worth several millions of dollars to the marine interests of the 
United States. At the time when our Navy was maneuvering in the 
West Indies, it became especially important that every advantage 



84 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

known to meteorological science be made use of for the purpose of 
forewarning our fleet against disaster from storms. This was the 
motive that induced Congress to place at the disposal of the President 
of the United States $75,000, to be expended in initiating and 
maintaining a complete West Indian weather service. However, the 
great commerce of this region is alone sufficient to justify this country 
in maintaining such a service permanently for the benefit of our 
ocean navigators. 

Some years ago Mr. Maxwell Hall, of Kingston, Jamaica, an ener- 
getic English scientist, journeyed to England for the purpose of 
inducing his Government to assist him in establishing such a service 
as the United States now has in operation. 

For several years past the Weather Bureau has received meteoro- 
logical reports during a part of the year from native observers at 
Havana, Kingston, St. Thomas, and Santiago. These observations, 
although so widely scattered as to give but an imperfect survey of 
the atmospheric conditions, were often sufficient to enable the Weather 
Bureau to detect, the early approach of hurricanes and to warn the 
commerce of our South Atlantic coast; but the information received 
from these stations was insufficient to enable the Bureau to give 
warnings to the ports of the West Indies. 

Acting under the President's directions, the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture instructed the Chief of the Weather Bureau to install complete 
meteorological stations at such places in Cuba, Jamaica, Santo 
Domingo, St. Thomas, St. Kitts, the Windward Islands, and the 
north coast of South America as would enable the Bureau to fully 
forewarn the commerce of this extensive region of the coming of hur- 
ricanes. The Secretary's order was that the vessels of all nations 
should receive the benefit of the information precisely as they have 
ir our own ports for many years past. 

In accordance with the foregoing directions the Weather Bureau 
inaugurated such a service. Early in July, for the first time in the 
history of practical meteorology, a daily synoptic chart of the West 
Indies was constructed. Since that time such a chart has been com- 
piled twice daily. The area covered by these observations is equal 
to that of the United States, although the greater part of the region 
is covered by water, and the stations are not, therefore, placed as 
close together as might be desired. 

In the benefits derived from extending the Weather Bureau system 
to the West Indies the commerce of all countries shares equally with 
that of the United States. While others have stood back and waited 
for a more progressive nation and a more feasible opportunity, the 
United States, spurred on by the necessities of war, extended to this 
vast region one of the most beneficent services that science is able to 
render the mariner. 

The new service soon had opportunity to demonstrate its utility. 



NEW WORK IN THE WEATHER BUREAU. 85 

The approach of the hurricane which created such destruction in the 
Windward Islands on Sunday night, September 11, 1898, was dis- 
cerned on the previous day. At 8 a. m. on Saturday morning obser- 
vations on the islands of Martinique and Trinidad gave slight indi- 
cations of a disturbance southeast of the Windward Islands. At 
12.40 p. in. a special observation taken at Barbados indicated a fall 
of nearly one-tenth of an inch in the barometer during the preceding 
two hours. This movement of the barometer at Barbados, taken in 
connection with the atmospheric survey of the whole West Indies, 
made four hours previous, satisfied the forecast officer that a hurri- 
cane would soon develop over the Windward Islands, although to the 
nonexpert there were no indications of a coming storm. 

Hurricane warnings were immediately dispatched to all ports in the 
islands of Barbados, Martinique, St. Thomas, and St. Kitts, and they 
were advised to prepare for a destructive storm. They were informed 
that the hurricane would move from a point south of Barbados, and 
that it would travel slowly northwesterly, with wind increasing to a 
hurricane velocity. Cable communication was perfect, and the warn- 
ings were promptly received. Advisory messages were sent to Colon, 
Curacao, Santo Domingo, Trinidad, and Santiago. A message was also 
sent to Admiral Watson's fleet, lying in the harbor of Caimanera, 
Cuba. 

How completely these warnings were verified by the coming of the 
storm twenty-four hours hence was shown by the press dispatches a 
few„days later. While the destruction of life and property was great, 
there is no question but that hundreds, if not thousands, of lives and 
millions of property were saved by reason of the complete warnings 
given by the United States. These warnings were of benefit to the 
commerce of all nations. Aside from the saving in human life, they 
have, from a financial and commercial standpoint, fully justified the 
President in asking for the necessary appropriation and in personally 
directing the inauguration of a complete and efficient meteorological 
service. 

LOSS OF FARM PROPERTY BY LIGHTNING. 

In order to determine the frequency of lightning stroke and the 
amount of property that is destroyed annually by that agency, the 
Weather Bureau has undertaken to collect, through the cooperation 
of ageBrts and adjusters of farmers' mutual insurance associations 
and many private persons, statistics of loss to farm property, includ- 
ing live stock in the fields. The data so collected will, in the course 
of time, afford means of determining an equitable rate on lightning 
risks. 

The impression that there has been a perceptible increase in the 
number of storms and of fatalities by lightning stroke within a com- 
paratively short period is more or less prevalent in some States, and 



86 



YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 



this view is also held by insurance companies which include lightning 
risks in their business. The statistics that have been adduced thus 
far in support of the hypothetical increase are far from convincing. 
It might easily happen that a short term of years taken at random 
would show a much greater number of cases of lightning stroke than 
a corresponding number of years at some other time. In order to 
arrive at a satisfactory conclusion as to the relative frequency of 
lightning stroke in the various States and Territories it will be nec- 
essary to collect observations for at least twenty years. It will also 
be necessary to secure accurate returns of the number of insured 
buildings in the several States and Territories for each year covered 
by the statistics of damage by lightning stroke. 

There is undoubtedly a very great variation in the number of destruc- 
tive lightning strokes from one year to another. A single illustration 
is given in the subjoined table, the values of which have been com- 
piled from the annual reports of the commissioner of insurance for 
Michigan. The number of lightning strokes given in the table does 
not by any means represent the total number of cases of damage that 
occurred in that State during the years mentioned. There must have 
been many cases of damage by lightning not covered by insurance, 
all of which are necessarily omitted from the table. 



Property loss in Michigan by lightning. 



Year. 


Number of 
cases. 


Loss. 


Year. 


Number of 
cases. 


Loss. 


1883 


348 
No record. 
332 
305 
208 
255 
102 


$38,466 


1890 


540 

No record. 

No record. 

No record. 

697 

316 

1,509 


$58,086 


1884 


1S91 


1885 


43,916 
42,745 
22,201 
28,129 
21,745 


1892 




1886 


1893 




1887 


1894 . 


76,423 
37,563 
143,841 


1888 


1895 


1889 


1896 







THE DANGER OF INTRODUCING NOXIOUS ANIMALS 

AND BIRDS. 

By T. S. Palmer, 
Assistant Chief of Biological Survey. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Acclimatization of plants and animals has attracted attention in 
all parts of the world. Useful or curious species have been intro- 
duced from one country to another with varying degrees of success; 
some have failed while others have become acclimated, and occa- 
sionally have increased to such an extent as to usurp the places of 
native species. In comparing the results of the introduction of 
plants and of animals, the important difference between these two 
classes of experiments should not be lost sight of. Plants, on the one 
hand, are introduced almost without exception for purposes of cultiva- 
tion, and are therefore kept somewhat under control. Occasionally, 
under favorable conditions, they " escape " and increase so rapidly that 
they become troublesome weeds. Chicory and wild garlic of th« 
Eastern States and the water hyacinth of Florida are familiar exam- 
ples of weeds originally introduced as useful or ornamental plants. 
Animals, on the contrary, unless intended for pets or for exhibition 
in menageries or zoological gardens, are seldom kept in captivity, 
but are liberated and allowed to live as nearly as possible under nat- 
ural conditions. Only the strongest and hardiest species survive, 
and in adapting themselves to new surroundings necessarily cause 
some change in the existing fauna. If prolific, they are likely to 
become abundant in a short time; if they crowd out indigenous spe- 
cies, they are regarded as nuisances. Hence, it is sometimes said that 
acclimatization of animals has produced far less satisfactory results 
than that of plants, but the comparison is made between the relatively 
small number of animals, birds, and insects purposely imported and 
allowed to run wild and a long list of useful and ornamental plants 
carefully kept under cultivation. 

MEANS OF DISPERSAL. 

Animals are transported from one country to another or to distant 
islands either by accident or by the direct agency of man. Horses, 
cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs, and eats are now almost cosmopolitan, 
but they owe their wide distribution entirely to man, who has carried 
them with him to all parts of the earth. Accidental distribution is 

87 



88 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

much less common in the case of mammals and birds than among the 
smaller plants and insects, and species which have gained a foothold 
in distant kinds have almost always been intentionally introduced. 

Certain small mammals have, however, accidentally found their way 
in vessels from one port to another. Two or three species of rats 
and the house mouse of Europe have thus become widely dispersed 
over the globe. Fruit vessels plying between ports of the United 
States and Central or South America occasionally bring snakes, 
small mammals, and insects in bunches of bananas. In November, 
1895, a Central American mouse, of the genus Oryzomys, concealed in 
a bunch of bananas shipped from Puerto Limon, Costa Rica, was cap- 
tured alive in a commission house in Washington, D. C. A young 
murine opossum from tropical America was discovered in a bunch of 
bananas at Ames, Iowa, during the summer of 1882, and was kept 
alive for some time. If such cases were frequent, it can be readily 
seen how a species might gain a foothold in new regions, provided 
the conditions were favorable for its increase. 

During the last fifteen or twenty years Bering Island, one of the 
Commander group in Bering Sea, has been overrun with the com- 
mon Siberian red-backed mouse (Evotomys rutilus). This species 
was formerly unknown on the islands, but has been introduced since 
1870, probably in firewood brought from Kamchatka. Within ten 
years it spread all over the island from the beaches to the mountains 
in the interior. It occurs both in the swamps and on the sand dunes, 
and has become a pest in the huts of the natives; In 1889 it was still 
confined to Bering Island, but will probably reach Copper Island in 
time. 

DOMESTICATED SPECIES MAY BECOME NOXIOUS. 

Domesticated animals, like cultivated plants, may run wild and 
become so abundant as to be extremely injurious. Wild horses are 
said to have become so numerous in some parts of Australia that they 
consume the feed needed for sheep and other animals, and hunters are 
employed to shoot them. In some of the Western States they have 
also become a nuisance, and in Nevada a law was passed in 1897 per- 
mitting wild horses to be shot. Recent reports from Washington 
indicate that cayuses are considered of so little value that they are 
killed and used for bait in poisoning wolves and coyotes. 

Pigs have run wild in some of the Southern States and also on cer- 
tain islands, where, as on the Galapagos, they were originally intro- 
duced to furnish food for crews of vessels in need of fresh meat. 
According to Dr. Finsch, 1 they were introduced into New Zealand by 
Captain Cook about 1770, and soon becoming wild, increased to a 
remarkable degree. A century later wild pigs were so abundant in 
the flax thickets of the province of Taranaki, on the North Island, 

1 Globus, LXIX, 1896, Nr. 2. 



DANGER OF INTRODUCING NOXIOUS ANIMAL'S AND BIRDS. 89 

that a hunter could shoot fifty in a single day. Dr. Finsch also cites 
a case mentioned by Hochstetter in which 25,000 wild pigs were said 
to have been killed by three hunters in less than two years. 

Sheep and goats when numerous are likely to cause widespread 
injury, particularly in forested regions. An instructive example of 
the damage done by goats is that on St. Helena, described by Wallace. 1 
St. Helena is a mountainous island scarcely 50 square miles in extent, 
and its highest summits reach an elevation of 2,700 feet. At the time 
of its discovery, about the beginning of the sixteenth century, it is 
said to have been covered by a dense forest; to-day it is described as 
a comparatively barren rocky desert. This change has been largely 
brought about by goats first introduced by the Portuguese in 1513, and 
which multiplied so fast that in seventy-five years they existed by 
thousands. Browsing on the young trees and shrubs, they rapidly 
brought about the destruction of the vegetation which protected the 
steep slopes. "With the disappearance of the undergrowth, began the 
washing of the soil by tropical rains and the destruction of the forests. 
In 1709 the governor reported that the timber was rapidly disappear- 
ing and that the goats should be destroyed if the forests were to be 
preserved. This advice was not heeded, and only a century later, in 
1810, another governor reported the total destruction of the forests 
by the goats, and in consequence an expense of $13,600 (£2,729) in 
one year for the importation of fuel for Government use. 

The Santa Barbara Islands, off the coast of southern California, and 
the island of Guadalupe, off the Lower California coast, are utilized 
as ranges for goats. All these islands are dry and more or less covered 
with brush, but arborescent vegetation is comparatively scarce. The 
goats practically run wild, and already exist in considerable numbers. 
On Santa Catalina, one of the Santa Barbara group, wild-goat hunting 
is one of the diversions afforded tourists, and is considered one of the 
principal attractions of this popular summer resort. As yet the goats 
have not been on the islands long enough to cause any serious effects 
on the vegetation, and they may never bring about the ruin which has 
been wrought on St. Helena. But it is scarcely possible for the islands 
to be grazed by goats for an indefinite length of time without suffering 
serious damage. 

House cats are often greater pests than commonly supposed. 
When numerous about the suburbs of cities and towns, they are 
apt to forage for a living either from necessity or choice, and their 
food is by no means confined to rats and mice. They are constantly 
on the watch for birds, but it is impossible even to estimate how 
many they destroy. It is certain, however, that in some places the 
decrease in native birds is largely due to their presence. Where 
cats have run wild on isolated islands, their work can be more readily 
appreciated. On Sable Island, off the coast of Nova Scotia, they were 

'Island Life, 1880, pp. 283-286. 



90 yearbook' of the department of agriculture. 

introduced about 1880 and rapidly exterminated the rabbits, which 
had been in possession of the island for half a century. In one of the 
harbors of Kerguelen Island, southeast of the Cape of Good Hope, cats 
were allowed to run wild upon a little islet known as Cat Island, which 
has been used as a wintering place for sealers for many years. Here 
they live in holes in the ground, preying upon sea birds and their 
young, and are said to have developed such extraordinary ferocity 
that it is almost impossible to tame them even when captured young. 
Dr. W. L. Abbott states that on Aldabra, about 200 miles northwest of 
Madagascar, cats are common on the main island, and have com- 
pletely exterminated the flightless rail (Sougetius diddbranus), an 
interesting bird, peculiar to this group of islands. They are also 
numerous on Glorioso Island, 120 miles to the southeast, and in con- 
sequence birds are less common even than on Aldabra. 1 

The Chatham Islands, 500 miles east of New Zealand, wera 
colonized about fifty years ago; cats, dogs, and pigs were introduced, 
and the native birds, represented by fifty-five species, including 
thirteen not found elsewhere, have since greatly decreased in num- 
bers. Two of the most interesting birds are land rails of the genus 
Cabalus. Dr. Dieffenbach, naturalist of the New Zealand Company, 
who visited the islands in 1840, states that one of these rails { Cabalus 
diefferibacJii), called by the natives "meriki," was formerly com- 
mon, but since the introduction of cats and dogs it has become very 
scarce. It is now probably extinct, and the closely related species 
C. modesius will doubtless soon suffer a similar fate, since the islet of 
Mangare, to which it is confined, has recently been invaded by cats. 2 

SOURCES OF DANGER FROM NOXIOUS • SPECIES. 

The animals and birds which have thus far become most trouble- 
some when introduced into foreign lands are nearly all natives of 
the Old World. The mammals belong to three orders: (1) Eodents, 
including rats of two or three species, the house mouse, and rabbit 
of western Asia or southern Europe; (2) Carnivores, represented by 
the stoat, weasel, and common house cat of Europe, and the mon- 
goose of India; (3) Cheiroptera, represented by large fruit-eating bats 
or flying foxes of Australia and the Malay Archipelago- Flying foxes 
have not yet been actually introduced, but are likely to be carried to 
different islands in the Pacific, and are dangerous because of their 
depredations on fruit. The birds comprise the house sparrow and 
starling of Europe, and the mina of India. Other species, usually 
regarded as beneficial in their native homes, such as the European 
skylark, green linnet, black thrush or blaekbird, and the great tit- 
mouse or kohlmeise, are likely to prove injurious in new surround- 
ings. Most of these species have extended their range from the east 

1 Proc. U. S. Nat. Hns., XVI, 1894, pp. 763, 764. 

2 Forbes, Ibis, 6th ser., V, 1893, pp. 523, 531-533. 



DANGER OF INTRODUCING NOXIOUS ANIMALS AND BIRDS. 91 

toward the west, although the minas have been carried in the opposite 
direction to New Zealand and the Hawaiian Islands, and flying foxes 
are likely to extend northward and eastward. The main danger for the 
United States lies in species native to central and southern Europe 
and western Asia, but tropical species, particularly of India, might 
become acclimated in the Southern States. In order to show how 
these animals and birds have already spread, and the damage they 
have done, it will be necessary to refer briefly to the history of each 
species. 

EATS AND MICE. 

Rats and mico are among the greatest pests with which man has to 
contend, and the annoyance and damage which they occasion are 
beyond computation. They are ubiquitous, abundant alike in the 
largest cities and on the most distant islands of the sea. They have 
not been intentionally introduced anywhere, but have found their 
way by means of vessels to all parts of the earth. Small islands, pop- 
ulated with rats from wrecks, or otherwise, are occasionally overrun 
by these animals. On the island of Aldabra, already mentioned, rats 
fairly swarm, and are very destructive to the gigantic native land 
tortoise, eating the young as soon as they are hatched. Sable Island, 
off the coast of Nova Scotia, has suffered from several plagues of rats, 
and it is said that the first superintendent of the light station and his 
men were at one time threatened with starvation owing to the inroads 
made on their stores by rats. 

The common brown rat. — The common brown rat, known also as the 
wharf rat and Norway rat (Mus decumanus), was originally a native 
of western China, 1 and until two hundred years ago was unknown in 
Europe or America. It is very prolific, producing from four to twelve 
young at a birth several times a year, and has spread so rapidly that 
at the present time it is nearly cosmopolitan. In the autumn of 1727 
large numbers ofbrown rats entered Europe by swimming across the 
Volga, and, gaining a foothold in the province of Astrakan in eastern 
Russia, spread westward over central Europe. Five years later (1732) 
they reached England by vessels from western India. The brown rat 
appeared in east Prussia about 1750, and in Denmark and Switzerland 
in 1809. It reached the eastern coast of the United States about 1775, 
and in 1825, according to Sir John Richardson, had extended as far 
west in Canada as Kingston, Ontario. By 1855 it was abundant at sev- 
eral points on the Pacific coast, including San Francisco, Cal. ; Astoria, 
Oreg., and Steilacoom, Wash., and its range on the west coast now 
extends as far north as Alaska, at Sitka, Kadiak, and even Unalaska. 

1 Blanford (Mammals of India, 1888-1891, p. 409) , who gives Chinese Mongolia as 
its probable original habitat, states that it is not indigenous to India, and is 
unknown in Pe»sia and Afghanistan, but suggests that it will probably be intro- 
duced into the two latter countries as soon as wheeled vehicles take the place of 
pack animals. 



92 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

At the present time it is probably abundant in all the larger cities of 
the United States except in the South, where it is replaced by another, 
species. 

The black, or house, rat. — The black rat, or house rat (Mus rattus), 
was in all probability originally a native of Asia. The time of its 
introduction into Europe is uncertain, but in the middle ages it was 
the common house rat of central Europe. The date of its introduc- 
tion into the New World is placed as early as 15ii, or more than 
two hundred years previous to that of the brown rat. It evidently 
became very generally distributed along the coasts and in the principal 
seaports, and by the middle of the present century was known as far 
north as Halifax and Montreal, Canada, and on the Pacific coast at San 
Diego and Humboldt Bay, California. . Since the introduction of the 
brown rat, the black rat has become comparatively rare in most places 
where the former is abundant. In the Laccadive Islands, in the Indian 
Ocean, the black rat seems to have modified its habits and become 
arboreal. It is said to live in the crowns of the cocoanut trees with- 
out descending to the ground, and to do great damage by biting off 
the nuts, upon which it feeds, before they are ripe. 

The roof, or ivhite-vellied, rat. — The roof rat, or white-bellied rat 
(Mus aleocandrinus), is a native of Egypt, Nubia, and northern 
Africa, and evidently found its way to America by way of Italy and 
Spain at an early date. It probably reached this continent long 
before the brown rat, but the exact date of its arrival is uncertain. 
It is common in Brazil, in some parts of Mexico, and in the southern 
United States, and is known to occur at least as far north as the Dis- 
mal Swamp, in southern Virginia. 

The house mouse. — The well-known house mouse (Mus musculus) 
is readily distinguished from the native white-bellied mice of North 
America by its nearly uniform brownish color above and below. It 
is a native of Europe and central Asia, but now occurs all over the 
world. In the United States it is found from Florida to Maine, and 
from San Diego to the Pribilof Islands. It is not restricted to the 
seaports, as it made its way inland at an early date. Sir John Rich- 
ardson, in 1829, mentions having seen a dead mouse in the store- 
house of the Hudson Bay Company, at York Factory, among packages 
of goods brought over from England, and states that the house mouse 
was introduced at Engineer Cantonment, on the Missouri River, near 
Council Bluffs, Iowa, by Long's Expedition in 1819-20. By 1855 it was 
found at many points in the interior, such as Prairie Mer Rouge, La. ; 
Fort Riley, Kans. ; Fort Pierre, S. Dak.; Fort Redding, Cal., and 
Parras, Coahuila, Mexico. It has even penetrated to such points as 
the Huachuca Mountains in Arizona, where it was introduced about 
1891 in a wagonload of seed grain. It reached Bering Island, one 
of the Commander group off Kamchatka, in 1870, in a cargo of flour 
shipped from San Francisco in the schooner Justus. In the southern 



Ill 

5 



■6 




Mongoose iHerpestes mungo). 



DANGER OF INTRODUCING NOXIOUS ANIMALS AND BIRDS. 93 

hemisphere it occurs at Punta Arenas, Patagonia, and is common in 
such out-of-the-way places as Gough Island, in the middle of the 
South Atlantic, and Kerguelen Island, southeast of the Cape of Good 
Hope. In short, its distribution is apparently limited only by the 
Arctic and Antarctic circles. 

RABBITS. 

The common rabbit of Europe (Lepus cuniculus) was originally 
introduced into Australia for purposes of sport, and the results of the 
experiment are so well known that anything more than a brief refer- 
ence to them is unnecessary. Suffice it to say that the rabbits were 
liberated near Melbourne about 1864, and by 1878 had extended west- 
ward over Victoria and beyond the Murray River. They were also 
introduced into Tasmania and New Zealand, and spread over the 
country like a scourge. So rapidly did they multiply that in 1879 
legislative action for their destruction was begun in South Australia, 
and the example was soon followed by New South Wales, New Zealand, 
Queensland, and Tasmania. At the present time their range in Aus- 
tralia is probably equal in area to that of our three largest States — 
Texas, California, and Montana. Millions of dollars have been spent 
for bounties, poisons, and various other methods of destruction; 
thousands of miles of rabbit-proof fences have been built, and hun- 
dreds of schemes for destroying the animals have been suggested, but 
nothing has yet been found that will effectually exterminate the pest. 
Natural enemies, such as cats and other carnivorous animals, have 
been introduced, and in certain parts of New Zealand at least have 
become almost as much a pest as the rabbits they were intended to 
kill. In 1887 no less than 19,182,539 rabbits were destroyed in New 
South Wales alone, but despite the efforts of the Government and 
private landowners the rabbits seem to be still increasing. In the 
meantime, a great industry has grown up in the export of rabbit 
skins. For the last five years New Zealand has been shipping an 
average of about 15,000,000 per annum, and since 1873 lias exported 
more than 200,000,000. Recently, canning rabbit meat for export to 
European markets is assuming larger proportions and gives promise 
of developing into an important industry. 

THE MONGOOSE. 

The common mongoose of India (Herpestes mungo or H. griseus, PI. 
VIII) is a well-known destroyer of rats, lizards, and snakes, and has 
been introduced into Jamaica and other tropical islands for the pur- 
pose of ridding cane fields of rats. The annual loss which the island of 
Jamaica formerly suffered on account of the ravages of the introduced 
black rats (3£us rattus) and brown rats (M. decumamis), and the 
so-called "cane-piece rat," including the expense of destroying these 
pests, was estimated at £100,000, or $500,000. Various remedies were 



94 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

tried, but apparently with little success, until in February, 1872, Mr. 
W. Bancroft Espeut introduced nine individuals of the mongoose, four 
males and five females, from India. These animals increased with 
remarkable rapidity, and soon spread to all pai'ts of the island, even 
to the tops of the highest mountains. A decrease in the number of 
rats was soon noticeable, and in 1882, ten years after the first intro- 
duction, the saving to the sugar planters was said to be £45,000, or 
$225,000, per annum. 

Still the mongoose increased, and its omnivorous habits became 
more and more apparent as the rats diminished. It destroyed young 
pigs, kids, lambs, kittens, puppies, the native "coney," or capromys, 
poultry, game, birds which nested on or near the ground, eggs, snakes, 
ground lizards, frogs, turtles' eggs, and land crabs. It was also known 
to eat ripe bananas, pineapples, young corn, avocado pears, sweet 
potatoes, cocoanuts, and other fruits. Toward the close of the second 
decade the mongoose, originally considered very beneficial, came to 
be regarded as the greatest pest ever introduced into the island. 
Poultry and domesticated animals suffered from its depredations, and 
the short- tailed capromys ( Capromys brachyurus), which was formerly 
numerous, became almost extinct except in some of the mountainous 
districts. The ground dove (Columbigattina passerina) and the quail 
dove ( Qeotrygon montana) became rare, and the introduced bobwhite, 
or quail, was almost exterminated. The peculiar Jamaica petrel 
(JEstrelata caribbaia), which nested in the mountains of the island, 
likewise became almost exterminated. Snakes, represented by at 
least five species, all harmless, and lizards, including about twenty 
species, were greatly diminished in numbers. The same thing was 
true of the land and fresh-water tortoises and the marine turtle 
(Chelone viridis), which formerly laid its eggs in abundance in the 
• loose sand on the north coast. The destruction of insectivorous 
birds, snakes, and lizards was followed by an increase in several 
injurious insects, particularly ticks, which became a serious pest, 
and a Coccid moth, the larvae of which bore into the pimento trees. 
In 1890 a commission was appointed by the Government to consider 
whether measures should be taken to reduce the number of the 
animals, and the evidence collected showed conclusively that the evil 
results of the introduction of the mongoose far outweighed the bene- 
fits rendered to the sugar and coffee plantations. 

Recently there has been a change in the situation, and the mon- 
goose is now reported as decreasing, while certain birds and reptiles, 
particularly the ground lizard, are increasing. Quail and pigeons 
are reported as more numerous, and there is less complaint concerning 
the destruction of poultry. Thus, Jamaica seems to have passed the 
high- water mark of loss occasioned by rats, and by the mongoose, and 
while its fauna has been modified by the presence of the intruders, 
both native and introduced species are gradually accommodating 



DANGER OF INTRODUCING NOXIOUS ANIMALS AND BIRDS. 95 

themselves to the changed conditions, and a new balance of nature 
is being established. 1 

According to Mr. Espeut, 2 who originally introduced the mongoose 
into Jamaica, large numbers of the animals have been sent to Cuba, 
Puerto Rico, Grenada, Barbados, Santa Cruz, and elsewhere, but the 
fate of these shipments, made at least sixteen years ago, is now un- 
known. It is now established on Haiti, as shown by the capture of a 
specimen at Santo Domingo City in the winter of 1895, 3 and is gen- 
erally distributed over the island of Puerto Rico. It is also present 
on the island of Vieques, east of Puerto Rico, and is abundant on 
St. Thomas. During a recent visit Mr. A. B. Baker found it along 
the coast of Puerto Rico at Arecibo, San Juan, Fajardo, Arroyo, 
Ponce, and Mayaguez, and in the interior at Utuado and Adjuntas. 
It was introduced at San Juan abouj 1877-79, and although now 
becoming a nuisance, is considered beneficial by the sugar planters 
who claim that the rats, which were formerly very destructive to 
cane, now do little damage. These rats often live in the tops of 
the royal and cocoa palms and destroy cocoanuts as well as sugar 
cane. 

The first efforts to introduce the mongoose into the Hawaiian Islands 
were made about 1881, when a few individuals of a large species were 
brought from the East Indies and liberated on a sugar plantation in 
the district of Hamakua on Hawaii. These animals did not breed 
and soon disappeared. A few months later a few pairs of a smaller 
species were imported from Calcutta, but nearly all were accidentally 
drowned while being landed near Hilo. Soon afterwards 75 individ- 
uals were imported from Jamaica by the planters of Hilo, and later 
215 more were imported for Hamakua. Here the mongoose is aiding 
in the rapid extermination of some of the native birds, particularly 
the Hawaiian goose {Nesoehen sandvicensis), which is found only on 
those islands above an altitude of 4,000 feet, and the Hawaiian duck 
{Anas ivyvilliana), also a peculiar species. According to Mr. H. W. 
Henshaw this duck was common about Hilo four years ago, but in 
1898 none were left anywhere in this region. As in Jamaica, the 
depredations of rats in the cane fields diminished with the increase of 
the mongoose, but'the latter soon became so abundant that measures 
became necessary to keep it under control. In 1892 a law was passed 
forbidding the introduction, breeding, or keeping of the mongoose in 
the islands, and the sum of $1,000 was appropriated for the payment 
of bounties on animals killed on the island of Oahu. These rewards, 
not to exceed 25 cents per head, were to be paid by the Minister of 
the Interior, but apparently no applications were made for them, the 
animals being regarded as a necessary evil in the sugar-cane districts. 

'See Duerden, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, II, 1896, pp. 273-275. 

*Proe. Zool. Soc, London, 1882, p. 714. 

'Elliott, Field Columbian Mas., Zool. Ser., I, 1896, p. 82. 



96 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Attempts at introduction in other countries have not succeeded 
so well. The mongoose was introduced into the Fiji Islands, prob- 
ably about 1870, but apparently has not increased to the extent to 
which it has in Hawaii. Early in the eighties several experiments 
were made in Australia, which resulted in failure. More than a 
hundred individuals were liberated near the Murray River, and 
others in New South Wales. An experiment was also made in New 
Zealand, but apparently without much success. 1 In February, 1892, 
it was erroneously reported that the Department of Agriculture was 
about to introduce the mongoose into the United States for the pur- 
pose of destroying gophers in the West. Although founded on a 
mistake, and speedily corrected, the rumor was so well heralded by 
the press that it attracted widespread attention. Persons who were 
familiar with the situation in Jamaica and Hawaii protested vigor- 
ously against the supposed experiment. Others, ignorant of the 
animal's past record and anxious to try some new method of extermi- 
nating gophers, prepared to obtain specimens from Honolulu. By 
the most strenuous efforts these importations were prevented, and 
as yet the mongoose is not known to have gained a foothold on this 
continent. 

FERRETS, STOATS, AND WEASELS. 

In the attempt to check the rabbit pest in New Zealand, recourse 
has been had to the importation of natural enemies, such as ferrets, 
stoats (Putorius ermineus), and weasels (P. nivalis). In the Waira- 
rapa district some 600 ferrets, 300 stoats and weasels, and 300 cats 
had been turned out previous to 1887. Between January, 1887, 
and June, 1888, contracts were made by the Government for nearly 
22,000 ferrets, and several thousand had previously been liberated on 
Crown and private lands. Large numbers of stoats and weasels have 
also been liberated during the last fifteen years. This host of preda- 
tory animals speedily brought about a decrease in the number of 
rabbits, but its work was not confined to rabbits, and soon game birds 
and other species were found to be diminishing. The stoat and the 
weasel are much more bloodthirsty than the ferret, and the widespread 
destruction is attributed to them rather than to the latter animal. 
Now that some of the native birds are threatened with extermination, 
it has been suggested to set aside an island along the New Zealand 
coast where the more interesting indigenous species can be kept safe 
from their enemies and saved from complete extinction. 

FLYING FOXES, OR FRUIT BATS. 

On August 4, 1893, the steamer Monowai from Australia arrived at 
San Francisco, having on board a fruit-eating bat, or flying fox. The 
animal had taken refuge on the steamer off the coast of Australia, 

1 Final Kept. Royal Coann. Inquiry Exterm. Rabbita Australasia, 1890, p. 9. 



DANGER OF INTRODUCING NOXIOUS ANIMALS AND BIRDS. 



97 



and was captured and kept as a pet by one of the passengers. 
It was promptly killed by the quarantine officer at San Francisco, 
and four more, which arrived in captivity two months later from 
China, on the steamer Rio de Janeiro, met the same fate. Attention 
was called to the danger of the new pest, and one of the regulations 
adopted by the State board of horticulture in the following year pro- 
hibited the importation of these animals into California. 

Flying foxes belong to the genus Pteropus (fig. 1), one of the best- 
known groups of fruit-eating bats. The genus includes some fifty 
species which are found in the tropics of the Old World, from Mada- 
gascar and the Comoro Islands east to Australia, and the Samoan 
Islands, and north to India, Malay Archipelago, and southern Japan. 
Five species occur in Australia, two of them as far south as New South 
Wales (lat. 35° S.), but none are 
found in New Zealand or in the Ha- 
waiian Islands. The largest species 
is the Kalong or Malay fruit bat 
(Pteropus edidis), which measures 
more than 5 feet across the tips of 
the wings. 

In Australia these bats are de- 
scribed as living in immense commu- 
nities or "camps" in the most inac- 
cessible parts of the dense scrub of 
gullies and swamps. Here they may 
be seen by thousands, frequently 
crowded so thickly on the trees that 
large branches are broken by their 
weight. They fly considerable dis- 
tances in search of food, sallying 
forth in flocks about sunset and re- 
turning to their camps before dawn. 
In New South Wales, and more espe- 
cially in Queensland, flying foxes are one of the worst pests of the fruit 
grower, and aredescribed as a plague which threatens the fruit-growing 
ind ustry in a large part of Australia. They are particularly injurious 
to figs, bananas, peaches, and other soft fruit, and it is estimated that 
the damage done to orchards in the coast district of New South W a l e8 
amounts to many thousands of pounds annually. Various expedients 
have been suggested to protect orchards from their depredations. 
Rags dipped in melted sulphur and hung among the branches, netting 
placed over the trees, and wires suspended around the trees, and even 
stretched close together from poles and covering the whole orchard 
have been tried, but apparently without much success. The most prac- 
tical method is to destroy the bats in their camps: A few years ago the 
Minister for Mines and Agriculture for New South Wales supplied 
1 A9&-T— 7 




Fio. 1.— Flying fox (Jftervput sp., redrawn 
from Proceedings Zoological Society, 
London, 187*). 



98 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

ammunition for this purpose and, after considerable expenditure of 
powder and shot, about 100,000 foxes were destroyed at a cost of about 
30 cents apiece. Wholesale destruction with dynamite was suggested 
and experiments with high explosives were made by the department 
of agriculture. Charges of roburite (1 to 4 pounds) and gun cotton (2£ 
pounds), connected with wires so that they could be fired by an electric 
current, were placed in the branches of trees where the bats were 
accustomed to roost The bats carefully avoided the trees in which 
explosives were hung, and when the charges were fired none were 
killed, even among those roosting in neighboring trees. 1 

Since nearly all the species of flying foxes are natives of the Trop- 
ics, it is hardly likely that they could gain a foothold in the United 
States, except in the South, but there is a seriouc danger of their 
introduction into the Hawaiian Islands by means of vessels plying 
between Honolulu and the Orient, the South Sea Islands, and Australia. 

THE ENGLISH SPAEEOW. 

The house sparrow, better known in America as the English spar- 
row (Passer domesticus), is a common bird of north central Eurasia. 
It is said to range as far north as latitude 67° in Europe and to lati- 
tude 61° in Asia. The damage which it does in destroying fruit and 
grain, in disfiguring buildings in cities and towns, and in driving 
away other birds, makes it one of the worst of feathered pests. The 
rapidity with which it increases in a new locality is scarcely more 
remarkable than the persistency and care which have been displayed 
in introducing it into foreign lands, in spite of the warnings of per- 
sons familiar with its habits. It has gained a foothold on all of the 
continents, and has been transported to some of the most distant 
islands in the Indian and Pacific oceans. In North America it has 
not increased very rapidly n orth of the Transition zone nor in the Lower 
Austral, but whenever it has become at all abundant efforts to exter- 
minate it have been practically futile. 

The English sparrow was first introduced into the United States 
by a gentleman of Brooklyn, N. Y., who brought over eight pairs 
from Europe in the fall of 1850 and liberated them in the fol- 
lowing spring. These birds did not thrive, and in 1852 a second 
importation was made. In 1854 and 1858 the sparrow was introduced 
at Portland, Me., and in the latter year at Peacedale, R. I., and a few 
birds escaped at Boston, Mass. During the next decade it was im- 
ported direct from Europe to eight other cities, and in one case 1,000 
birds were sentrto Philadelphia in a single lot ; birds were also dis- 
tributed from the colonies already started in this country. By 1870 
it had become established as far south as. Columbia, S. C. , Louisville, 
Ky., and Galveston, Tex.; as far west as St. Louis, Mo., and Daven- 
port, Iowa, and as far north as Montreal, Canada, thus gaining a 

'Agr. Gazette. New South Wales, 1, 1890, p. 105. 



DANGER OP INTRODUCING NOXIOUS ANIMALS AND BIRDS. 99 



foothold in twenty States, the District of Columbia, and two provinces 
in Canada. 

Between 1870 and 1880 it was estimated that its range had been 
extended by nearly 16,000 square miles, and isolated colonies were 
established at San Francisco (1871-72) and Salt Lake City, Utah 
(1873). During the next five years it spread over more than 500,000 
square miles, and in 1886 had become established in thirty-five States 
and five Territories, occupying practically all of the region east of 
the Mississippi River (except portions of Florida, Alabama, and Mis- 
sissippi), as well as parts of eight States in the West. Its range was 
estimated to cover 1,033,000 square miles, including 148,000 square 
miles in Canada. 




Pig. 2.— Map showing spread of English sparrow in the United States: The entire shaded area 
represents approximately the present distribution of the sparrow; triangles indicate colonies 
in 1860; black spots, colonies in 1870; circles, isolated colonies in 1886; dotted area; range in 
1886; lined area, extension of range up to end of 1898. 

At the present time (1898) only three States (Montana, Nevada, and 
Wyoming) and three Territories (Alaska, Arizona, and New Mexico) 
are apparently free from the sparrow. Its range extends westward to 
the Great Plains and in Colorado to the Rocky Mountains, and also 
occupies considerable areas in Utah and central California. (See fig 2. ) 

The true character of the bird is now so well known that it is 
unnecessary to dwell on its injuries to fruit and grain, the nuisance 
it has become in large cities, and the extent to which it has replaced 
native birds. The ill-directed care and energy expended on introduc- 
ing and fostering it thirty years ago are largely responsible for the 
marvelous rapidity of its distribution. Now, when too late, efforts at 
extermination have been begun, and four States (Illinois, Michigan, 
Ohio, and Utah) have offered bounties for its destruction, the expend- 
itures in Illinois (1891-1895) and Michigan (1887-1895) amounting 
to about $117,500. 



100 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Besides the United States, New Zealand and Australia have suffered 
considerably from the English sparrow, and in some of the colonies of 
Australia it is considered second only to the rabbit as a pest. It seems 
to have been introduced on the North Island of New Zealand in 1866, 
by the Wanganui Acclimatization Society. 1 By 1870 it began to be 
numerous, and twelve years later threatened to spread over the whole 
island, becoming established in the most inaccessible regions, in spite 
of its usual partiality for cities and towns. In Victoria the sparrow 
was introduced about 1865, and probably appeared soon after in 
Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania, but 
data are lacking as to the date of its first appearance in these colonies. 
It has increased so rapidly that, in order to hold it in check, " Sparrow- 
destruction " bills have been passed in several of the colonies during 
the last ten years. 

Thus far the sparrow has not gained a foothold in Western Australia, 
and radical measures have been adopted to prevent its introduction. 
Its importation was prohibited by the " Destructive birds and animals 
act," passed in 1893, and when a few birds were discovered in Perth in 
January, 1898, prompt measures for their extermination were taken 
by the bureau of agriculture. All that could be found were shot, and 
attention was called to the necessity of stamping out the pest before 
it spread beyond control. 

The English sparrow has also found its way into many other distant 
corners of the earth. It is gaining a foothold in Argentina, and has 
been carried to remote islands. In the Indian Ocean it is present on 
Mauritius, about 400 miles east of Madagascar, and on the Comoro 
Islands, off the southeast coast of Africa and 350 miles northwest of 
Madagascar. It was first reported from Grand Comoro in 1879. In 
the Pacific Ocean it has been introduced on the Chatham Islands, some 
500 miles east of New Zealand, 8 probably on New Caledonia, and on 
the Hawaiian Islands. In the latter group it is reasonable to sup- 
pose that it was introduced by way of San Francisco in the early 
seventies, since it was reported to be numerous at Honolulu in 1879. 
In the Atlantic Ocean it is present on Bermuda, the Bahamas, and 
Cuba. It was sent to Bermuda from New York about 1874, and two 
years later was given the same protection accorded to other birds, 
its destruction being punished by a fine of 5 to 20 shillings. Ten 
years after its introduction it had increased so enormously that a 
bounty was offered for its destruction, and between 1884 and 1886 
about £530 ($2,650) were expended, without causing any appreciable 
decrease in its numbers, notwithstanding the short time the bird had 
been present and the fact that the islands have an area of less than 
20 square miles. It is said to have been imported into Cuba, and in 

1 Rept. New Zealand Dept. Agriculture, 1897, Div. Biology, p. 8. 
s Ibis, 1893, p. 543. 



DANGER OF INTRODUCING NOXIOUS ANIMALS AND BIRDS. 101 

1877 was reported to have been introduced on New Providence, Baha- 
mas, "within the last few years." It has not, however, increased 
rapidly on either island, for in 1891 it was reported as still not 
abundant, and apparently had not extended its range to any of the 
neighboring islands. 

THE STARLING. 

The starling (Sturnus vulgaris, fig. 3) of Europe and western Asia 
is one of the best known birds of the Old World, and during late 
years has been increasing in numbers in the British Isles. It is some- 
times accused of stealing fruit and destroying nests and eggs of other 
birds, but in its native home it seems to be beneficial rather than 
otherwise. Comparatively little accurate information concerning its 






fc^S^ - 




I?iu. 3. -Starling (Sturuus vulgaris). 

food habits is available, except the results of an examination of 175 
stomachs recently made in Scotland by Mr. John Gilmour. ' Accord- 
ing to this examination the food consists of 75 per cent insects, 20 
per cent grain (mainly waste grain), and 5 per cent miscellaneous 
substances. Some useful insects were eaten, but the greater proportion 
were classed as injurious. The charge of destroying eggs of larks, and 
occasionally young nestlings, was not substantiated, as no eggshells 
were found in these stomachs. Mr. Gilmour calls attention to the 
rapid increase of starlings in Fifeshire, thousands now existing where 
fifty or sixty years ago they were considered rare, and mentions the 
serious damage sometimes done to shrubs and young plantations when 
occupied as roosting places, but concludes that on the whole the bird 
is beneficial and worthy of protection. 



Trans. Highland and Agr. Soc., Scotland, 1896. 



102 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Several attempts have been made to introduce this species into the 
United States, but as yet it has hardly obtained a foothold. One of the 
first importations was made by the Acclimatization Society of Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, in the winter of 1872-73. About 1877 a number of star- 
lings were liberated in Central Park, New York, by the American 
Acclimatization Society, and several similar experiments have since 
been made, but only the last seems to have met with success. About 
60 birds were released in 1890. Some of them have bred for several 
years, and, leaving the park, have established themselves in favorable 
places in the neighborhood. In 1893 and 1894 flocks of as many as 50 
individuals were reported to have been seen in the suburbs about the 
northern end of the city, and late in 1898 a flock of about 30 took 
up residence at Sing Sing. During the last two or three years a few 
have been seen on Long Island, about Brooklyn. Thirty-five pairs 
were liberated at Portland, Oregon, in 1889 and 1892, where they are 
said to have done remarkably well, and as recently as June, 1898, 
a few were seen about the suburbs. In the autumn of 1897 it 
was reported that starlings were to be imported for the city park 
at Allegheny, Pa., but as yet only a dozen or fifteen seem to have 
been introduced, and these have been carefully kept in captivity for 
breeding, with the intention of ultimately stocking the park. 

Much has been said concerning the advantages of introducing the 
starling into this country, but in spite of the many arguments brought 
forward, the bird's character is not above suspicion, and its useful- 
ness is still open to question. The fact seems to have been overlooked 
that in other countries the starling has signally failed to fulfill the 
expectations concerning its usefulness. Certainly the experience of 
Australia and New Zealand offers little encouragement. It was intro- 
duced in New Zealand in 1867, and as early as 1870 was reported as 
' ' becoming very numerous." It seems to have increased very rapidly, 
and in spite of its natural preference for insects, in its new home it has 
adopted a fruit diet to such an extent as to become a great pest. 1 In 
South Australia it was reported to be common in certain localities in 
1894, and measures for its extermination were considered. In Victo- 
ria, on the other hand, steps were taken in 1895 to promote its increase 
in fruit and grain growing districts, and this fact was used as an 
argument in its favor by persons who were endeavoring to introduce 
it into some of the other colonies. Western Australia has taken a 
firm stand on the question, and Mr. R. Helms, biologist of the bureau 
of agriculture of that colony, who opposed the proposed importation, 
gives his reasons as follows: 

Had I been asked fifteen or twenty years ago what I had to say, I would prob- 
ably have recommended their introduction. But not so now. My experience has 

1 It is also interesting to note that nearly twenty years ago an eminent English 
ornithologist predicted that in foreign countries the starling would undoubtedly 
aid in destroying native birds. (Newton in YarrelFs British Birds, 4th ed., II, 
1876-1882.) 



DANGER OV INTRODUCING NOXIOUS ANIMALS AND BIRDS. 103 



taught me better. The birds were introduced more than fifteen years ago into 
New Zealand, and now, like the thrushes, they have become a pest to fruit 
growers. They have changed their habit from being principally insectivorous 
to having become omnivorous. ' 

After due deliberation, the Government issued a proclamation on 
January 22, 1896, declaring the starling a destructive bird and abso- 
lutely prohibiting its importation into Western Australia. Still more 
recently it has been condemned in Tasmania, where it is charged 
with committing depredations on small fruits, cherries, and wheat. 




Its further distribution has been discouraged, and when the question 
of introducing several species of birds was under discussion at an 
agricultural conference at Scottsdale on December'C, 1897, the starling 
was promptly rejected. 2 



THE MINA. 



The mina, or mynah (Acridotheres tristis, fig. 4), is common through- 
out most of India, except Kashmir and Tenasserim. In its habits it 



1 Producers' Gazette, Western Australia, V, January, 1898, p. 29. 

8 Agr. Gazette, Tasmania. Y. November. 1897, p. 66; January, 1898, p. 103. 



104 



YEARBOOK OV THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTUKE. 




Fig. 6.— Kohlmeise (Parus major). 



is somewhat like our native grackles or crow blackbirds, but seems 
to resemble the sparrow in its familiarity and partiality for human 
habitations. It was introduced more than thirty-five years ago into 

Mauritius to destroy 
grasshoppers, and is 
said to have become 
perfectly naturalized 
there. 1 It has also 
been introduced into 
the Andaman Islands 
(some time prior to 
1873), the Hawaiian 
Islands, New Zea- 
land, and possibly 
Australia. 

It is said to have 
reached the Hawai- 
ian Islands by way of 
China. Dr. Finsch, 
an eminent ornitholo- 
gist^ who visited Honolulu in 1879, found it very abundant, and de- 
scribes its habits as follows : 

The inainas are a great nuisance to" the inhabitants, as they drive away the 
pigeons and fowls, and are said to destroy the nests and eggs of the domestic 
birds. That they do drive out the 
pigeons from their houses, I observed 
many times myself. * '"' * In Mr. 
Barning's garden, where the finest - 
trees, chiefly- palm, abound, hundreds 
and thousands come to roost, and 
their inharmonious concert lasts from 
6 in the evening for an hour or more. 
The same is the case at daybreak, a ' 
little after 5 o'clock. 2 



THE KOHLMEISE, OR GREAT TITMOUSE. 

"Kohlmeise" is the German 
name of the great titmouse of- 
Europe (Partis major), and this 
designation is used to some ex- 
tent in the United States. The 
kohlmeise (fig. 5) is common over 
the whole of Europe as far north 
as the Arctic Circle and also in Siberia. It is a handsome species, 
about the size of the common eastern chickadee ( Parus atricapilliis, 
fig. 6), but may be readily distinguished from any American titmouse 
by the dull yellow on the sides of the body and the broad black stripe 




Fio. 6.— Chickadee (Pants atricapillun). 



1 Jerdon, Birds of India, II, 1863, p. 326. 



' Ibis, 1880, pp. 77, 78. 



DANGER OP INTRODUCING NOXIOUS ANIMALS AND BIRDS. 105 

extending down the center of its breast (see fig. 5). Like other 
species of the genus, it is mainly insectivorous, but in winter is said 
to eat nuts and hard seeds. The kohlmeise has recently attracted 
attention on account of its alleged value as a destroyer of the codling 
moth {Carpocapsa pomonella), particularly in Germany, where it is 
reported to protect apple trees in large measure from the attacks of 
this destructive insect. But although several German authors regard 
it as a most useful species, there seems to be no satisfactory evidence 
that it is partial to the codling moth, or in fact that it ever feeds on 
the moth to any great extent. In Great Britain where the kohlmeise 
is also a resident and generally distributed, its presence has not been 
sufficient to exterminate the codling moth or even to hold this pest in 
check. On the other hand, it is said to attack small and weakly birds, 
splitting open their skulls with its beak to get at the brains, and doing 
more or less damage to fruit, particularly pears. One English observer 
reported that all the pears in his garden had to be inclosed in muslin 
bags to protect them from the birds, which would otherwise eat a con- 
siderable part of the fruit before it was ripe. Another reported that the 
great titmouse spoiled most of a limited crop of apples, and then began 
on the pearsj boring a small hole near the stem, and passing from one 
pear to another until every one of forty or fifty trees had been dam- 
aged. It also attacked figs, scooping them out before they were ripe. 
In the autumn of 1897 an article appeared in a paper in Idaho set- 
ting forth the great value of the bird to the fruit grower, and strongly 
advocating its importation into this country. The article attracted 
the attention of horticulturists throughout the Northwest, and gave 
rise to considerable discussion concerning the merits of the bird anfl 
the desirability of its introduction. While the kohlmeise might not 
develop its fruit-eating propensities in America, it should not be 
introduced until more definite information is available concerning its 
habits and until it has been shown beyond question that it will do no 
serious harm. Moreover, since there are already several titmice of 
the same genus in the United States, it seems entirely unnecessary 
to add another to the list, for it is hardly probable that the European 
bird would confine itself to the codling moth or be of more value to 
the horticulturist than the native species. It may be added that recent 
investigations seem to show that the common eastern chickadee feeds 
to some extent on the codbng moth, as a few larvae, believed to be 
those of this insect, have been found in chickadee stomachs col- 
lected in New Hampshire during February and March. 1 It may be 
of interest also to recall the fact that the kohlmeise was actually 
introduced in 1874 at Cincinnati, Ohio, but the experiment failed, as 
neither this nor any of the other exotic species imported at the same 
time became naturalized. 



'Weed, Bui. 54, N. H. Coll. Agr. Expt. Station, 1898, pp. 87, 94. 
3 a98 8* 



106 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

THE SKYLARK, GREEN LINNET, AND BLACK THRUSH. 

The skylark {Atauda arvensis), the green linnet (Ligurinus chloris), 
and black thrush, or black bird (Turdus merula), are all natives of 
Europe. They are chiefly of interest in this connection, because in 
their native home they are almost universally considered beneficial, 
but in New Zealand they have developed traits which render them 
far from desirable additions to the fauna of that island. They were 
introduced into New Zealand in 1867; in 1870 they had begun to breed 
in a wild state in the province of Auckland on the North Island, and 
the gi'een linnet was reported as already becoming common. 1 At the 
present time they are common all over the colony and troublesome in 
certain districts. The skylark confines its injuries mainly to turnips, 
eating the seed soon after it is planted, and thus causing no small 
damage to the future crop. The green linnet is similarly injurious to 
grain, while the black thrush is accused of taking strawberries, cur- 
rants, raspberries, and other small fruits. As a fruit destroyer the 
black thrush is said to be worse than the English sparrow, and the pro- 
posal to introduce it into Western Australia elicited a strenuous protest. 

The skylark has been introduced several times into the United 
States, especially in the vicinity of New York, and recently all three 
birds have been liberated in Oregon, but as yet they have not increased 
to any extent. Both the skylark and the black thrush are noted 
singers, but the charms of their song hardly compensate for damage 
to crops. 

NEED OF LEGISLATION. 

The examples already cited show the danger of introducing exotic 
species on large islands, particularly on those far distant from con- 
tinents, where the fauna is necessarily limited and predatory species 
practically absent. In such places introduced species are almost 
sure to increase very rapidly. The experience of New Zealand indi- 
cates the necessity of exercising unusual care in introducing birds 
and mammals into the islands recently acquired by the United States. 
Much remains to be learned about the fauna of these new possessions. 
Puerto Rico is less known than any of the larger islands of the West 
Indies, but it probably has no indigenous mammals except bats. 
Abeut 150 species of birds have been recorded from the island, 8 
of which 20 are not found elsewhere. The fauna of the Hawaiian 
Islands is still more limited; indigenous mammals, except one bat 
(Lasiurus), are entirely wanting, but many of the birds are of great 
interest. Although no complete list of them has yet been published, 
about 100 species are known to occur on the islands. The fauna of 

' The green linnet has found its way to the Kermadec Islands, 600 miles to the 
northeast, and all three species are said to be now present on the Chatham 
Islands, nearly 500 miles east of the South Island of New Zealand. 

2 Gundlach, J. F. O., XXVI, 1878, p. 163. 



DANGER OF INTRODUCING NOXIOUS ANIMALS AND BIRDS. 107 

the Philippines is much richer. The mammals are comparatively 
unknown, and until recently were supposed to be poorly represented, 
but at present the list includes some 50 species, of which about ha,lf 
arc bats. The birds have received much more attention, and nearly 
600 species have been recorded from the archipelago, 1 286 occurring 
on Luzon alone. 

All of the islands have probably suffered more or less from the 
introduction of noxious species, especially rats and mice. In Hawaii 
rats have done so much damage that the sugar planters have Imported 
the mongoose to destroy them, and this animal is now becoming a 
pest. The mina of India is also present in considerable numbers, and 
the houso finch {Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis) has been intro- 
duced, notwithstanding the fact that it is usually considered a great 
pest by fruit growers in California. 

During the last fifty years a number of acclimatization societies 
have been organized for the purpose of introducing animals and plants 
from foreign countries. Private individuals, too, have devoted both 
time and money to importing birds or mammals which they consider 
necessary or desirable additions to the native fauna. Four or five 
societies exist in New Zealand, and several have been formed in the 
United States. During the years 1872-1874 the Acclimatization Soci- 
ety of Cincinnati, Ohio, expended about $9,000 in the purchase and 
importation of European birds, and introduced some 4,000, belonging 
to about 20 species, at an average cost of about $4. 50 a pair. These 
included several birds of doubtful value, such as the starling, skylark, 
and great titmouse or kohlmeise.* This experiment proved a failure. 

In 1888 the Society for the Introduction of European Song Birds was 
organized at Portland, Oregon, and imported two lots of birds in 1889 
and 1892, at a cost of about $2,000. Among the number were 50 pairs 
of skylarks, 35 pairs of black thrushes, 35 pairs of starlings, 15 pairs 
of green linnets, and a number of others, representing in all some 20 
species. Recently the introduction of the kohlmeise into the North- 
west has been seriously considered, and the spasmodic attempts to 
acclimatize the skylark and starling have been renewed. 

Whatever may be the difference of opinion concerning the desira- 
bility of introducing exotic species, it will be generally admitted that 
some restriction should be placed on the importation of birds and 
mammals which may become injurious. Since it has been found 
necessary to restrict immigration and to have laws preventing the 
introduction of diseases dangerous to man or domesticated animals, 
is it not also important to prevent the introduction of any species 



1 This number includes tho species found on Palawan. Worcester and Bourns 
class Palawan with Borneo on zoological grounds, giving for the Philippines proper 
526 species; of these, 333 aro confined to the group. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, 
XX, 1898, pp. 564, 575.) 

2 Journ. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., IV, 1881, p. 343. 



108 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

which may cause incalculable harm? Experience with the English 
sparrow, the work of rabbits in Australia and of the mongoose in 
Jamaica, all these have abundant] y shown the necessity of preventing 
the repetition of similar costly blunders in the future. 

Twelve years ago Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Chief of the Biological 
Survey, urged the necessity of restricting the importation of exotic 
species, as follows : ' 

It seems desirable that a law be enacted conferring upon the Commissioner 
[Secretary] of Agriculture the power of granting or withholding permits for the 
importation of birds and mammals, except in the case of domesticated species, 
certain song and cage birds' (to be specifically enumerated), and species intended 
for exhibition in zoological gardens, menageries, and museums, which may be 
brought in without special permits. The question of the desirability of importing 
species of known beneficial qualities in other lands is one which sooner or later 
must force itself upon our notice; and it is highly important that when such 
experiments are made they should be conducted by or under the control of the 
Department of Agriculture. 

Ten years later Mr. Alexander Craw, quarantine officer of the Cali- 
fornia State board of horticulture, again called attention to the need 
of legislation, and in his annual report for 1896 recommended the pas- 
sage by Congress of a stringent law preventing the introduction of 
noxious animals. 

At present there is no Federal statute on the subject, and appar- 
ently California is the only State which has given the matter serious 
attention or has taken steps to prevent thoughtless or intentional 
importation of injurious species. In the act creating the State board 
of horticulture, approved March 13, 1883, and amended March 8, 1889, 
authority was conferred on the board to make regulations for the pur- 
pose of preventing the spread of fruit pests. In accordance with this 
act, certain quarantine regulations were adopted on August 15, 1894, 
one of which, Rule XII, provides that "animals known as flying fox, 
Australian or English wild rabbit, or other animals or birds detri- 
mental to fruit or fruit trees, plants, etc., are prohibited from being 
brought or landed in this State, and if brought, they shall be 
destroyed." 2 This law has resulted in the destruction of several 
flying foxes and, so far as known, every mongoose thus far brought to 
the port of San Francisco. It is, perhaps, not too much to say that 
to this regulation and to the vigilance of the quarantine officer at San 
Francisco the State owes its present freedom from the mongoose. 

The action of Cape Colony and Western Australia on this question 
stands out in marked contrast to the apathy of other countries. Cape 
Colony, in 1890, made it unlawful to introduce rabbits, either by land 
or sea, or to turn them loose within the colony; 3 required the rabbits 

1 Annual Report Department of Agriculture for 1886, p. 258. 
8 Fifth Biennial Report State Board of Horticulture, 1896, p. 8. 
3 Under a penalty not exceeding 5 pounds for first offense or 10 pounds for sec- 
ond offense. (See Agr. Journ., Cape Town, III, January 8, 1891, p. 119.) 



DANGER OF INTRODUCING NOXIOUS ANIMALS AND BIRDS. 109 

already in the colony to be confined in hutches or boxes constructed 
according to certain prescribed regulations, and authorized anyone to 
destroy rabbits found on his premises, on Crown lands, or along pub- 
lic roads. Western Australia, profiting by the experience of her sister 
colonies on the eastern side of the continent, has taken measures to 
secure protection from the evils of indiscriminate and ill-advised accli- 
matization by the passage of the so-called "Destructive birds and 
animals act" (57 Vic, No. 22). This law, passed in 1893, prohibits the 
introduction of all birds or animals which, in the opinion of the 
governor-in-council, are destructive to vineyards, orchards, fruit trees, 
or any agricultural produce. The act also prohibits the keeping of 
such birds or animals on private premises, authorizes the destruction 
of those already in the colony, prohibits the liberation of any destruc- 
tive bird or animal, and permits duly authorized officers to enter prem- 
ises for the purpose' of seizing or destroying such birds or animals. 
The term "destructive" is interpreted to mean any species to which 
the governor-in-council may from time to time extend the provisions 
of the act by proclamation, and the selection of species is based mainly 
upon the recommendations of the bureau of agriculture. 1 The law is 
therefore elastic and may be easily modified when necessary. Spar- 
rows and rabbits were originally included in 1893, flying foxes were 
added in December, 1895, and starlings, blackbirds, and thrushes in 
January, 1896. 

SUMMARY. 

(1) Acclimatization of plants differs from that of animals since 
plants are introduced for cultivation and thus kept to a certain extent 
within control, while animals are liberated and controlled only by 
natural enemies or unfavorable conditions. 

(2) Animals and birds are distributed from one continent to another, 
and to islands, either by accidental means or by the direct agency of 
man. Most animals are intentionally introduced into new regions, 
cases of accidental dispersion being comparatively rare except among 
rats and mice. 

(3) Domesticated animals, like plants, may run wild and become 
injurious, especially in regions where food is abundant and natural 
enemies are absent. Goats and cats on isolated islands are well- 
known examples. 

(4) The animals and birds which have thus far proved most inju- 
rious are the rabbit, mongoose, stoat, weasel, flying fox, English 
sparrow, starling, and mina. The skylark, green linnet, black thrush, 
and great titmouse, or kohlmeise, are of doubtful value and likely to 
prove injurious. These species are all natives of the Old World, and 
with the exception of the mongoose, mina, and flying foxes, are inhab- 
itants of the temperate regions of Europe and western Asia. 



1 See Journ. Bureau Agr. Western Australia, II, December 10, 1895, pp. 630-631; 
III, 1896, p. 6T6. 



110 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

(5) Notwithstanding the object lessons afforded by the English 
sparrow in our own country, the rabbit in Australia, and the mon- 
goose in Jamaica, no steps have been taken to prevent the repetition 
of similar costly mistakes in the future, and at present no restriction 
is placed on the indiscriminate importation of exotic species into the 
United States. 

(6) Recent events have given new importance to this subject. The 
gradual increase of the starling and the efforts to introduce the kohl- 
nieise require prompt measures to prevent species of such doubtful 
value from gaining a foothold in this country. The acquisition of 
new territory has also brought us face to face with new problems. 
Not only should the mongoose be prevented from reaching the United 
States from Hawaii and Puerto Rico, but the native fauna of these 
islands should be preserved and all our island possessions protected 
from ill-advised acclimatization, which has caused so much loss in 
Australia and New Zealand. • 

(7) The introduction of exotic birds and mammals should be 
restricted by law and should be under the control of the United States 
Department of Agriculture. Western Australia has already adopted 
this course, and under the "Destructive birds and animals act" of 
1893, prohibit* the importation, liberation, or keeping of animals and 
birds which the colonial bureau of agriculture considers injurious to 
vineyards, orchards, or crops. 



THE PREPARATION AND USE OF TUBERCULIN. 

By E. A. de Schweinitz, Ph. D., M. D-, 
Chief of Bioehemic Division, Bureau of Animal Industry. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Tuberculin is a solution in glycerin and water of the products of 
the growth of the tubercle bacilli upon artificial media and the con- 
tents of their eells. Although it has been manufactured in quantity 
and used upon a large scale for some years, it may at the present time 
be of interest to give a brief sketch of the methods of manufacture of 
this material as followed in the Bioehemic Division, and to note the 
advantages or objections to its use as a diagnostic agent for tubercu- 
losis in animals and men. 

METHOD OF PREPARING TUBERCULIN. 

In the preparation of largo quantities of tuberculin in the bio- 
ehemic laboratory of the Bureau of Animal Industry during past 
years, the following method of procedure has been found to give the 
most satisfactory results; The fluid upon which the tubercle bacilli are 
allowed to grow is an extract made with distilled wateT from perfectly 
fresh meat which has been finely chopped. One pound of meat is 
used to a liter of water, to which is added 1 per cent of peptone, one- 
fourth of 1 per cent of salt, and 7 per cent of glycerin. The solution 
is heated to boiling, filtered, and placed in perfectly sterilized flasks. 
The medium is then sterilized for three successive days in a steam 
bath. After the cotton plugs of the flasks have become dry, they are 
removed, dipped in paraffin, and replaced in the flasks so as to make 
tight stoppers. When the culture medium so prepared is found to 
bo thoroughly sterile, it is inoculated. The thorough sterilization 
of the media can be proved by allowing the flask to stand for some 
days in a warm place, during which time they should remain perfectly 
clear if there is no contamination with ordinary bacteria from the air. 

INOCULATING THE MEDIA. 

The inoculation of the media in the flasks is accomplished by taking 
up on the end of a platinum wire a small mass of tubercle bacilli 
obtained originally from an animal that has died of tuberculosis. 
The first cultures are made from dead animals, by transferring to a 
jelly made of glycerin and agar, or blood serum, or potato, pieces of 
the diseased organ, lung or spleen, of a guinea pig that lias been 

111 



112 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

infected by inoculation with tuberculosis. The germs, after four to 
six weeks, are found to have developed very readily, and to form a 
thick, spongy layer on the surface of the jolly or potato. It is a very 
easy matter to detach a small bit of this spongy growth from the stir- 
face of the jelly a-nd transfer it to the flask containing the liquid 
media prepared in the manner already indicated. 

In order that the tubercle bacilli may grow readily, it is necessary 
that they shall have a free supply of oxygen; hence, the mass of 
bacteria that are transferred to the flask should be caused to float on 
the surface of the liquid. This can be readily accomplished by 
detaching a piece of the culture mass from the platinum needle and 
floating it upon the surface of the liquid without immersing it (PI. 
IX, fig. 1). If the inoculating piece is allowed to become wet with the 
culture media, it will sink to the bottom of the flask and the bacteria 
will not develop. The inoculated flasks are then placed in the incu- 
bator, which is a double- walled copper box. The space between the 
copper walls of the incubator is filled with water. The incubator is 
kept at a constant temperature of about 98° F. After a week to ten 
days the tubercle bacilli will be seen spreading out in all directions 
from the particle with which the flask was inoculated, and finally the 
surface of the liquid will be covered with a layer of tubercle bacilli 
(PI. IX, fig. 2). When this is noted, the flask should be carefully 
shaken, so as to cause most of the growth upon the surface to be 
immersed in the culture liquid and to sink to the bottom of the flask. 
A small particle, however, should be left on the surface to serve as 
seed for a new surface growth. This shaking down of the surface 
growth can be readily accomplished by rotating the flask two or three 
times very gently, and after a little practice it will be found to be an 
easy matter to preserve the desired particle upou the surface. From 
this particle a new surface growth is developed, which should be 
shaken down as in the first instance, and a third growth allowed to 
form. This process will require six weeks to two months or more 
from the time that the flasks were first inoculated, and their con- 
tents are then in a condition to be further used for the preparation 
of tuberculin. 

When first obtained from the animal body, the tubercle bacillus 
grows best upon blood serum, or potato, or a liquid, such as has 
been already indicated, that has a faint alkaline reaction to litmus or 
is perfectly neutral. After a time, however, when the tubercle germ 
has become accustomed to its new food, just as a 'plant must adapt 
itself to a new soil, it can be caused to grow upon medium that has 
a slight acid reaction. When liquid cultures of the tubercle bacilli 
have been once inoculated and are growing well, it is very much 
easier to inoculate fresh culture media from liquid .cultures rather 
than from the jelly cultures, with which it is always necessary to start. 
The transference of a particle containing large numbers of the germs 







HF 







d TUBERC] E CULT! 

b MANNER 01 Tli.V 



CROVVTR TI Bl R('l i: • ! 



i [i i\v.\ iriii-.;;. I 



PREPARATION AND USE OK TUBERCULIN. 1 13 

from the surface of one flask to serve as seed upon the surface of 
another flask will give what is commonly called a new generation. 
As these transfers are usually made every month or six weeks, it is 
possible, in the course of a few years, to obtain a germ which is a 
direct descendant of the one originally used, but removed from it 
by many generations. This continued transference of the bacteria 
from one nutrient flask to another has the effect in many cases of 
changing some of the properties of the germ. In the laboratory of the 
Biochemic Division it has been found, in connection with the tubercle 
germ, that this fact can be utilized to great advantage. There are in 
the laboratory now, and have been for a number of years, the descend- 
ants of a tubercle germ which originally caused the death of guinea 
pigs in from four to five weeks after they had been inoculated. This 
germ, which is now perfectly harmless, was originally obtained from 
a specimen of tuberculous sputum. The guinea pigs inoculated 
with this sputum died in due time from tuberculosis, and the cultures 
made from the diseased organs served as a starting point for a large 
and prolific family. By -accustoming this germ gradually to liquid 
food which had a slight acid reaction, we eventually succeeded in 
eliminating its ability to produce tuberculosis when it was inoculated 
into animals. The germs, however, did not lose the property of pro- 
ducing or secreting their active poisons — those poisons which form 
the active principle of tuberculin. Cultures of this sort, which have 
been caused to lose their virulence or pathogenic properties, are called 
attenuated, and we have used these attenuated cultures to great 
advantage since 1893, both in preparing tuberculin and in treating 
animals, or injecting animals for the purpose of protecting them 
against an inoculation with virulent tuberculosis or producing in 
them a serum which may have curative properties. Virulent cultures 
are also used in preparing the tuberculin, and there are always a 
number of different generations of varying virulence of tubercle 
bacilli on hand in the laboratory. 

STERILIZING! THE CULTURES. 

When the tubercle cultures have grown sufficiently (PI. IX, fig. 3), 
which requires from one month to three months, depending upon the 
readiness with which the growth begins (and this is always influenced 
by the reaction of the media and the condition of the culture from which 
the inoculations are made), the flasks with their contents are re- 
moved from the incubator and placed immediately in the sterilizing 
oven, which is kept at a temperature of about 125° C. The cul- 
tures are left in this oven until they begin to boil. In this way the 
germs are killed, and the plugs in the mouth of the flasks may be 
removed and the material filtered without any danger of infecting the 
workers. Of course, in handling tubercle cultures in such large 
quantities there is.always some danger of infection for the people who 



114 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

are doing the work. When proper care is used this danger is of 
practically no importance; but as accidents may occur (flasks be 
broken and their- contents spilled upon tables or floor or in other 
places), it is a matter of impossibility to avoid all danger. But the 
discovery that the attenuated germs can be used to advantage for the 
preparation of tuberculin materially reduces the possibility of danger 
to the workers in handling this material. After heating the flasks in 
the sterilizer the cotton plugs are removed and the contents of the 
flask heated over a flame to boiling and immediately filtered. The 
germs, which are packed close together, remain upon the filter paper 
and are washed once or twice with a small amount of water. The 
filtrate, including the washings, is then evaporated, and may be con- 
centrated to any desired volume. As a rule, one-fifth of the quantity 
of the original culture is the most convenient point to be reached in 
the evaporation. Instead of filtering off the germs and then evapo- 
rating the filtrate, the enth'e contents of the flask may be concentrated 
by evaporation and the solution filtered after it has been concentrated. 
The results are the same, but the writer's preference is for the first 
method. 

DILUTION OF TUBERCULIN. 

Instead of sending out concentrated tuberculin, it has been found 
advisable to dilute it to such a strength that 2 cubic centimeters will 
be a suitable dose for the purpose of diagnosing tuberculosis in cattle. 
To accomplish this dilution, there is added to the concentrated tuber- 
culin glycerin equal to one-fourth the original bulk of the culture liquid. 
This is then diluted with one-fourth of 1 per cent carbolic acid, so 
that the volume of the tuberculin usually obtained is one-fourth more 
than the original quantity of culture media used. - In other words, 
1,000 cubic centimeters of culture media, after the germ has been 
allowed to grow sufficiently long, diluted with the proper amount of 
glycerin and carbolic acid, should give 1,250 cubic centimeters of 
tuberculin of such a strength that 2 cubic centimeters would be a 
satisfactory dose for testing an animal of 1,000 pounds in weight. 

METHODS OP STANDARDIZING TUBERCULIN. 

Several methods of standardization of the tuberculin are adopted. 
The amount of the tuberculin required to produce a rise of 4° or 5° in 
temperature in tuberculous guinea pigs of 1 pound in weight is noted, 
or the quantity of tuberculin found necessary to kill a tuberculous 
guinea pig; or, again, a standard upon a chemical basis, depending 
upon the amount of acid which is produced by the growth of the 
bacilli, is used. All tubercle cultures after they are well grown show 
a decided acid reaction. If the reaction of the media is carefully 
noted before inoculation, and again after the growth of the germ, it is 
found that the amount of acid reaction is increased proportionately 
to the quantity of the growth. By practice, it is also found that this 



PREPARATION AND USE OF TUBERCULIN. 115 

is approximately constant. If the A r alue of a tuberculin made from a 
culture in which the acid reaction lias been carefully tested is once 
noted it serves as a guide for future work. 

In practice, it has been found that healthy animals do not give reac- 
tions with large doses of tuberculin, and that as a rule tuberculous 
animals do not show an appreciably higher reaction with large doses 
of tuberculin than with medium doses ; hence, while the above methods 
of standardization are not so accurate as those which would have to 
be used in weighing out a very poisonous alkaloid, experience lias 
shown that they are sufficiently accurate for ordinary work. 

If the tuberculin is intended for use upon man, it should, in addi- 
tion to the filtration through a fine filter paper, be filtered through 
porous porcelain, so as to remove the last possible germ. In the 
preparation of tuberculin, however, for use upon animals, especially 
when attenuated cultures are used as the source for the material, this 
filtration through porcelain is not necessary. 

LOSS IN PREPARING AND COST OF TUBERCULIN. 

In handling large amounts of culture media for the preparation of 
tuberculin there is always a certain amount of unavoidable loss. 
Sometimes in the process of inoculation, even with the utmost care, the 
flasks will become contaminated by some foreign germ. Sometimes 
the contamination may not take place until the culture is pretty well 
grown. Then it is often due to an imperfect plug or unavoidable 
handling of the culture. The quantity of cultures lost depends, of 
course, upon the care of the individual in handling them, the care in 
inoculation, and the locality in which this work is conducted. All 
inoculations of tubercle flasks, as well as other culture media, should 
be made in an air that is free from dust, and consequently free from 
dangers of contamination. When proper care is used, possibly one- 
fourth of 1 per cent of the flasks are lost, but the writer has found that 
in the hands of inexperienced individuals 20, 30, and even 50 per ceht 
of culture flasks may be contaminated. Frequently, as in the case 
of tubercle cultures, this contamination can be very readily detected. 
So long as the cultures arc pure the germs will be found floating upon 
the surface of the liquid or at the bottom of the flask, while the rest 
of the media will be perfectly clear. The slightest contamination 
causes the media to become cloudy; and as soon as this is noted the 
flasks should be discarded, as tuberculin should be prepared only 
from perfectly pure cultures. In experienced hands the cost of the 
preparation of tuberculin is not great. It should be made and sold, 
giving a fair profit for the trouble connected with its manufacture, 
at not over 5 cents a dose. 



116 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

THE METHOD OF USING TUBERCULIN. 

The regulations prescribed for many years by the Bureau of Animal 
Industry for the use of tuberculin in testing cattle are as follows: 

DIRECTIONS FOR USING TUBERCULIN AS PREPARED IN THE BIOCIIEMIC LABORA- . 
TORY OP THE BUREAU OF A'NIMAL INDUSTRY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF TUBEKCU- 
LOSIS IN CA-TTLE. 

The febrile reaction in tuberculous cattle following the subcutaneous injection 
of tuberculin begins from six to ten hours after the injection, reaches the maxi- 
mum nine to fifteen hours after the injection, and returns to normal eighteen to 
twenty-six hours after the injection. 

In conducting the test the following course is recommended to those who wish 
to obtain the most accurate results: 

(1) Begin to take the rectal temperature at 6 a. m., and take it every hour 
thereafter until midnight. 

(2) Make the injection at midnight. 

(3) Begin to take the temperature next morning at 6 o'clock, and continue as on 
preceding day. 

To those who have large herds to examine or who are unable to give the time 
required by the above directions, the following shortened course is recommended: 

(1) Begin to "take the temperature at 8 a. m., and continue every two hours 
until 10 p. m. (omitting at 8 p. m. if more convenient). 

(2) Make the injection at 10 p. m. 

(3) Take the temperature next morning at 6 or 8 o'clock, and every two hours 
thereafter until 6 or 8 p. m. 

Each adult animal should receive 2 cubic centimeters (about 30 minims) of the 
undiluted tuberculin as it is sent from the laboratory. Yearlings and two-year- 
olds should receive 1 to 1$ cubic centimeters, according to size. Bulls and very 
large animals may receive 3 cubic centimeters. The injection is made beneath the 
skin of the neck or shoulders. 

There is usually no marked local swelling at the seat of injection. 

There is, now and then, uneasiness, trembling, and the more frequent passage 
of softened dung. There may also be slight acceleration of the pulse and of the 
breathing. 

A rise in the temperature on the day following the injection of two or more 
degrees F. above the maximum observed on the previous day should be regarded 
as an indication of tuberculosis. For any rise less than this a repetition of the 
injection after three to six weeks is highly desirable. 

In rare cases the temperature, may rise in the absence of any disease, or it may 
fail to rise when tuberculosis is present. 

It is hardly necessary to suggest that, for the convenience of the one making 
the test, the animals should not be turned out, but fed and watered in the stable. 
It is desirable to make note of the time of feeding and watering. 

Charts for reporting to the Bureau of Animal Industry results of 
tests are always forwarded with the material. It is not necessary that 
the temperature should be taken at the exact hour indicated upon these 
charts, but the hours selected have been considered the most conven- 
ient for the test. If the animal is diseased, from six to eight hours 
after the injection of the tuberculin the temperature begins to rise 
from the normal, which in cattle varies from 101° to 102° F., and 
should continue to rise until it has reached 105° to 107°. - A reaction 



PREPARATION AND USE OF TUBERCULIN. 117 

of 2° F. above the normal may be considered as good evidence that 
the animal is infected with tuberculosis. 

When tuberculin is to be used upon dairy cattle, a test of the same 
herd should be made at least once everj' six months. Dairy cows 
should be carefully tested by means of tuberculin, and this is required 
at present by some of the States. Dairy herds once found free from 
disease should not be subjected to the danger of infection by the 
introduction of new animals that have not been previously tested 
and found perfectly sound. The health of animals and of men is 
very largely dependent upon the use of sanitary precautions and 
the enforcement of sanitary regulations, such as can be adopted by 
the aid of a definite diagnostic material like tuberculin. 

ABSENCE OF DANGER IN THE USE OF TUBERCULIN. 

As will readily be seen from the manner of preparation described, 
there is not the slightest possible danger of infecting animals or men 
with tuberculosis from the use of tuberculin. The cultures are heated 
several times to a temperature a great deal above that necessary to 
kill the tubercle bacillus, and, in addition, the tuberculin is diluted 
with carbolic acid, which is an excellent disinfectant and germicide. 
Again, there is no danger of injuring healthy animals even with quite 
large doses of tuberculin, as the tuberculin is apparently very readily 
eliminated in the feces and urine. 

When tuberculin is to be used for diagnosing disease in man, very 
much smaller doses are necessary than in the case of animals. From 
1 to 3 milligrams are found sufficient in most cases. 

The method of injecting tubercuhn upon man for diagnosis, as pre- 
scribed by Dr. Trudeau, one who has had a great deal of experience 
in its use, is as follows: 

In applying the tuberculin test, I take the temperature for several days before- 
hand, at 8 a. m., 3 p. m., and 8 p. m. For the first injection, I usually take 1 
milligram of Koch's original tuberculin [5 milligrams Bureau tuberculin] , injected 
as late as possible at bedtime; then note the temperature every two hours the 
next day. If no reaction follows, after an interval of two days I usually inject 3 
milligrams [15 milligrams Bureau tuberculin] . In suspected visceral tuberculosis 
I usually stop here, but if it is a surgical tuberculosis, where the amount of disease 
may be very slight, it is well, perhaps, to try another dose of 5 or 6 milligrams 
after another interval. The reaction usually begins from eight to twelve hours, 
after the injection. 

THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF TUBERCULIN. 

One of the objections that has often been brought forward against 
the use of tuberculin upon cattle is that it is entirely too delicate; 
that by its aid disease is detected in animals which might not have 
been dangerous for very many years. It is, however, utterly impos- 
sible to tell how soon a very slight case of tuberculosis may develop 
into a very dangerous one, and during this time the animal is the best 
possible source of infection for other animals. The Contagiousness 



118 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

of tuberculosis both among animals and men is well established, and, 
this being known, animals which are found infected with tuberculosis 
in the slightest degree should either be slaughtered and the healthy 
portion of the animal used as food, if thoroughly cooked, or better 
still, such animals may be isolated and quarantined and used for 
breeding purposes, and the calves isolated and fed upon sterilized 
milk. By adopting a method of this sort, which is both economical 
and practical, the objection so often made that tuberculin does not 
give an indication of the character of disease is easily dispensed with. 
The moment that the disease is found present, that moment the indi- 
vidual becomes dangerous to the rest of the cattle in the herd, and 
the necessary precautions should be taken. 

In Denmark and in several places in this country the method of 
isolating animals infected with tuberculosis and using them for breed- 
ing purposes has been pursued with excellent results, and there is no 
reason why the same thing may not be done generally in this country. 
In some localities this method could not be carried out satisfactorily, 
and then, of course, it becomes necessary to destroy the animals that 
are infected with tuberculosis. Occasionally this may be a hardship 
for the owner of the animal, unless the city or State is willing to pay 
for the animal a price which would, at any rate, partially reimburse 
him for his loss. It is quite as legitimate for this to be done as for 
the adoption of any other sanitary regulations which are of importance 
for the health of the community. 

It occasionally happens that animals badly diseased or in an excited 
condition from various causes have a high temperature at the time 
of injection and will not give a satisfactory reaction to tuberculin. 
In these cases, however, the disease is usually so far advanced that 
it can be detected very readily upon physical examination. These 
exceptions can not be used as objections to the utility of tuberculin, 
and do not depreciate its value in the slightest degree. It also occa- 
sionally happens that some animals but slightly affected with disease 
will not react or animals which upon post-mortem appear perfectly 
healthy have shown reaction. The eminent veterinarian Nocard and 
others, however, claim that, in all cases in which very careful post- 
mortem examinations have been made upon animals which had reacted 
to the tuberculin test but did not show marked post-mortem lesions, 
they have demonstrated that the germ of the disease was present in 
the system and had just begun its development. To prove this the 
most careful bacteriological examination and inoculation tests are 
necessary. The tuberculin test, it is true, is not infallible, but the 
mistakes that may occur from its use are so few and it is so much 
more nearly perfect than any other method that we have at hand that 
for practical purposes it may be considered sure. While it may be 
many years before tuberculosis can be practically eradicated from 
herds, and while it would require many stringent State and national 
regulations to succeed in stamping it out, nevertheless by the use of 



PREPARATION AND USE OF TUBERCULIN. 119 

tuberculin and proper methods of disinfection of stables and other 
localities which have been infected by diseased animals it will be pos- ' 
sible in a comparatively short time to greatly reduce the number of 
cases of this disease. Dr. Pearson's report to the Pennsylvania board 
of health indicates a reduction of 33 per cent in cases of tuberculosis 
in that State. 

As tuberculosis in animals is reduced so will the disease in man be 
proportionately decreased. There is every evidence to prove conclu- 
sively that man may be infected with tuberculosis* by drinking the 
milk from tuberculous animals. Recent work, combined with many 
experiments that have been conducted in past years, has shown that 
the tubercle germ of human origin or the tubercle germ of animal 
origin can adapt itself very readily to its surroundings and grow upon 
different varieties of media and at different temperatures without its 
pathogenic or disease-producing properties being destroyed. 

It was claimed for a long time that the human tubercle bacillus was 
not pathogenic for birds. Very recently, however, Nocard has shown 
that if a culture of the human bacillus be placed in a collodion sack 
and this sack introduced into the peritoneal cavity of a chicken, after 
four weeks or more the germ will have assumed the appearance of the 
avian bacillus and will have become pathogenic for chickens. Again, 
the tubercle germ has been recently isolated from carp. It was dem- 
onstrated very conclusively that these carp were infected from the 
sputum of a badly tuberculous individual, which sputum was thrown 
regularly into the pond occupied by the carp. The germ isolated 
from the carp grew at a very much lower temperature than the human 
germ, but its origin was undoubtedly human. All this work has 
proven very conclusively that the tubercle bacillus found in different 
animals may adapt itself very readily to different surroundings, may 
be accustomed to grow at lower or higher temperatures, and may 
eventually grow under conditions that would have been originally 
entirely destructive to it. This latter point has been very practically 
demonstrated in this laboratory, the experiments showing that the 
tubercle bacillus can be gradually accustomed to a nutrient liquid 
containing glycerin, sodium and potassium phosphate, and ammo- 
nium phosphate. When obtained directly from the animal the germ 
will not grow on this solution, but by cultivating it first upon a 
medium which more nearly produces the conditions that the germ 
finds in the animal body it can then be transferred to the solution of _ 
mineral salts and caused to grow rapidly and in great abundance. 
If such conditions can be produced artificially outside of the body 
there is certainly every reason to believe that the germ can very read- 
ily adapt itself to changes in temperature and nutrient conditions 
that are found in the bodies of different animals and still cause tuber- 
culosis. 

During the seven years that tuberculin has been prepared in this 
laboratory for distribution by the Bureau of Animal Industry to 



120 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

various State officials and experiment stations, the results have been 
very generally satisfactory. Thousands of reports have been received, 
from nearly every State in the Union, from Canada and the West 
Indies, and from many different sources, and with one or two excep- 
tions (exceptions arising very probably from the fact that the users 
of the material were not experienced in handling it) all have realized 
the importance and usefulness of tuberculin. 

There have been one or two cases in which it was claimed that the 
tuberculin gave misleading results. One may be noted especially. A 
supply of tuberculin had been sent from this laboratory in the spring 
of the year to a certain State veterinarian who distributed it to some 
of his assistants. One of these assistants kept the bottles standing in 
his office for several months in the hot sun. He then used some of 
their contents to test an animal, which, according to report, passed the 
test, and was sold. Subsequently, with another lot of tuberculin, the 
animal showed the tuberculin reaction, which diagnosis was proved 
upon post-mortem examination. The doctor to whom this tuberculin 
had be«n sent was requested to forward the bottle from which the 
material had been used to this laboratory. He said that he could not 
get this, but sent another bottle from the same lot which had not been 
opened but kept under the same conditions. This latter bottle was 
kept for some six or eight months, until an opportunity occurred to have 
the veterinarian of the District of Columbia use some of it. He was 
told that it was old tuberculin, and that nothing was known about its 
reliability, but that he could use it upon animals which showed signs 
of tuberculosis. This he did, and reported a very characteristic 
reaction. The writer feels sure that the failure reported in the first 
instance was due to a personal error and not to the tuberculin. 

Contrary to the generally accepted statement, the diluted bottled 
tuberculin has often been kept in this laboratory for two or three 
years or more without its losing its active properties. In order, how- 
ever, to avoid all trouble, the usual recommendation is that the tuber- 
culin sent out shall not be used more than six weeks after the date 
upon the bottle, which indicates the time when it was diluted in the 
laboratory. This may be an unnecessary precaution, but one which 
seems advisable when the material is placed with such a large number 
of people. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

In conclusion, it would seem that the preparation of tuberculin 
should always be conducted under experienced direction. It should 
be distributed through some central authority, so that the results 
from its use can be collected and tabulated and serve as a source of 
general information. It is an invaluable test, and by its use, as has 
been demonstrated by several of the States, especially Vermont, it is 
certainly possible to reduce very materially tuberculosis among cattle, 
and it may be possible to eventually exterminate it. 



THE PRINCIPAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO 

PLANT. 

By L. O. Howard, Ph. D., 
Entomologist. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The tobacco plant, although indigenous to America, does not suffer 
so greatly from the attacks of insects in the United States as do others 
of our crop plants. It has no insect enemies peculiar to itself, but . 
every season a certain amount of damage is done by insects, and in 
some years favorable to insect increase this damage may mean a 
serious loss to the planter. 

The most comprehensive work upon tobacco insects which has been 
published is in the Italian language, and includes a consideration of 
all species which affect this crop, both in the field and in the factory. 
But this work treats largely of European insects, being a special 
report of the entomological agricultural experiment station at Flor- 
ence, entitled "Animals and insects of growing and dried tobacco," 
by Prof. A. Targioni-Tozzetti. In this country there have been occa- 
sional accounts of specific insects in the different agricultural reports 
and in the bulletins of the State experiment stations. Prof. H. Gar- 
man, of the Kentucky experiment station, in particular, has given 
the subject much attention, and has done admirable work in the 
important direction of proving the possibility of the practical use of 
arsenical mixtures on the tobacco plant. The most comprehensive 
article which has yet been prepared in this country is, at the time of 
this writing, being printed by the Florida Agricultural Experiment 
Station as Bulletin No. 48, with the title "A preliminary report upon 
the iiisect enemies of tobacco in Florida," by A. L. Quaiutance. 

The present paper contains accounts of several tobacco insects not 
included in the bulletin by the Florida author, who, as the title indi- 
cates, treats only of the species occurring in Florida, but the writer 
defers to Professor Quaintance in matters of actual field experience 
concerning several of the species, and wishes here to express his 
thanks for advance proof sheets of the bulletin in question, which 
have enabled him to make this paper more complete than it would 
otherwise have been. 

From the time when the seed is sown in the seed bed to the time 
when the tobacco field is plowed under to some late fall crop, the 

121 



122 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OV AGRICULTURE. 

tobacco plant is subject to the attacks of several species of insects. 
Throughout the tobacco-growing regions of the United States there is 
probably no one insect which does more damage to the marketed prod- 
uct than the tobacco flea-beetle, or "flea bug," as it is commonly 
known to growers (Epitrixparvula). The large horn worms or " horn- 
blowers," also insects of wide distribution, tobacco growers must 
always fight. The bud worm, which may be either the larva of Helio- 
this rhexia or of the cotton boll worm or tomato fruit worm or corn- 
ear worm, as it is called according as it affects different plants (larva 
of Heliothis armiger), attacks and bores into the central leaf roll or 
"bud" early in the summer, or later in the season into the seed pods 
or into the terminal flower stalk, and even feeds to a certain extent 
upon the leaves. Several species of cutworms are liable to occasion 
replanting in soil which has not been properly treated, and one or 
two of them rag the leaves late in the season. Certain wireworms 
also are liable to affect the young plant shortly after it is set out. 
Two or more species of plant bugs occasionally damage the leaves by 
inserting their beaks and sucking the juices, causing a drying and 
shriveling of the leaf in much the same way as the harlequin cabbage 
bug injures the leaves of cabbage. One of these plant bugs, a small 
species, insignificant in appearance, has recently proved to be a seri- 
ous enemy to tobacco culture in Florida. Another new insect, and 
one which may prove to be a very important factor in tobacco cul- 
ture, is the so-called tobacco leaf-miner, or "split worm," an insect 
which although first found in North Carolina only two years ago has 
since made its appearance in Florida, South Carolina, and southern 
Virginia. These comprise the principal species damaging growing 
tobacco at the present time. There is always a chance, however, that 
new insect enemies may make their appearance just as two of those 
above mentioned have done in very recent times, and it is safe to say 
that many of the species which affect solanaceous plants, and especially 
the tomato, are liable to transfer their attentions to the tobacco crop 
under favorable conditions. 

After the tobacco has reached the factory, an insect enemy of impor- 
tance, and which is always to be feared, is the cigarette beetle (Lasi- 
oderma serricorne), a species which riddles the tobacco leaf, which 
bores into or out of manufactured cigarettes and cigars, and which, 
when once introduced into a not over cleanly factory, is very difficult 
to eradicate. Two or three other little beetles have been found in 
dried tobacco, namely, the drug-store beetle (Sitodrepa panicea) and 
the rice weevil (Calandra orysa), but they are not as important as 
the cigarette beetle. 

It .is proposed to give in this paper a short account of these insects 
and other species of less importance, with some indication of the 
proper remedies under each, and a concluding paragraph on remedial 
work as a whole. 



PRINCIPAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO PLANT. 123 



THE TOBACCO FLEA-BEETLE. 



(Epitrix parvula Fabr.) 

This active little insect (fig. 7) may be found in almost any tobacco 
field from Arkansas to Florida and north to Connecticut. It is a 
minute, oval, reddish-brown species, which occurs upon many sola- 
naceous plants, feeding upon tomato, potato, horse nettle, and jimson 
weed (Datura stramonium). The beetles make their appearance in 
July, attacking first the lower and then the upper leaves. After they 
have fed for awhile the leaf becomes full of small, dry spots and then 
of holes about the size of a pin point, which later may become con- 
siderably enlarged (fig. 8). When 
the crop is cured it is poor and 
thin, and frequently full of small 
holes. While the main damage is 
done in the beetle condition, the 
insect feeds also, in its early stages, 
upon the tobacco. Its eggs being 
laid at the roots, hatch in to minute, 
whitish larvae, which feed upon 
the roots, and, in the course of 
about a month, as ascertained by 
Mr. Chittenden, reach full growth, 
transform to pupae, and again to 
adult beetles. The damage done 
to the roots in this way must affect 
the health of the plant to a certain 
extent, but it is not appreciable in 
comparison with the damage which 
the adult beetles do to the leaves. 
The insect, in its early stages, is not confined to tobacco, but feeds 
also upon the nightshade and the jimson weed, as also ascertained by 
Mr. Chittenden. 

It is not alone in the actual damage to the leaves done by the jaws 
of the beetle that this insect is injurious to the foliage of tobacco, but 
through the further fact that these little holes, even when the punc- 
ture is not through the entire thickness of the leaf, become the 
entrance points of fungous spores or bacteria, which start a disease of 
the leaf which frequently damages it much more than the insects 
themselves. In moist weather this disease, started by the flea-beetles, 
may do considerable damage when the flea-beetles themselves are 
comparatively scarce. 

By some writers the round white spots in the leaves, which are 
illustrated in fig. 9, have been considered to result from the initial 
work of the tobacco flea-beetle; but, as reported by several workers 
upon fungous diseases, these spots have been shown to be invaded by 




Fig. 7. —Epitrix parvula : a, adult beetle; 6, 
larva, lateral view; c, head of larva; d, pos- 
terior leg of same; e, anal segment, dorsal 
view; /, pupa— o, b, f enlarged about fifteen 
times, c, d, e more enlarged (after Chit- 
tenden). 



124 YEARBOOK OK THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



a species of fungus belonging to the genus Cercospora, members of 
which actually cause leaf diseases upon other plants, and which are 
certainly capable of damaging leaves in this way without the prelim- 
inary insect work. The commonest form of this damage seems to be 
caused by Cercospora lu'cotinie, and is known as "frog eye" or "white 

speck." Another similar disease known 
by the same names occurs in Florida, and 
another in Europe, where it is known as 
"smallpox." The "white speck" of the 
North Carolina planters is said by Ellis 
and Everhart to be caused by a fungus 
known as Macrosporium tabacinum. Al- 
though not proved, it is quite possible 
that the tobacco flea-beetle is more or less 
responsible for, if nOt the occurrence, at 
least the spread of these diseases. There 
is a fad for cigar wrappers spotted in this 
way. A patent on an artificial method 
of imitating these disease spots has lately 
been issued. 

The writer has visited tobacco fields in 
Virginia in which almost every plant was 
more or less affected by the tobacco flea- 
beetle. The upper leaves were spotted 
by their work, particularly near the 
edges, and the lower leaves were riddled 
with holes and almost covered with the 
white fungous spots. 




REMEDIES. 



Reference will be made later in this 
paper to the advantage of clean cultiva- 
tion in the tobacco fields. The destruc- 
tion of weeds, particularly solanaceous 
weeds, along the margins of the field, will 
be of positive benefit in reducing the num- 
bers of this insect, as well as other tobacco 
insects, unless (and this suggestion we 
make as one of much possible value) it shall 
be found feasible to grow a few clumps 
of nightshade or jiinson weed as trap crops for the beetles, the plants 
to be thoroughly poisoned in the early summer before the tobacco has 
been set out. The tobacco crop is one of a few which are peculiarly 
adapted to this kind of remedial treatment. In the ordinary course 
of tobacco culture the weeds are allowed to grow freely about the 
margins of the fields. Before the tobacco plants are set out, those 



Pig. 8.— Tobacco leaves damaged by 
Spitrix parvula (original). 



PRINCIPAL. INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO PLANT. 125 

weeds which are secondary food plants of tobacco insects, such as 
Solarium nigrum, Solarium carolinense, and Datura stramonium, act 
simply as concentrators and multipliers of the tobacco insects, so that 
the insects are already in force about the margins of the fields, ready 
to transfer their attentions to the young and succulent tobacco plants 
after they have been planted. From this it is plain that, if the mar- 
gins of the fields are kept free from such plants, the insects will not 
have as good a start, and will not be present in such great numbers. 
It also follows that, if a few attractive weeds are left in clumps, the 
flea-beetles and other tobacco insects of the immediate vicinity will 
concentrate upon these few weeds, where they can readily be killed, 
either by the application of an arsenical poison, if they are gnawing 
insects, or of a kerosene emulsion, if they are sucking insects. 




PlO. 9.— Leaf spots of old tobacco leaf— slightly reduced (original). 



Where preliminary work of this nature has been neglected, and it 
becomes necessary to treat the tobacco flea-beetle in the tobacco field, 
we are prepared to heartily recommend the use of arsenical poisons. 
Small as the insect is, and much as its initial work looks like the 
puncture of a beak rather than the nibbling of a pair of jaws, it is a 
true biting or gnawing insect; therefore, if the leaves be treated, even 
with a minute quantity of an arsenical poison, the insect will be 
reached by it in the - act of eating the leaf, and will be destroyed. 
This is not as satisfactory a means of killing the insect as the pre- 
ventive mentioned above, for the reason that, in order to get its dose 
of the poison, the insect must damage the leaf to a certain extent, 
and as there is a constant succession of new beetles, the leaves will 
become damaged more or less, even though the insects be destroyed; 



126 



YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



still, it prevents any great damage, and insects thus poisoned are out 
of the way for good, both as regards future damage by the individual 
and by its otherwise possible offspring. 

When the idea of poisoning the tobacco leaf was first suggested it 
met with considerable opposition. It was feared that the persistence 
of the poison might render the tobacco dangerous to the human con- 
sumer. This fear still exists in many quarters; in fact, the average 
smoker, and, still more, the average chewer, would hardly fancy the 




Fig. 10.— Northern tobacco worm, or "horn worm" (Protopar ceceleus): a, adult moth; 6, full- 
" grown larva; c, pupa— natural size (original). 

idea that his tobacco had, at any time, been treated with arsenic. 
The same feeling, however, existed when Paris green was first used 
on the potato crop for the Colorado potato beetle. It was expressed 
when fruit growers began to spray apple trees for the codling moth, 
and it still remains in regard to the use of arsenicals upon cabbages, 
in spite of the fact that most cabbage growers are using them, and 
that it has been repeatedly shown that the quantity of poison which 
is effective is so infinitesimally small that not the least possible harm 
can result to the consumer. The same holds with regard to tobacco. 



PRINCIPAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO PLANT. 127 



Careful experimentation by Professor Garman in Kentucky and the 
experience of practical tobacco growers in Kentucky and South Caro- 
lina have shown that, properly used, no possible harm can result from 
the application of an arsenical poison. Summarizing from the prac- 
tical experience on record, it is the opinion of the writer that Paris 
green, in the proportion of 1 pound to 125 gallons of water, is the 
proper mixture to apply to tobacco plants. Used at this strength, it 
will not kill all of the flea-beetles, but it will greatly reduce their 
numbers. It will also be efficacious at this strength against the 
young caterpillars of the horn worm, or hornblower, and against sun- 




FlG 11. — Southern tobacco worm (Protoparce Carolina): a, adult moth; 6, full-grown larva; 
c, pupa— natural size (original). 

dry other tobacco insects, as will later be shown. In the dry state, it 
may be mixed with twenty parts of spoiled flour or any fine dust, 
such as road dust, and dusted on the plants from one of the machines 
known as powder guns, or from a coarse cloth bag or sack. 

After the available portions of the plants are cut in the fall, and 
the planter is ready to plow his fields to small grain or some other 
crop, there will be a positive advantage in treating the portions of 
the plants left in the field with a considerably stronger arsenical mix- 
ture. * This, in the warm days of autumn, will kill the insects remain- 
ing in the fields, many of which would otherwise have successfully 
hibernated and put in an appearance ready for destructive work the 



•,.«5**!£<' 



128 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

following season. The writer was particularly struck with this point 
the first week in November in southern Virginia The tobacco crop 
had been entirely harvested, but no killing frosts had occurred. The 
days were warm and sunny and the nights cold. On the remaining 
portions of the tobacco plants in the fields were many flea-beetles, 
bud worms, and cutworms, which, a week or so later, would have 
entered hibernating quarters. Just at this time, with a slight.expend- 
iture of energy, the useless remnants of the tobacco plants could have 
been poisoned, and practically all of these insects destroyed, much to 
the advantage of next year's crop. 

THE TOBACCO HORN WORMS, OR HORNBLOWERS. 
(Protoparce Carolina Linn, and Protoparce celeus Hubn.) . 

There are two species of large sphinx moths whose larvaB, or cater- 
pillars, eat the leaves of tobacco, tomato, and allied plants, includ- 
ing, occasionally, the Irish potato. These caterpillars, from the fact 

that each bears upon one 
of the posterior segments 
of its body a rather stout, 
^' I y j, ^" ,,_l ,J """ curved horn, have become 

_ " , „ . „_ ,_ ■ , „ „ ,_ . , „ i popularly known as horn 

Pio. 12.— Southern tobacco worm dead and shriveled from , 

bacterial disease-natural size (original). worms. This term " horn 

worm " has, in some incom- 
prehensible way, been corrupted into "hornblower" in Maryland and 
Virginia, where it is applied to the adult moth. 

Tobacco growers do not distinguish between the two different kinds 
of horn worms, and for practical purposes it is not in the least neces- 
sary that they should distinguish them. As a matter of general inter- 
est, however, it may be stated that the horn on the end of the body 
of 'Carolina is red, while that of celeus is black. Both are green in 
color, with oblique white stripes on the sides of the body. These 
white stripes extend farther up on the back with the caterpillar of 
Carolina than they do with the caterpillar of celeus. The curious 
brown pupa into which the caterpillar transforms, which is found 
under the surface of the ground, and which is at once recognized by 
the handle-shaped process which issues from the top of the head, is 
distinguished in the two species by the fact that the handle-shaped 
process, which is really the tongue case, is much longer with the pupa 
of celeus than it is with the pupa of Carolina. 1 From these pupa?, or 
chrysalids, issue the adult moths. The moths of the two species may 
be distinguished from the fact that Carolina is darker, and the orange 
spots along the sides of the body are more vivid, while the center of 
the hind wings of celeus bears two distinct, zigzag lines, which in 
Carolina become blurred, darkened, and indistinct. All of these 
points are plainly brought out in figs. 10 and 11. 



1 The figures of both Harris and Glover are misleading on this point. 



PRINCIPAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO PLANT. 129 

Both of these insects occur more or less abundantly in the tobacco 
fields over the entire tobacco-growing regions of the United States. 
In certain localities one species will be much more abundant than the 
other, and in other localities- the numbers will be more evenly divided. 
In general, it may be said that celeus is the more northern species, and 
is found more abundantly in the more northern tobacco fields, while 
farther south Carolina is apt to be much the more common. In the 
tobacco-growing regions of Connecticut, for example, according to 
Professor Fernald, celeus is the more common tobacco worm, while in 
Florida the reverse condition holds. Both species occur from Canada 
to Florida, and as the region of tobacco culture fails in the North, 
both species feed upon tomato. Carolina extehds its range into the 
West Indies and South America, but celeus is not found south of 
Florida. 

The life histories of both species are practically identical. Vary- 
ing in date, according to the climate, the moths make their appear- 
ance, working their way out of the underground pupae, or chrysalids, 
from May 1 well on into June, pair, and lay their eggs singly on the 
undersides of the leaves. The young caterpillars hatch from these 
eggs, which, by the way, are laid in the dusk of the evening, in from 
four to eight days, according to Professor Alwood's observation of 
Carolina. In the course of their growth they cast their skin four 
times, and in less than a month become full grown, burrow into the 
soil, and transform to pupae. 

The number of generations in a year varies in different localities. 
In the greater part of the tobacco-growing region planters have recog- 
nized that there are two "crops" of the worms. This holds in por- 
tions of Maryland. At Blacksburg, Va., Professor Alwood has found 
that one "crop "is normal, and that there are occasional indications 
of a second " crop," or generation. In Florida, where the moths make 
their appearance early in May, according to Professor Quaintance, the 
first generation of caterpillars is not particularly destructive, but the 
second generation, which appears during July, causes the most dam- 
age. A third generation is normal, and probably a fourth, although 
in July caterpillars of various sizes may be found in the fields at one 
time. The retardation of development in some individuals, and ac- 
celeration in others, bring about an intermingling of generations, which 
is always marked in insects in the South where the number of genera- 
tions exceeds three. In Cuba, where the Carolina horn worm is said 
to be a severe pest to the tobacco industry, thei'e is probably an even 
larger number of generations. 

Actual damage done by horn worms varies greatly in different 
seasons. Frequently, for a number of years, they will not be too 
abundant to be kept down readily by hand picking, and then will 
come a season in which they are so numerous that it is very difficult 
to "save the crop without incurring a prohibitive expense. Again, 
1 A98 — -9 



130 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

comparative immunity during one summer will be followed by con- 
siderable damage the next. Professor Garnian, in Bulletin No. 66 of 
the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, states that the sum- 
mer of 1896 was one of extraordinary abundance. The horn worms 
"were present on bpth tobacco and tomato in myriads, and proved so 
destructive that some fields of tobacco were abandoned and in the 
fall presented only a wilderness of stems and midribs of leaves. In 
such fields as many as five worms, representing both species, were 
frequently observed on a single plant. Their advent was so sudden 
that before the seriousness of the outbreak was realized tobacco that 
had been the pride of the owner and showed scarcely a mutilated leaf 
was severely injured.' It was near cutting time when they became 
most abundant, and some growers preferred to cut their tobacco as 
the best means of saving it. On suckers in fields and on abandoned 
tobacco the worms remained until frosts killed the plants. Large 
numbers of both species were collected in October from such tobacco, 
and they were observed in fields \intil October 12." 

Both kinds of horn worms are extremely subject to disease and to 
the attacks of natural enemies. Caterpillars which are observed to 
turn dark in color are attacked by a bacterial disease, which invariably 
results in their death (fig. 12). Certain parasitic insects attack others, 
and all tobacco growers are familiar with the appearance of a horn 
worm partly or entirely covered with little, white, oval cocoons. Such 
specimens should not be crushed, since the cocoons are made by one 
of the most important of the parasites of these larvse, which, if allowed 
to emerge undisturbed, will increase the mortality among the cater- 
pillars. Others may occasionally be noticed bearing very minute, oval, 
white eggs sticking closely to the skin. These are the eggs of a Tachina 
fly, and the maggots which hatch from these eggs bore into the cater- 
pillar and eventually destroy it. 

REMEDIES. 

It will be unnecessary to repeat what has been said under the head 
of "The tobacco flea-beetle" concerning the use of arsenical poisons. 
When the first generation of horn worms appears (and each tobacco 
grower must determine the approximate date from observation in his 
own fields), an application of Paris green, either dry or in the liquid 
form, as elsewhere described, is by far the best remedy when the 
insects are numerous. In ordinary seasons and in certain localities 
the tobacco crop will not suffer so severely that it can not be protected 
by the ordinary process of hand picking, or " worming," as it is called. 
Most conservative tobacco planters send their hands through the 
fields to pick off the caterpillars and crush them, and rely upon no 
other remedial work. 

The adult moth possesses a long beak, through which it sucks the 
nectar of flowers, being attracted especially to the sweetest flowers 



PRINCIPAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO PLANT. 131 

and those possessing a long, tubular corolla, like the honeysuckle and 
the morning-glory and the flower of the Jamestown, or "jimson " weed. 
Many years, ago it occurred to an observing planter that the jimson- 
weed flowers might be poisoned to advantage, and from this sugges- 
tion has grown up the custom in certain parts of the country of squirt- 
ing into the flowers of the jimson weeds growing in the immediate 
vicinity of the tobacco fields a certain amount of sweetened water 
poisoned with cobalt or "fly stone." A modification of this process, 
described by Professor Quaintance, is as follows: "In the evening a 
quantity of the bloom of the jimson weed is procured and is placed 
promiscuously through the field under holes in horizontal slats, 
supported by sticks or otherwise, and into the flowers is placed, by 
means of a quill, a small quantity of this poisoned mixture. This poi- 
son should be of about the following proportions: Cobalt, one ounce? 
molasses or honey, one-fourth pint; water, one pint." This practice 
is so well understood among tobacco growers that it is hardly worth 
detailed mention, except to state that experiments at the Louisiana 
experiment station and elsewhere have proved that it is effective as a 
palliative. At the experiment station just mentioned jimson weed 
was grown for this purpose, and the writer remembers a doleful com- 
plaint by the director of this station some years ago to the effect that 
his farming visitors interfered with the experiment, since their horror 
of weeds was so great that, in passing through his grounds, they pulled 
up the.jimson weeds and spoiled his experiment. 

Many years ago Townend. Glover, the first entomologist of the 
Department, in mentioning this method of catching the moths of the 
horn worm, suggested the manufacture of artificial porcelain or tin 
jimson flowers, which would be perennial in the highest degree and 
could be poisoned year after year. The writer is not informed, 
however, as to whether this suggestion has ever been followed. 

A sweetened preparation, poisoned with arsenic, however, has been 
tried in Maryland by Prof. W. G. Johnson during the past year. The 
material was placed in wooden pails, perforated near the bottom and 
set in granite pans, into which the poisonous liquid was leached. 
These traps or decoys were set uppn stakes about the field a little 
higher than the tops of the tobacco. Although the experiment 
appeared to be successful, Professor Johnson reserves his final con- 
clusions until he has had an opportunity to make further tests another 
year. 

Most tobacco growers have learned by experience the necessity of 
carefully removing the worms from the leaves after or during cutting 
and before they are carried into the barn, since otherwise they will 
continue to feed in the_barn on the drying leaves. Where such care 
has not been exercised, the evaporation of bisulphide of carbon in the 
barn, in accordance with the directions and with the precautions which 
will be described under the head of remedies for the cigarette beetle, 



132 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 




Fig. 13.— The true bud worm (Heliothis rhexia): a, 
adult moth; b, full-grown larva, from Bide; c, 
same, from above ; d, seed pod bored into by larva; 
e, pupa— natural size (original). 



will kill the worms before they can do further damage, and the quality 
of the tobacco, as we have proved by experiment, will not be injured 
in the least, the reverse being the case when the smoke fsom a damp 

wood fire is used, as it is some- 
times for this purpose. 

THE BUD WORMS. 

{Heliothis rliexia S. & A. and Helio- 
this armiger Hiibn.) 

Just as there are two distinct 
though very similar insects 
known as horn worms, so there 
are also two distinct and rather 
similar insects known as bud 
worms, which occur frequently 
together in the same field and 
work in a somewhat similar 
manner. We shall take the liberty of distinguishing between them 
by calling one the true bud worm and the other the false bud worm. 

The true bud worm (Helio- 
this rhexia) occurs in the more 
southern portions of the to- 
bacco-growing regions,but has 
not been noted in tobacco 
fields north of Maryland, The 
adult insect is a small, green- 
ish moth, well illustrated in 
fig. 13. The larva or cater- 
pillar of this moth, also char- 
acteristically shown in fig. 13, 
is nearly always found in the 
bud of the tobacco plant about 
the time the plant is ready 
to top. In some seasons they 
occur in large numbers and 
damage the tobacco consider- 
ably. In the early part of the 
season, as a general thing, but . 
few of them are found, and 
in ordinary seasons they are 
not especially noticed during 
the early "worming" of the 
tobacco. In August they be- 
gin to be more abundant, and generally leave the plant about the end 
of the month, entering the ground, transforming to pupse and issuing 
as moths toward the end of September. These dates are Virginia 





Fig. 14.— False bud worm or cotton boll worm 
(Heliothis armiger): a, adult moth; b, dark full- 
grown larva; c, light-colored full-grown larva; 
<Z, pupa— natural size (original). 



PRINCIPAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO PLANT. 133 





Fig. 15.— Work of full-grown 
false bad worm In flower 
stem— reduced (original.) 



dates, but hold reasonably well as far south as Mississippi. As just 
stated, the greatest damage done by this insect is by the August 
brood, when it enters the rolled-up leaves or 
bud of the plant. In September and October 
the next generation of caterpillars is found 
boring into the seed pod and occasionally 
into the flower stem. We have received the 
insect at various dates from July 10 to the 
end of August from Virginia, Georgia, Ala- 
bama, and Mississippi. The worst account 
of damage which has come to us was re- 
ceived in July, 
1888, from Mr. 
J. S. Barnwell, 
of Darien, 6a., 
who said that in 
general this bud 
worm damaged 
his tobacco more 
than the horn 
worm. When 
young it occur- 
red abundantly in the buds and ate so 
many holes through the young leaves as 
to render them unfit for wrappers. 
The caterpillars of the last fall genera- 
tion enter the ground and hiber- 
nate as pupae. The insect has 
several other food plants aside 
from cotton, but its most abun- 
dant food in the South is the weed 
known as ground cherry (Physalis 
viscosa). It has been found on 
several solanaceous weeds, as well 
as upon cultivated geranium. 

The species which we have called 
the false bud worm (fig. 14) is the 
same caterpillar which, when oc- 
curring upon cotton, is called the 
' ' cotton boll worm ; " upon tomato, 
the "tomato fruit worm," and 
upon corn, the "corn-ear worm." 
It is the larva of JSeliothis armiger, 
a cosmopolitan species of varied 
food habits, and which, as its dif- 
ferent popular names denote, has a destructive propensity for boring 
into anything like a pod. Fortunately, tobacco is not a preferred 



Fig. 18.— Work of young false bud 
worm— reduced (original). 




Fig. 17. — Work of false bud worm in seed pods — 
reduced (original). 



134 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

food plant. The insect, lives on corn until the ears are too hard for 
easy attack, and then transfers its attention to other plants. From 
this it results that it is usually only late in the season that the larvae 
are found upon tobacco. Here it works much as does the true bud 
worm, boring into the seed pods and into the flower stalks, as indi- 
cated in figs. 15, 16, and 17, and also, more rarely, feeding upon the 
leaves. These remarks hold for Virginia. In Florida, however, 
according to Mr. Quaintance, the principal damage is done by these 
caterpillars during the early part of the year, when they do not have 
corn or cotton to feed upon. The eggs are deposited in the bud, and 
the larvae do very serious harm by feeding on the young and as yet 
unfolded leaves. A large worm may quite deyour a bud. In color 
and markings the false bud worm is one of the most variable of cater- 
pillars. On tobacco the writer has found specimens of a uniform, 
light green color, without spot or stripe, and others the general effect 
of which was nearly black. Between these two extremes many vari- 
ations occur. This insect, like the true bud worm, passes the winter 
in the pupa condition under the surface of the ground. 

REMEDIES. 

The arsenical spray recommended for the flea-beetle and for the 
horn worms will also be efficacious, to a certain degree, against the 
bud worms, but in Florida Mr. Quaintance has found it desirable to 
make a specific treatment for these insects, which, when they are very 
numerous, may be advisable, although it necessitates considerable 
trouble. He recommends sprinkling poisoned corn meal in the bud. 
He adds a half teaspoonf ul of Paris green to a quart of finely-ground 
corn meal, which is thoroughly mixed by stirring. He then makes a 
sprinkler of a baking-powder can, in the bottom of which numerous 
holes have been punched, so that when it is shaken the poisoned corn 
meal may be peppered over the bud. He advises that the poison 
should be frequently applied, and after heavy rains. 

With these, as with other tobacco insects, there is much to be 
gained by clean culture, in keeping down the weeds on which the 
insects feed, and also by careful attention to corn and tomatoes which 
may be growing in the vicinity. Late fall plowing is efficacious against 
both-species by breaking up the little earthen cells in which the pupae 
are found under the ground, thus exposing them to the action of 
frosts. 

THE NEW TOBACCO BUG, OR " SUCK-FLY." 
(Dicyphns minimus Uhler. ) 

This insect is not only new as a tobacco enemy but is new to science, 
and was named and described by Professor Uhler in November, 1898. 
The specimens from which the description is drawn were received at 
the office of the Entomologist from Florida, but Professor Uhler had 
previously received specimens from Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and 
Alabama, with an account from the latter State that it feeds upon 



PRINCIPAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO PLANT. 135 

tomatoes. It was first brought to the writer's attention in July, 1898, 
by Mr. T. A. Carroll, of Gainesville, Fla. Specimens which were 
received at that time were fed here upon tobacco through the remainder 
of the season. The eggs have not been found, but two generations 
developed between July and the killing frosts, on which date the bugs 
disappeared, hiding away in the full-grown condition for hibernation. 
The different stages of growth observed are shown in fig. 18. The 
species has been studied to better advantage in the field by Mr. 
Quaintance in Florida, who considers it a serious enemy of the crop, 




Fig. 18.— The "suck-fly" (Dicyphus minimus): a, newly hatched; 6, second stage; c, nymph; d, 
adult; e, head and beak from side— enlarged (original). 

and states that it has been known to growers in Columbia County for 
the past ten years. The first crop is generally not damaged to any 
serious extent, but the second crop and late tobacco are frequently 
quite destroyed. Mr. Quaintance also states that the insects make 
their appearance in injurious numbers during the first and second 
weeks in June, and that the full-grown bugs are first noticed in some 
restricted portion of the field, as on the plants in one corner, from 
which they gradually move over the field. They have been observed 
on neglected tobacco as late as November 22. 



136 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

The insects damage the leaf by sucking the cell sap through their 
beaks. The infested leaf soon becomes yellowish in color and some- 
what wilted, and the older leaves eventually split in places, so that 
they become very ragged. The immature specimens of the bug live 
on the underside of the leaves, but the adults live both above and 
below. The full-grown specimens are partial to shade, and may be 
observed feeding close to the margin of a shade thrown by an over- 
hanging leaf. Experienced tobacco growers say that leaves which 
have been badly infested with the " suck-fly" are very difficult, if not 
impossible, to properly cure. Mr. Quaintance says that the eggs are 
deposited singly in the tissues of the leaf, and mainly in the smaller 
veinlets. He finds that the egg state lasts about four days, and that 
in Florida the entire life cycle of a given generation is only about 
fifteen days. He was unable to keep the adult insect alive in a breed- 
ing cage for more than six days, but we have kept them in Washing- 
ton City for at least a month. 

REMEDIES. 

This, again, is an insect against which clean culture will be reason- 
ably effective. A thorough cleaning up of the fields and burning of 
the trash in the autumn are measures which should be adopted when 
the insect is abundant. Actual test experiments with different insec- 
ticides were made by Mr. Quaintance, who found that a concentrated 
solution of nicotine, diluted with sixty parts of water, will kill a large 
proportion of the full-grown insects and many of the young. He 
advises that this spray be applied early in the morning, as at that 
time the incects are less active. Early set trap plants will probably 
be an advantage in concentrating the hibernating insects, so that 
they can be readily killed. 

OTHER SUCKING BUGS. 

Several true bugs, which damage the leaves by inserting their beaks 
and sucking the juices, causing a shriveling or drying of the leaf in 
the same way as the harlequin cabbage bug injures the leaves of the 
cabbage, are found in the tobacco fields. Several of these plant bugs 
are known indifferently to tobacco planters as " stink bugs," on account 
of the disagreeable odor which they give out. We have never known 
any of them to be a very serious factor in tobacco growing. 

One of the commonest of these bugs in the more northern portions 
of the cotton belt is Pc&cilocystus diffusus Uhler. This insect is found 
in all seasons of the year, and when very abundant the remedies rec- 
ommended against the ' ' suck-fly " may be used. The writer has found 
it very abundant and in all stages of growth in Virginia tobacco fields 
as late as November. 

Another species is a green bug shown at fig. 19, and which is known 
scientifically as Euschvstus varxolarius. This is a species which was 



PRINCIPAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO PLANT. 137 



found by Professor Garman wilting plants in an experimental plat of 
tobacco at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station in the sum- 
mer of 1896, and which is 
suspected to have done more 
or less damage over quite a 
wide extent of country that 
season. 

An interesting little bug 
of the family Scutelleridje, 
viz, Gorirndce/na extensa 
Uhl., has been found dam- 
aging native tobacco at 
Cedar Ranch, Ariz., by 
Prof. C. H. T. Townsend. 
It is reported to be the only 
member of its family which lives upon tobacco, and as Professor 
Townsend found it to be very abundant, it is probably an important 
future enemy to the tobacco crop, especially if tobacco culture increases 
in the Southwest. 




Fig. 19. — Euschistus variolarius: nymph at left; adult 
at right— enlarged (original). 



THE TOBACCO LEAF-MINER OR "SPLIT WORM." 

(Qdechia solaneUa Boisd.) 

This insect, which is also comparatively new in this country as a 
tobacco insect, was first brought to the writer's attention as an enemy 
to this plant early in 1896 by Prof. Gerald McCarthy, formerly of the 
North Carolina experiment station. The adult insect is a minute, 
grayish moth, shown in fig. 20. Its eggs are laid upon the leaves, 

and the minute caterpillar 
bores between the surfaces 
of the leaf, making a flat 
mine, often of consider- 
able size, with a gray dis- 
coloration visible from 
both sides of the leaf. 
Frequently there is a dis- 
tortion when the mine oc- 
curs near a large vein, as 
shown in fig. 21. There 
are two or more genera- 
tions in the course of the 
summer, and the insect is 
more noticeable in the autumn than at an earlier date. Down to the 
present year the insect was known to occur as a tobacco insect in this 
countryin North Carolina only, the exact locality not having been given 
to us by Professor McCarthy, nor did he mention it in the little account 
of the insect which was published in Bulletin No. 141, of the North 




Fid. 20.— Tobacco split worm: adult moth above; larva' 
below at right; pupa below at left, with side view of 
enlarged anal segment— all enlarged (original). 



138 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. During the present year, 
however, Mr. Quaintance has found the insect damaging tobacco in 
many localities in Florida, and the writer discovered it mining tobacco 
leaves in Pittsylvania County, Va. Specimens have also been re- 
ceived from Mr. J. J. Wolfe, of Sandy Run, Lexington County, S. C, 
who states that he was troubled the past season by this insect, which 
made its appearance early and increased its damage as the season 
advanced. The writer of this paper is indebted 
to Mr. Wolfe for the characteristic name of 
"split worm," by which he states the insect is 
commonly known in his vicinity. He also states 
that during the past year it did more damage in 
his neighborhood than all other insects combined. 
When Professor McCarthy first sent this insect 
to the Entomologist for identification, there was 
found to be some difficulty in ascertaining just 
what it was. On consulting a specialist in the 
group of insects to which this one belongs, it was 
decided to be Gelechia piscipellis of Zeller, an 
insect which has been reared in this country from 
the common horse nettle or ball nettle (Solanum 
carolinense), and under this name it was treated 
in the North Carolina bulletin by Mr. McCarthy, 
and in the Florida bulletin by Mr. Quaintance. 
A more careful study was given to the insect, 
however, during the preparation of this paper, 
and a great similarity was noticed between it and 
an insect which has been known as the potato 
tuber moth, an article on which was published in 
Insect Life (Vol. IV, p. 239 to 242), and which, 
after being recorded as damaging the tubers of 
the Irish potato in Algeria, Australia, and New 
Zealand, made its appearance in portions of Cali- 
fornia, also working in potato tubers; in fact, 
the only difference noted in the series reared 
from potato tubers from California and from 
tobacco leaves in North Carolina was a general 
difference in size. On comparison of the larvse 
and pupse from the two food plants these also 
were found to be identical. 

To settle the matter beyond all question, a series of the moths from 
potato and tobacco were sent to Lord Walsingham, the English author- 
ity on the insects of this group, who confirmed our surmise as to their 
identity; and the tobacco leaf-miner inttst now be known as Gelechia 
solanella Boisduval. It transpires also that the same insect has 
been observed injuring tobacco in New South Wales " by burrowing 




Fig. 21.— Work of split 
worm— reduced(orlglnal). 



PRINCIPAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO PLANT. 139 

within the stems and larger branches;" 1 that it also occurs in tobacco 
in Algeria, and that it has also been described under the different 
name (Gelechia tabacella Ragonot) as injuring tobacco in Algeria. 
In this country it has also been observed by Professor McCarthy as 
mining in the leaves of horse nettle {Solanum carolinense) on the 
margins of tobacco fields, and is recorded by Mr. Quaintance as min- 
ing in the leaves of tomato and in the leaves and boring into the 
fruit of the eggplant. We have, therefore, as its food plants, potato, 
tobacco, horse nettle, tomato, and eggplant; and as its localities, east- 
ern Australia, New Zealand, California, Colorado, Florida, South 
Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. 

In Florida the leaf-miners make their appearance about the last of 
May, and are said to occur as late as October. There are several 
generations each year. In southern Virginia the writer found full- 
grown larvaB in the lower leaves of tobacco plants about the margins 
of the fields as late as November 2. The insect was not known to 
tobacco growers in that vicinity, and when one prominent and excep- 
tionally well-informed tobacco planter was shown these leaf blotches 
he said: "That is not the work of an insect, but is what we call 
'wet weather rot,'" and appeared surprised when the writer pulled 
apart the two surfaces of the leaf and showed him the little worm. 
At that season of the year the little mining caterpillar was something 
over a quarter of an inch in length and of a dull greenish color, with 
darker head and thorax. 

REMEDIES. 

Professor Quaintance has shown that in Florida this leaf-miner, 
when feeding, does not pass its entire life in one place, but after eat- 
ing for awhile it will gnaw to the outside, and then crawling around 
over the leaf, will finally enter the tissue again in a new place. From 
this habit of the insect, it at once becomes evident that it will be sub- 
ject to destruction by an arsenical spray, just as are the caterpillars 
which uniformly feed externally upon the leaves. Moreover, from 
the fact that in Virginia and North Carolina it is frequently well on 
into July before the tobacco crop is planted out, the early generation 
of the insect must be passed in some other food plant. Where horse 
nettles are present in the vicinity of the fields the insects will feed in 
the leaves' of this plant, and the second generation will attack the 
tobacco fields. The destruction of all horse nettles, then, about June 1, 
will be a practical measure which will reduce the numbers of the 
split worms in tobacco to a minimum. 

Although this insect has not been found in the nightshade and the 
jimson weed, it is altogether likely that it will also attack these weeds, 
and their destruction, therefore, is equally to be recommended.- 

The insect doubtless passes the winter in the leaves as a larva or a 
pupa, and the advisability of destroying old, blotched leaves which 

1 A. S. Olliff, Agr. Gaz., N. S. W., September, 1892. 



140 



YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



have no value is at once evident. Clean culture in this direction 
is advisable on other grounds, and is certainly desirable as a means 
of reducing the numbers of this species. 

The partial synonymy furnished to the writer by Lord Walsingham 
is as follows: 

Solanella, Bdv. 

Gelechia terreUa, > Wkr. Cat. Lp. Ins. B. M., XXX, 1024 (1864). Bryotropha sola- 
nella Bdv., J. B. Soc. Cent. Hort. 1874; Rag. Bull. Soc. Ent. Pr. 1875, XXXV- 
XXXVII. Gelechia tabacella, Rag. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1879, CXLVI-CXLVII. 
Geleehia solanella, Meyr. Pr. Lin. Soc. N. S. W., US (1879); N. Z.Jr. Sc.,11, 590 
(1885). Lita tabacella. Rag. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, CXI-CXII. Gelechia sola- 
nella, Meyr. Tr. N. Z. Inst., XVIII, 166-7 (1886). Lita solanella (Olliff), Agr. 
Gaz. N, S. W., II, 158-9 (1891). 

CUTWORMS. 

Tobacco is no less subject to the attacks of cutworms than are many 
other crops. Grown in seed beds, as it is, and set out in newly plowed 
fields in the summer, the plants are naturally attacked by the hungry 
worms, which for some days at least had existed in the soil deprived 
of food. It is a common experience with tobacco growers, as well 

as other agricultur- 
ists, that cutworms 
are always more 
numerous in fields 
left in fallow for a 
period before being 
planted to certain 
crops. There is a 
greater variety of 
vegetation in such 
fields, and the 
moths which lay 
the eggs which pro- 
duce the cutworms 
are more apt to be 
attracted. Tobacco 
growers who have 
planted their fields 
to clover after the 
removal of the tobacco crop are also apt to find that there are plenty 
of cutworms present the following season. Those who plant winter 
grain, however, find that the following crop is less liable to damage 
by cutworms. This indicates the relative value of different crop- 
ping methods. It is a comparatively simple matter, however, to rid a 
field of cutworms before planting out the tobacco, and as a measure of 
safety this course may be followed to advantage. After the field is 




FlO. 32. — Peridromia saucia: a, adult; 6, c, d, full-grown larvre; e, /, 
eggs— all natural size except e, which is greatly enlarged(original). 



1 Oldest name but a homonym. 



PRINCIPAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO PLANT. 141 




Fig. 23.— Agrotis ypsilon, one of the tobacco 
cutworms: a, larva; b, head of same; c, 
adult— natural size (original). 



plowed and is bare of vegetation and ready for planting, if the tobacco 
grower will thoroughly spray a patch of grass or weeds with Paris green 
and water, and will then cut it and drop it in little bunches here and 
there throughout the tobacco field, he will find that the cutworms in 
the soil, in the 'absence of other food, will eat this cut poisoned vege- 
tation and will be destroyed, so that 
the tobacco plants can be set out 
without fear of damage. 

Without such preventive treat- 
ment (and especially when, as indi- 
cated above, the land has grown up 
with weeds, grass, afld other wild 
vegetation) before the planting out 
of the tobacco crop, the result will 
frequently be the cutting down by 
the cutworms of a large proportion 
of the tobacco plants; and the 
writer has known of instances 
where more than one-half of the 
crop had to be replanted. 

Some farmers, instead of a poi- 
soned trap of green vegetation, prefer the so-called bran-arsenic mash, 
which originally came into use as a remedy against insects in Cali- 
fornia, where it was successfully used against the Calif ornia devastat- 
ing grasshopper. It was first tried against cutworms in California 
also successfully. In the East It has been used against cutworms 
affecting different crops, and with the greatest success in southern 

Virginia against the Amer- 

. i . ^»^^ \ / ^^A ican locust or grasshopper. In 

jHfll 8 fet^S^^M W the tobacco field it has also 

4| F ,^J |M§$i been successfully used against 

f"**"** SK^T^ iM KS^^ cutworms in Florida. The 

bait, or mash, is prepared by 
thoroughly mixing Paris green 
and bran at the rate of 1 pourid 
of Paris green to 50 or 75 
pounds of bran. Just before 
using, it should be moistened 
slightly with water and sweet- 
ened with molasses. The 
Florida custom is to put a 
small ring of the poisoned mixture around, each newly set plant, or to 
place a teaspoonful at two or three different places. Cutworms pre- 
fer this poisoned mash even to green vegetation. It should be 
renewed frequently, and fowls or live stock should not be allowed 
access to it. Mr. Quaintance recommends that where seed beds are 




t'io. 24.— Agrotis annexa: a, larva; /, pupa; h, 
adult— natural size (h, original; others from Ann. 
Bept. U. S. Dept. Agr.,1894). 



142 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



badly infested with cutworms the poisoned bran should be drilled 
along in various parts of the bed where it will be readily accessible 
to them. The bran-arsenic mash produces the best results when it 
is used as we have recommended for the poisoned-vegetation trap 
to rid the land of cutworms before the tobacco plants are transferred 
from seed bed to field. In this case the land is prepared before- 
hand, and a little of the mash is dropped in the drill near the place 
where the plant will be set. Prof. W. G. Johnson recommends that 

this should be done from 
three to five days before the 
plants are set out. 

A number of different spe- 
cies of cutworms may be 
concerned in this damage, 
and some of the character- 
istic forms which have ac- 
tually been found in the to- 
bacco field are illustrated in 
figs. 22, 23, and 24. 

OTHER TOBACCO LEAF- 
FEEDERS. 

Several insects of less 
economic importance than 
those which we have already 
mentioned are occasionally 
found feeding upon the 
leaves of the plant. 
The so-called cabbage Plusia (Plusia brassicce, Riley). — This insect 
(fig. 25), which occurs in most parts of the United States and has a 
number of different food plants, has been found in tobacco fields in 
Maryland, feeding upon the leaves, by Mr. F. C. Pratt, of the Divi- 
sion of Entomology, although not in sufficient numbers to give it a 
high rank as a tobacco insect. It is one of the species which is 
readily destroyed by the arsenical spray. 

Mamestra legitima Grote. — This insect (fig. 26), which is allied to the 
cutworms, feeds exposed upon the foliage of different plants. Its larva 
is a very handsome caterpillar, bright yellow in color, with velvety-black 
longitudinal lines. It has never been recorded as a tobacco insect, but 
was found rather abundantly by the writer in tobacco fields in southern 
Virginia upon the leaves, which, in some cases, were badly ragged. 
This insect can also be easily destroyed by the arsenical spray. 

The tobacco thrips (Thrips tabaei Lindeman). — This minute insect, 
which sometimes does considerable damage to onions and which has 
been popularly known in this country as the "onion thrips," was 
originally described, in 1888, by Professor Lindeman, of Russia, as an 




Fig. 25.— The cabbage Plusia: a, moth; 6, full-grown 
larva; c, pupa, with its cocoon— natural size 
(original). 



PRINCIPAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO PLANT. 143 




Fia. 26.— Mamestra legitima: a, adult; 6, 
larva from above; c, same from side; d, 
head of game from front; e, pupa — all 
natural size except d, which is enlarged 
(original). 



enemy of tobacco in Bessarabia. It occurs upon many plants in this 
country, but has never been found upon tobacco, although in south- 
ern Russia it at one time caused much 
damage to the leaves, puncturing 
them and causing them to wilt. As 
this insect, occurring in this country 
as it does from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, may at any time be found 
upon tobacco, it is worthy of mention 
and of an illustration in this connec- 
tion. It is shown at fig. 27. 

The "white fly" of tobacco (Aley- 
rodes tabact Gennadius). — One of the 
insects, especially noticeable in Eu- 
rope is a minute form which looks 
like a small scale insect on the under 
side of the leaf. Its damage to to- 
bacco in Greece was demonstrated by 
Professor Gennadius in 1889. A 
closely allied or identical species oc- 
curs upon tomato in this country, but 
European specimens from tobacco 
have not been compared with our to- 
mato species, so that we can not speak 
positively as to their identity. The tomato species is, however, liable 
to be found upon tobacco. 

Tree crickets (Oecanthus fasciatus).— -Young tree crickets are occa- 
sionally found upon tobacco, eating the leaves to some slight extent. 
They do no especial damage, but are worth mentioning in this con- 
nection. The greatest damage done by tree crickets is occasioned by 
the punctures in the stems of plants like raspberry and blackberry, 
which are made by the females in laying their eggs. So far as known, 
they have not been observed to puncture tobacco for this purpose. 

In portions of Maryland these 
little insects are known as 
"chatteracks," presumably 
from the song of the male. 

The mealy bug (Dactylopius 
citriHisso). — In the course of 
greenhouse observations on 
tobacco plants at Washing- 
ton City it has been found 
that .the common mealy bug 
thrives and multiplies alarm- 
ingly upon tobacco plants. Since this mealy bug is an outdoor pest 
of many plants in the South, it seems from this experience that it has 




Pig. 27.— Thrips tabad: a, adult; 6, antenna of same; 
c, young larva; d,~ full grown larva— enlarged 
(original). 




144 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

only to be brought into the immediate vicinity of a tobacco field to 
spread upon the crop, and under favorable conditions it may occa- 
sionally do considerable damage. 

Plant lice. — Several, species of plant lice are known in Europe to 
occur occasionally upon tobacco, and several of our American species 
which affect solanaceous plants are liable at any time to be found 
upon tobacco. As a matter of fact, however, we have never known 
any especial damage to be done to tobacco by these insects. Late in 
the autumn of the present year the terminal leaves of the tobacco 
plants growing in the experimental plats of the Division of Entomol- 
ogy became covered with a plant louse known as Nectarophora tabaci 
Pergande. This species has been found by its. describer, Mr. Per- 
gande, of the Division, during the last two years upon the leaves of 
young pear trees on the grounds of the Department of Agriculture, 
and also upon the leaves of apple, Rumex, Leucan- 
themum, and Forsyth i a, as well as tomato and egg- 
plant. During the summer the same species was 
received from Dr. F. P. Phelps, of Mount Holly, 
"w^toSTrtTo* Md > with the information that 5 acres of tomato 
ter Binney). plants were covered with countless millions of these 

lice. The writer would not be at all surprised if 
in the near future considerable damage to tobacco by this species 
should be reported. 

The twelve-spotted Diabrotica, or "corn-root worm" {Diabrotica 
12-punctata). — In. Kentucky, according to Professor Gar man, this 
small, greenish beetle, marked with' twelve black spots, which is so 
common on cucumbers, squashes, melons, and other cucurbitaceous 
plants, is often found on tobacco leaves, eating small round holes. Its 
larvae feed on the roots of corn, and the beetle is only a casual visitor 
of the tobacco field. It can not be considered a dangerous insect by 
the tobacco grower. 

Slugs (IAmax campestris Binney, and allied species). — Damage is 
occasionally done to young tobacco plants in seed beds by slugs. 
Specimens were received last summer from Dr. H. T. Fernald, the 
State zoologist of Pennsylvania, which he said had very seriously 
damaged some of the tobacco beds by eating the young leaves. These 
specimens were submitted to Dr. W. H. Dall, of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, who said that they were young and badly contracted, but prob- 
ably belonged to the species known as IAmax campestris Binney, which 
is shown by fig. 28. 

THE CIGARETTE BEETLE. 

(Lasioderma serricorne Fabr.) 

Of the insects injurious to cured tobacco none approach, in economic 
importance, the species which has become known as the cigarette 
beetle. The name "cigarette beetle" is more or less of a misnomer, 
since the insect not only feeds in all kinds of dried tobacco, and even 
in snuff, but also in many other substances, such as rhubarb, ginger, 



PRINCIPAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO PLANT. 145 



cayenne pepper, ergot, turmeric, yeast cakes, rice, figs, prepared fish 
food, and dried plants prepared for the herbarium. 

Working as it does in all kinds of cured tobacco and living in this 
substance during all stages of its existence, it damages cigarettes and 
cigars principally by boring out of them, making round holes in the 
wrappers so that they will not draw (fig. 29). Leaf tobacco is injured 
for wrapping purposes by being punctured with holes made both by 
the larv«e and the beetles, and fillers and fine cut are injured by the 
reduction of their substance by the actual amount consumed by the 
larvae. The adulteration of fine cut by the bodies of the insects and 
by their excrement is also a kind 
of damage, though an entomological 
acquaintance of the writer insists 
that he buys infested short cut by 
preference, both because he can get 
it cheaper and because the bodies 
of the insects impart a distinct and 
not disagreeable flavor to the to- 
bacco. He admits, however, that 
it is a cultivated taste. 

The cigarette beetle is practically 
cosmopolitan, and probably occurs 
in most tobacco factories in the 
Southern States, as well as in most 
wholesale drug stores. In the far 
South this insect multiplies rapidly 
throughout the greater part of the 
year, and its development is practi- 
cally continuous in artificially 
warmed factories farther north. 
Observations upon the life history 
of the species were made by Prof. 
George F. Atkinson some years ago, 
when he was connected with the 
North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, and more recently by 
Mr. Chittenden, of the Division of Entomology. It seems tolerably cer- 
tain that there are two generations produced each year in the District 
of Columbia. Professor Atkinson says that he has seen the beetles 
in copulation in January at Chapel Hill, N. C, but Mr. Chittenden 
has never seen the beetles later than November or earlier than May. 
It passes the coldest of the winter months in the larva state. In arti- 
ficially warmed buildings the insect is apt to be present in all stages 
at almost any time of the year. Professor Atkinson observed that 
the larvro hatch in eleven days from the time of egg laying, and that 
they remain as larvae from sixty to seventy days. The larva (fig. 30) 
when full grown spins a fairly compact cocoon of a silky substance 
covered with bits of whatever substance the insect is breeding in. In 
this cocoon it soon transforms to a pupa and the adult beetles emerge 
1 A98 10 




Pig. 29.— Work of cigarette beetle— reduced 
one third (original). 



146 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 




Cb h O 

Fig. 30.— The cigarette beetle: a, larva; ft, pupa; c, adult; d, side view of 
adult; e, antenna— all greatly enlarged, e still more enlarged (re- 
engraved from Chittenden's illustration). 



later. Mr. Chittenden has found that in a warm room the entire life 
round may be undergone in forty-seven days. These insects were 
reared in a dry yeast cake, however, and not in tobacco. 

It. is only within comparatively recent years that the cigarette beetle 
has become at all serious to tobacco manufacturers in this country, 

but it has been 
^ooaee* 3 ***^ increasing and 
f -*— spreading of 

late, and at the 
present time it 
is found not 
only in many 
factories, but 
also in ware- 
houses, tobacco 
barns, and re- 
tail establish- 
ments. The writer knows of one little shop into which it was acci- 
dentally introduced in some plug tobacco. It increased, entered the 
show cases, and ruined a large number of high-priced cigars and cigar- 
ettes. The shopkeeper was in despair, but finally, at the advice of 
the writer, submitted his entire stock to fumigation with bisulphide 
of carbon, and thus completely rid his establishment of the beetle. 

REMEDIES. 

With a small establishment like the one just mentioned, it is a com- 
paratively simple matter to destroy the insect by means of the fumes 
of bisulphide of carbon. The place was clean and well-swept and 
dusted, and all that was necessary was to have a tight case (a show 
case was used) and the entire stock of tobaccos, cigarettes, and cigars 
was placed in the case in installments, and a saucerf ul of bisulphide 
of carbon was evaporated over night. In the morning the contents of 
the case were removed, the store was aired, and the next night another 
lot was fumigated. For. some time after this experience the shop- 
keeper in question used the same case as a quarantine box, and put 
all of the tobacco which he bought through the fumigating process be- 
fore he placed it on his shelves. Gradually, however, his vigilance was 
relaxed, and he has since had no experience with the cigarette beetle. 

In a large factory, however, the case is, of course, very complicated. 
The average factory is not a clean place. It is frequently an old 
building, roughly built, with innumerable cracks in the floors and 
walls, which, in the course of years, have become filled with tobacco 
dust and fragments. Even the crevices about the windows are filled 
with comminuted tobacco. Frequently large stocks of tobacco are 
kept on hand a long time. When the cigarette beetle has once 
obtained a foothold in such an establishment, it is a matter of consid- 
erable time, expense, and energy to get rid of it, and at the same time 
it is as much as the reputation of such a factory is worth to allow 
goods to go out containing any specimens of the insect in any form. 



PRINCIPAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO PLANT. 147 

There is an unfortunate and, the writer believes, wholly unjustified 
prejudice against steaming tobacco. Experiments carried on by Pro- 
fessor Atkinson in 1885 or 1886 showed that proper steaming will 
destroy this insect in all of its different stages, and the practical expe- 
rience of several tobacco manufacturers, whose establishments have 
been visited by the writer, has indicated the same thing. With this 
knowledge, therefore, barring prejudice, there is no reason why a 
tobacco manufacturer should ever put out any infested tobacco. It 
becomes important, however, to entirely rid his establishment of the 
insect, and here nothing but heroic measures will avail. Taking a 
room at a time, the floor and walls must be thoroughly cleaned, the 
walls whitewashed, and all beams and floor cracks subjected either to 
steaming or to a thorough spraying with kerosene or benzine, great care 
being taken to avoid fire in case the latter substance is used. Ben- 
zine is preferable to kerosene on account of its greater volatility, in that 
the establishment can be more readily rid of the odor, but it is more 
dangerous on account of its higher inflammability. The beetles are 
quite inclined to fly to the light and to settle about the windows; there- 
fore the window cracks should be especially looked after. With such a 
thorough treatment as this, taking room after room, the writer feels sure 
that the insect can be exterminated in almost any tobacco factory. 

Where it is not desired to use steam, experience has shown that, as 
above indicated, bisulphide of carbon may be used to good advantage. 
With leaf tobacco such a fumigation must be very thorough to kill the 
insects embedded in the mass of the leaves. Experiments made in the 
writer's office with hydrocyanic-acid gas show that it is not to be 
compared in efficiency with bisulphide of carbon for this work. 
While the bisulphide treatment is preferably made in a tight bin, it 
may also be carried on in a tight room. In either case 1 ounce of the 
liquid should be evaporated for every 62£ cubic feet of space, or 1 
pound for every 1,000 cubic feet. Every precaution should be taken, 
however, to see that the room is perfectly tight, and also that no fire 
is allowed to enter the room until after it has been most thoroughly 
aired. The vapor of bisulphide of carbon in confinement is inflam- 
mable and explosive. 

In cigar and cigarette factories much that we have just said will 
be applicable. The tobacco, before use, should be steamed, if possi- 
ble. Loose tobacco should not be left exposed at night. Boxes or 
piles of cigarettes or cigars, after being made, should be covered very 
tightly to prevent the access of the beetles. These precautions are 
more important during May and late August and September than at 
other times of the year, since at these periods the adult insects are, 
flying about in great numbers. This statement holds for Virginia 
and Maryland, but for Key West and other Southern points the dates 
will have to be altered. 

As a matter of interest, it may be said that there is a little four- 
winged fly which is parasitic on the cigarette beetle, laying its eggs 
in the larva of the beetle. This parasite is known scientifically as 
Catolaccus cmthonomi Ashmead, and has been found in several 



148 



YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



tobacco factories. It is doubtful, however, whether by its work it 
will ever rid an establishment of the beetle, but it undoubtedly helps 
to prevent rapid multiplication, and consequent great damage. 

OTHER INSECTS INJURING DRIED TOBACCO. 

There are several beetles which occasionally affect tobacco after 
the leaves are dried, in much the same manner as does the cigarette 
beetle, but none of them, as we have said, approximate in importance 
the latter insect. The so-called drug-store beetle (Sitodrepa panicea, 
fig. 31) , an insect which has an enormous range of food, and occurs 
upon very many articles found on the shelves of drug stores, whence 
its popular name, will also breed successfully in tobacco, although 
we can not say that this substance is its preferred food. No cases 
have been brought to our attention of any serious damage to tobacco 
by this species. The ordinary rice weevil (Ccdandra oryza), another 
insect which feeds upon various stored products, has also been found 
breeding in tobacco, although its importance as a tobacco insect does 




Fig. 3L — The drug-store beetle: a, larva; 6, papa: c, adult; d, adult from side; e, antenna— all 
greatly enlarged, e still more enlarged (reengraved from Chittenden's illustration). 

not exceed that of the drug-store beetle, if indeed it equals it. 
Another insect which, though not at all a tobacco insect, became, 
some years ago, the cause of a curious litigation regarding the rejec- 
tion of a large cargo of tobacco from this country by the French 
Government, is the so-called leather beetle (Dermestes vulpinus). 
The tobacco in question, in numerous hogsheads, was received in 
France, and upon examination it was found to have been perforated 
by numbers of the larvae of this latter beetle, which had burrowed 
into the tobacco for a considerable distance and transformed to pupae 
and later into beetles. The entire cargo was rejected by the French 
Government and returned to America, and the litigation which ensued 
• was through the endeavor to place the responsibility for the entrance 
of the insect upon either the shippers or the carriers. It was shown 
that the tobacco must, at some period of its journey, have been stored 
in close proximity to bales of hides affected by this insect. The 
larva of the Dermestes, instinctively on reaching full growth; crawls 
away from its original habitat and bores into any near-by substance 
to find a protected spot for pupation. In this case the larvae were 



PRINCIPAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE TOBACCO PLANT. 149 

attracted by the" cracks in the tobacco hogsheads, and not deterred 
by the pungent character of the contents of the hogsheads, they 
bored their way in, searching for a secure place to transform. 

FOREIGN TOBACCO INSECTS WHICH HAVE NOT YET REACHED THE 

UNITED STATES. 

In a previous paragraph we have mentioned incidentally the little 
■scale-like insect known as Aleyrodes tabaci&a one which has probably 
not made its appearance in American tobacco fields. Professor Tar- 
gioni-Tozzetti, the Italian writer, to whose work reference is made in 
the first page of this paper, has listed 144 species of insects found in 
tobacco fields of Europe and adjoining countries, the great majority 
of which, however, are not important enemies of this crop and most 
of which are never likely to be brought to this country. There are in 
south Europe several distinctive cutworms which injure the crop in 
the eame way as do allied forms in the United States; several grass- 
hoppers, which feed upon the leaves of the plant, and several cater- 
pillars which do occasionally more or less damage in the same way as 
do the leaf -feeding caterpillars which we have incidentally men- 
tioned. In south Russia (Bessarabia) there is a tenebrionid beetle 
(Opatrum intermedium) which injures tobacco by attacking the stems 
underground. There are several plant bugs, several species of plant 
lice, wireworms, and other forms of greater or less importance which 
are recorded by the writer, but, on the whole, probably none of them 
are worthy of extended mention in the short space of this paper. 

CONCLUSIONS. 
REMEDIES IN GENERAL. 

Upon looking over the whole ground, it seems to the writer that the 
tobacco crop is not a difficult one to protect from insects. It has not 
so many insect enemies as many other important crops, and the 
method of cropping is itself unfavorable to the increase of insects and 
favorable to their ready treatment. This is especially true of all 
portions of the cotton belt north of Florida. 

In the seed beds there is in general no great danger of insect dam- 
age, but if insects should obtain a foothold most of them can be 
readily and safely treated by means of the arsenical spray. 

After the plowing of a field into which plants are to be set attention 
should be paid to ridding the soil of cutworms. This can be done 
safely and easily by means of the poison-trap crop or the bran-arsenic 
mash mentioned in detail under the head " Cutworms." Where either 
of these remedies is used it is really a matter of indifference from the 
insect standpoint whether the land has been left fallow or whether 
clover or small grain has been grown. The planter can really follow 
just which course he thinks is best for his land without reference to 
cutworms, whereas without this treatment, as previously stated, fallow 
land or land, planted to clover is apt to be" full of worms, and the 
tobacco crop will have to be in part replanted. 



150 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

At this time, or preferably earlier, it is important that the solana- 
ceous weeds in the immediate vicinity of the field, and particularly 
the nightshade (Solarium nigrum), the horse nettle or bull nettle 
(Solarium carolinense), and the jimson weed (Datura stramonium), 
should be cut down, with the exception of a few marked clumps. 
These clumps will act as traps for nearly all of the tobacco insects. 
Practically all of the tobacco insects in the vicinity will be attracted 
to them and can be readily and economically treated with heavy doses 
of Paris green for the leaf -feeding species and with a spray of kero- 
sene and water for the sucking bugs. Large numbers of these insects 
can be easily killed in this way, greatly to the protection of the young 
tobacco plants when they are set out. 

During the growing season of the plants in the field there can be no 
doubt of the availability and usefulness of the arsenical spray. When 
used with reasonable care there can be no possible danger, as has 
been shown by careful experimental work and by chemical analysis 
of sprayed plants. Poison distributers, both for dry and liquid 
poison, are on the market, and the process is not an expensive one. 
It is used already by many practical growers, and it seems to the 
writer that the man who does not adopt it in time of necessity is 
behind the times. 

After the crop has been cut the stubs of the plants and many leaves 
will be left. Moreover, in a warm autumn there will be considerable 
suckering. All of the tobacco insects left in the field which can by 
any possibility reach this sparse remaining tobacco vegetation will do 
so. Most of the horn worms, it is true, have gone into the ground 
and transformed into pupse, but cutworms, budworms, leaf-feeding 
caterpillars, the last generation of split worms, all of the sucking 
bugs and the flea-beetles, during the warm, sunny, autumn days 
which precede the first killing frost will rely upon these remaining 
leaves and suckers for food. This is apt to be just the time when the 
tobacco planter pays no attention to the insect question, since his crop 
is gathered, but it is nevertheless just the time when he has his 
tobacco insects more or less concentrated, and upon worthless vegeta- 
tion, which he can treat with heavy doses of arsenical poisons or even 
with pure kerosene without fear of loss. There can be no doubt that 
a little insecticide work at this time of the year will so. greatly reduce 
the number of the insect enemies of the crop that the benefit will be 
felt in a marked degree the following season. The expense of such 
treatment would be very slight. A single individual in a day could 
cover a very large field. 

Two of the points just mentioned, namely, the use of solanaceous 
weeds as traps in the spring and the treatment of mutilated plants and 
suckers in the fall, have not previously been mentioned in any article 
upon tobacco insects as far as the writer is aware. He believes that 
both suggestions are eminently practical, and that by their adoption an 
enterprising tobacco planter can reduce insect damage to a minimum. 



PRUNING OP TREES AND OTHER PLANTS. 

By William Saunders, 
Horticulturist. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Natural laws are constant and unvaried in their operations. Our 
knowledge of natural laws is derived from accurate observations of 
causes and effects, and science offers the systematized explanation 
of these observations. The science of pruning, therefore, gives the 
explanation derived from the accumulated knowledge of ages of 
observations and experiences of effects produced by manipulation 
upon the branches and other portions of plants. When we take into 
consideration the lengthened period during which pruning has been 
practiced, the general intelligence of the operators, and the countless 
repetitions of similar processes ending in similar results, it is reason- 
able enough to presume that a sufficient number of facts have been 
observed to establish a complete science and determine principles the 
practical application of which can be readily understood and easily 
effected; but the frequent and apparently conflicting opinions that 
are constantly being expressed by cultivators and writers on this sub- 
ject prove that the operation of pruning, in its various applications, 
is not generally performed from an intelligent standpoint. 

Pruning is an operation of much importance in the management of 
trees, and complete success is nojb attained in fruit culture unless its 
principles are clearly understood. Plants left to nature maintain a 
reciprocal action between the branches and roots, and every branch 
and leaf removed must exercise an influence either injurious or bene- 
ficial; therefore no one should remove a branch until satisfied of a 
reason for doing so and foreseeing the influence and effects of such 
removal. 

It is the opinion of many fruit growers that the most uniform and 
satisfactory crops of fruit are produced in orchards where but little, 
if any, pruning is given to the trees. While it is true that the 
injuries to fruit trees and the losses to fruit growers from vicious and 
altogether unnecessary pruning can not be estimated, yet it would 
be erroneous to assert that trees should not be pruned at all. It is 
always judicious to thin oat the tops of trees when the branches 
become overcrowded — to thin out dead and weakly branches or to 
arres.t the growth of unruly or misplaced shoots; but the system, 

151 



152 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

which is altogether too prevalent, of making an annual visit through 
the orchard, removing or shortening branches as a matter of routine, 
and clipping the tops of shoots without any special object in view will 
in a few years assuredly diminish the fruiting capacity of the trees. 

TIME OF PRUNING. 

The season of pruning is, in some cases, an important factor in the 
management of trees. Generally any time during the winter or early 
spring months is chosen for pruning orchards. Where the object is 
merely the thinning out of thickly branched trees the season is not of 
much importance, and the work may be performed at any time when 
convenient; but when it is deemed expedient to remove certain 
branches for the purpose of adding additional vigor to those retained, 
then much will be gained by pruning early in the fall, or as soon as 
the trees have matured their growth and become deciduous. If pruned 
at this time the succeeding growths will be stronger than they would 
be if the pruning were performed later. This arises from the circum- 
stance that during winter plants continue to absorb nutriment by 
their roots. This nutriment is disseminated to all portions of their 
structure, thus increasing the size and strength of the buds. As the 
flow of sap is always directed to the extreme points of shoots, the 
highest buds are most fully developed; so that, when pruning is 
delayed till spring, and the points or upper portions of branches 
removed at that time, all the accumulated food in these portions is 
destroyed, and to that extent the plant is weakened. On the other 
hand, when the pruning is performed early in the fall the buds which 
are retained will benefit by the accumulated nutriment, which would 
otherwise have been distributed over a greater number, and these 
will, in consequence, start more vigorously in the spring, advance 
more rapidly in growth during summer, and their maturity Will be 
materially hastened, a condition of great importance when the summer 
seasons are rather limited for the perfection of certain crops. 

Late spring pruning has a decided influence in retarding early sum- 
mer growth ; hence, the operation is sometimes purposely delayed until 
just before leafing in order to diminish early luxuriance. 

Branches which have become diseased from the effects of blight or 
from any other cause should be removed as soon as they are observed. 
Prompt removal of these will check the further progress of the malady, 
which would otherwise destroy the tree. 

The action of sudden freezing of immature and imperfectly ripened 
wood in the fall or early winter is a fruitful source of disease. That 
apparently incurable malady in plants known as "yellows," in the 
opinion of the writer, based on forty years' experience, is the result of 
sap contamination of these frozen points, the prompt removal of which 
will, he is convinced, prevent the spread of the disease, and thus save 
the plants from speedy and ultimate destruction. 



PRUNING OP TREES AND OTHER PLANTS. 153 

"Prune in summer for- fruit and in winter for wood." 

Perhaps no advice that has been given in fruit culture is so vague 
and disappointing in its practical application as that embodied in the 
brief, and apparently pithy, words quoted above. It is evidently 
intended as a short, practical rule capable of general use, producing 
a certain well-defined result, while in reality it is a mere expedient 
that may be valuable under some conditions, and is always an opera- 
tion of experiment rather than one of certainty. The principle upon 
which the advice "Prune in summer for fruit" is based, recognizes 
barrenness in fruit trees as being the result of a predominancy of wood 
growth; also that any process or manipulation tending to reduce redun- 
dant growth, so long as it does not seriously involve the health of the 
plant, will favor the production of flowets arid fruit. By persisting 
in the removal of foliage from the tree while it is in active growth 
its vitality will be weakened and its general health impaired by the 
destruction of roots, which always follows the destruction of active 
foliage. 

There are various processes applied in the management of plants 
which have for their object the better production of fruit. Some of 
these are known in horticulture under the technical term dwarfing, 
such as grafting the pear on quince stocks, which represses the wood 
growth of the former and hastens its fruiting period. Other expedi- 
ents are those of root pruning, tying down branches below a horizon- 
tal position, and that already mentioned, repressing growth by the 
removal of foliage during summer, this last being the least definite 
or direct, because its usefulness depends upon conditions which can 
not always be foreseen or controlled. 

In the practical application of summer pruning, difficulties and 
perplexities are encountered which, as already remarked, render the 
operation one of uncertain result. For example, if the growing shoots 
of an apple or pear tree are checked in their extension by removing 
a portion of their points, say toward the latter part of June, the 
lower buds on the shoots will be forced into growth, thus forming 
numerous side branches, which have no immediate connection with 
fruiting spurs, and which will simply tend to a further thicket of 
twigs for removal in winter. But if the shoots are not checked in 
their extension until August, and the weather afterwards continues 
to be warm and dry, the probabilities are that the lower buds on these 
shoots will start into rather feeble side growth or short spur-like 
shoots, which will ultimately furnish fruiting buds. If, on the other 
hand, the season happens to be wet, and mild weather prevails 
until close to winter, these same side shoots will lengthen into slen- 
der twigs which will not thoroughly mature and which Will be of no 
value whatever. The difficulty in reaching successful results lies in 
the uncertainty as to the proper time to prune, because no two sea- 
sons are exactly alike, and also because trees vary in their vigor from 



154 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

year to year. Yet, upon this uncertain, indefinite, and constantly ex- 
perimental procedure is founded the advice, "Prune in summer for 
fruit." 

" Prune in winter for wood." A plant in a. healthy growing condi- 
tion will maintain proper balance between the roots and branches, 
and any destruction of either will to a certain extent destroy this 
natural balance, so that if a portion of the branches is removed after 
the seasonal growth is matured the roots will to that extent have the 
preponderance; the buds being thus reduced, those which are retained 
will receive increased vigor, and while the branches produced will be 
fewer in number they will be stronger in growth. It is questionable 
whether a greater aggregate of wood will be procured from the few 
buds than would have been furnished by the greater number provided 
no pruning had been done, but there is no question as to the fact that 
a greater degree of vigor is imparted to the fewer buds, and that it is 
a well-known and valuable expedient for increasing vigor of the 
growths of unhealthy and weak-growing plants. To suppose, how- 
ever, that winter pruning, as a practical rule, increases the quantity 
of timber in healthy trees is a fallacy. 

PRUNING BY PINCHING AND DISBUDDING. 

"Pinching" is a technical term used in horticultural literature, 
which, although well understood by the initiated, has a very indefi- 
nite meaning to the general reader, at least in its horticultural 
application. It is a method of summer pruning whereby robust shoots 
are checked at an early stage of growth by removing their extreme 
points with a pinch between the finger and thumb, without the further 
removal of foliage. This operation retards for a time the extension of 
such shoots, induces additional growths in other buds, and develops 
shoots where a more active extension is required. 

"Disbudding" is the removal of buds or young shoots that have 
not made more than one inch of growth, and it is the best practical 
method of preventing growths where they are not wanted without 
interfering with the health of the plant. 

Pinching and disbudding are the most rational modes of directing 
the growth of plants. If rigidly practiced there would be but little 
necessity for winter pruning or the removal of branches, small or 
large, at any time. It certainly seoms an inconsistent practice to 
allow a tree to make growths of wood during summer to be cut out in 
winter by saw and pruning knife, thus sacrificing and destroying 
what it has been the aim of the cultivator to produce, leaving out of 
the question any injury to the vitality of the tree. 

Even from an economical standpoint, with reference to labor, it is 
obvious that a saving will be gained by rubbing off a bud in May 
instead of having to cut a branch in December. Indeed, by proper 
attention to pinching and disbudding the amputation of branches 



PRUNING OP TREES AND OTHER PLANTS. 155 

will be rendered unnecessary, and the health of the plant will also be 
maintained, which is not the case where frequent pruning of branches 
is a routine practice. 

The perfection of summer pruning provides for the complete control 
and disposition of growth without involving any material removal 
of foliage. When the extreme terminal bud of a growing, shoot is 
removed growth will be checked without removing foliage and with- 
out injury to the vitality of the plant. The injury sustained by a 
rude and careless destruction of foliage is well exemplified in the 
management of grapes, where the summer pruning is delayed until it 
is considered necessary to cut from 12 to 20 inches from the point of 
each shoot, so checking the plants that further growth will be slow 
and the fruit fail to mature, the berries remaining green until frost. 
Nothing is more certain than this, that the full and perfect maturity 
of fruit depends upon a full growth of healthy matured foliage. 

PRUNING AT TRANSPLANTING. 

In removing trees it is all but impracticable to secure the whole of 
their roots, and the larger the tree the fewer, in proportion, will be the 
roots secured; it is therefore essential to the well-being of the tree 
that the branches be reduced in order to restore in some degree the 
correlation that existed between roots and branches previous to the 
disturbing operation of removal. The quantity of branches to be 
removed will of course depend upon the extent of root mutilation, 
and as this is rather an unknown factor it is a wise precaution to give 
the roots the benefit of any doubt by pruning the branches rather 
severely. 

In regard to trees from three to five years old, if lifted with ordinary 
care, it will be sufficient to cut the whole of the last yearly growths 
to within a couple of inches of the point from which they started the 
previous spring; this will reduce the leaf surface and still preserve 
the original contour and ramifications of the tree. Older and larger 
trees, in addition to this general shortening of the young wood, and 
where it is apparent that only a meager supply of roots has been 
secured, will be benefited by a judicious thinning of the larger 
branches, carefully preserving the form of the head and avoiding any 
appearance of heading back old branches. The branches should be 
thinned without leaving any trace of the operation, so far as the shape 
of the tree is concerned. 

These remarks are more directly applicable to spring planting. It 
has been stated as an argument against pruning at transplanting that, 
since the growth of roots is dependent upon the action of leaves, 
the destruction of leaves by pruning the branches will retard the 
growth of roots just when they are the most needed. While this is true 
in the main, yet the evaporation of 'moisture from leaves has to be 
considered. If the leaves are not abridged the juices of the tree will 



156 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

be exhausted by leaf evaporation before the roots become sufficiently 
active to supply the demand. Before roots can be renewed the plant 
may be completely drained of its sap, and of course perish. This is 
the reason why spring-planted trees may often send out a fine show 
of foliage at first, but as the summer advances and as the juices 
are exhausted the whole plant succumbs; investigation will prove 
that root growth has made no progress since the plant was removed. 
This is not so likely to occur in damp climates as it is in dry climates 
and under hot suns. 

Root growth is not always dependent upon a simultaneous action 
of foliage. Trees planted early in the fall, or as soon as they become 
deciduous, will immediately commence to form young roots, and will 
continue to do so more or less during winter. In the absence of 
leaves there is but little loss from evaporation, so that the sap of the 
tree will furnish material for root growth, instead of being exhausted 
in the air, as is the case in early summer. The condition of the soil 
is also more favorable for root growth than it is in spring, being, dur- 
ing the month of October, several degrees warmer than the air, thus 
favoring growth of root, while there is no tendency to growth by the 
buds, so that in early fall planting very little pruning will be required. 
It will thus be evident that the necessity of pruning trees when trans- 
planted is greatest when spring planting is in question; but in fall 
planting it may usually be entirely omitted, especially when- planting 
is done immediately after the fall of the leaves. 

PRUNING ROOTS. 

It is an axiom in vegetable physiology that the production of flower 
buds depends upon the presence of nutritious matter in sufficient 
abundance for their support; but to solve all the causes which will 
influence a plant to convert some of its buds into flowers while others 
will produce shoots is a difficult matter. There are, however, certain 
facts established by observation upon which reliance can be placed, 
and upon which practices have been founded with a view of hastening 
the period of fruiting in plants. 

One of the most apparent facts connected with this subject is, that 
a rapid growth and a fruitful habit do not simultaneously exist in 
the same plant. Young, vigorous trees do not fruit to any extent, 
while those that from any cause receive a check to growth will become 
fruitful; hence, it has been given as a rule that whatever produces 
excessive vigor in plants is favorable to the formation of leaf buds and 
unfavorable to the production of flower buds ; while, on the other hand, 
such circumstances as tend to diminish luxuriance and to check rapid 
vegetation, without affecting the health of the individual, are more 
favorable to the production of flower buds than of leaf buds. 

Many expedients based upon similar observations have long been 
practiced by cultivators; such operations as ringing branches, root 



PRUNING OF TREES AND OTHER PLANTS. 157 

pruning, and bending luxuriant growths have been familiar to many 
generations of fruit growers. 

When a tree has attained to a fruit-bearing size and shows no indi- 
cations of fruiting, but continues to maintain a vigorous growth of 
branches, and is evidently barren from excessive luxuriance, a judi- 
cious root pruning will have the effect of encouraging the formation of 
fruit buds instead of wood buds. 'Trees in this condition, if root 
pruned about the first of August, will receive a check to growth which 
will cause the formation of fruiting buds during the fall and show a 
flowering disposition the following spring. 

Some Asiatic conifers, such as the Japan cedar (Cryptomeriajcupon- 
ica), continue their growth so late in the season that they are overtaken 
by frost to the injury of leading shoots. Many of the evergreen trees 
from the Pacific coast suffer in a similar manner. These plants are 
apt to take a second growth when the weather is moist and warm dur- 
ing the fall, which growth is mostly destroyed by the first frost. Root 
pruning in August will prevent this late growth, and the trees will 
pass through winter without injury. The operation is performed by 
digging out a circular trench at a distance of from 3 to 6 feet from the 
stem, according to the size and age of the tree, and from 2 to 4 feet in 
depth, cutting all the roots that maybe encountered or can be reached. 
If but few strong roots are met with, and if it appears evident that 
strong taproots exist, the soil should be undermined with a sharp 
mattock, severing all the strong roots that can be reached; the soil 
is then returned, being well firmed as the trench is filled, and the 
process is completed. 

PRUNING HEDGES. 

The only form in which a hedge can be kept, to be of service as a 
fence, or as an ornament, or for purposes of shelter, is that of a pyra- 
mid. When it has attained a height of 5 feet it should be' about 3 
feet wide at its base, or surface of the ground, and all pruning should 
be directed with a view of securing this form. 

When the plants are first set out in line they should be pruned or 
shortened to within 2 or 3 inches of the ground and allowed to grow 
undisturbed during the first season. At the end of the yearly growth, 
the plants should again be pruned down to within 6 or 8 inches of the 
first pruning, any side or horizontal growths pruned within an inch 
of the main stem. During the growth of the second season the hedge 
may be partially shaped by an occasional pinching out of the points 
of stronger upright shoots, but preserving every shoot and leaf on 
the weaker side growths. In thus repressing the upright shoots and 
encouraging side growths a breadth of base will be secured, which at 
this stage is most important. During the following winter the hedge, 
if it has progressed favorably, may be pruned into shape, that is, 
formed into a pointed pyramid, the sides being from 8 to 10 inches from 
the center. These operations are in accordance with the principles 



158 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

that summer pruning will arrest growth to some extent, and that 
winter pruning will encourage the production of strong growths. By 
keeping these factors in view a hedge can readily be shaped with- 
out much destruction of growths, and as readily maintained in a 
pyramidal form; but if the more upright or top shoots are allowed to 
predominate, the lower side shoots will soon lose vigor, and thus the 
hedge will lose its efficiency as a barrier and its beauty as an object 
of ornamental utility. 

These details apply to deciduous plants, of which the Osage orange 
is an example. Evergreens, such as the arbor vitse, require less labor 
in preparation or training and maintenance than deciduous plants, 
as most of them naturally assume a pyramidal form, and by a prac- 
tice based upon the principles already noted good hedges can easily 
be produced. The main points are to keep the top of the hedge 
shaped to a point and allow the sides to expand sufficiently,' so that 
all parts of the hedge surface be exposed to light. Very rarely will it 
be necessary to trim more than once a year, and the best time for the 
work is just before the commencement of growth in spring. 

PRUNING STREET TREES. 

The ideal street tree is one having a straight, well-defined, central 
stem throughout its entire length, with side branches regularly dis- 
posed around it and subordinate to it. Trees grown in this shape 
will withstand fierce storms and sudden bursts of wind without 
injury. Not many deciduous trees naturally assume this form, but 
by timely pruning when young they can be greatly helped to approach 
it. This training process should commence while the tree is young 
and growth easily controlled. Not later than the second year after 
planting a careful inspection should be made after the leaves fall, 
and if more than one shoot seems developing to leaders, select the 
fittest and remove the tops from the others; also cut the points of 
any side branches that appear to require checking, so as to maintain 
symmetry in the tree. Practically, the training process should com- 
mence in the nursery, where the growth of a leading shoot should be 
maintained and all side branches kept back by pinching their points. 
These should not be removed entirely, as they tend to strengthen the 
main stem, and can be removed later. The tree should remain under 
nursery culture until it has reached a height of 8 to 10 feet, and at 
transplanting all the side shoots should be removed by cutting them 
close to the main stem to a height of at least 6 feet. No further prun- 
ing will be necessary at this time. 

The removal of all lower branches is rendered necessary, in order 
that they may not interfere with the proper use of the sidewalks and 
streets, but such removal has a tendency to weaken the main body of 
the tree and diminish its powers of resistance against the sweeping 
blasts to which street trees are oftentimes subjected. This trimming 



PRUNING OF TREES AND OTHER PLANTS. 159 

up from below will require attention for a number of years, because as 
the lower branches extend they will droop at the ends and become an 
interference. The points of these drooping branches may be removed 
for a time, but this will afford only temporary relief, and ultimately 
the whole branch will have to be removed by cutting it off close to 
the main stem, but this should not be done until it becomes absolutely 
necessary. 

The best method of pruning large trees in cities is sometimes a 
difficult question to decide. As a rule, the worst treatment they can 
receive is to cut off their tops, ' ' heading down " as it is termed ; when 
this involves the removal of heavy branches, so as to leave a mere 
skeleton of stumps, it not only destroys the beauty of the tree but 
induces decay, especially with trees that do not speedily send out 
growth immediately below the cut. Heading down is objectionable 
in so far as it causes a low, dense growth, not desirable even as shade, 
and increases the liability of destruction from windstorms. 

When trees become thickly branched and crowded as to space they 
are not improved by cutting the ends of the shoots, which merely 
aggravates the evil. They should, rather, be judiciously thinned by 
the complete removal of some of the branches. A skillful operator 
will remove one-third or more of the branches of a thickly set tree, so 
that the ordinary observer will not perceive that any pruning has been 
done, the tree looking as natural in its ramifications as if it had not 
been disturbed, and this should be the aim in all pruning operations 
as applied to street trees. 

There are some trees that respond more satisfactorily than others 
after severe cutting back. Of these, the two species of Platanus 
(button wood), P. occidentalis and P. orientalis, may be specially men- 
tioned. They are well fitted for wide streets or avenues. Their 
branches are wide-spreading and far-reaching, and they should not 
be set within 25 feet of a building; even at that distance the horizon- 
tal branches may, after a growth of ten or twelve or more years, 
become objectionably large, but they can then be pruned back with 
great advantage. 

This pruning is performed by cutting back the lower branches to 
within, say, 8 feet of the main stem, gradually shortening this distance 
as the operation proceeds upward until it terminates at a point at top. 
Trees treated in this way will start young growths at every cut regu- 
larly and evenly over the entire system, and after the growth of one 
year will present a mass of fine foliage, bringing out fully the pyram- 
idal shape, which will increase in beauty for many years without 
further attention as to pruning. The best time for this work is imme- 
diately after the trees become deciduous. Perhaps no other trees will 
endure this kind of cutting back so well as these buttonwoods. 



160 YEABBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 
PRUNING TREES FOR TIMBER. 

In growing trees solely for the sake of their timber there will 
be but very little pruning required, and that mostly to regulate 
growths when the trees are young. The object being to secure length- 
ened clean trunks, instead of short stems and bushy tops, it follows 
that an upright leading shoot should be encouraged, and all other 
branches kept subordinate. In the case of a young tree producing 
several upright, or leading branches, the best placed and most central 
should be selected as a permanent leader and all others checked by 
pruning a small portion from their points. Trees that are planted 
purposely for timber are set quite closely, so that they may become 
crowded and drawn up to tops with but few side branches. Of course, 
they are thinned when they become overcrowded by cutting off all weak 
side branches quite close to the trunk. The sooner such branches are 
removed the better; if not oyer 2 inches in diameter when pruned the 
wood will heal over them and knots in the timber will be largely pre- 
vented. All dead branches should be similarly taken off close to the 
trunk, so that they may sooner be covered over with sound wood. For 
the same reason this pruning back should be performed early in the 
summer when -the healing-over process will be most active, and decay 
will be prevented. 

PRUNING FLOWERING SHRUBS. 

The only pruning that may be considered essential for ordinary 
shrubbery is that of thinning out the plants by removing old branches 
that are about destitute of young growths. The worst treatment 
they can receive is that of shortening the summer growths during 
the fall, especially that of shearing them into round, stubby forms 
with hedge shears, at once destroying the natural, graceful beauty 
of the plants and removing the best of their flowering shoots just 
as they are preparing for an abundance of blossoms. For example, 
the Forsythia, usually a free-growing, hardy plant, will make shoots 
several feet in length during summer, covered with flower buds 
toward fall, and prepared to blossom profusely early the following 
year. Any pruning which shortens the shoots simply removes the 
flowering wood and can not in any degree benefit the plant. Deut- 
zias, Spiraeas, Weigelas, and similar flowering shrubs require the 
same kind of treatment. The bushes should be kept rather open, so 
that the branches may receive full benefit of light and air. This is 
effected by pruning out some of the oldest branches or thinning out 
some of the young shoots where they are too dense, and these should 
be cut close to the base of the plant, which will encourage the growth 
of vigorous flowering branches, thus keeping the plant floriferous 
from year to year. 



PRUNING OP TREES AND OTHER PLANTS. 161 

PRUNING RASPBERRIES AND BLACKBERRIES. 

The fruiting canes or shoots of these plants decay after the ripen- 
ing of the fruits and new canes are produced annually which bear the 
following season. In other words, they are biennial. The canes grow 
up in one season, produce fruit the next year, and then die. These 
old canes should be cut and burned as soon as practicable after the 
fruit is gathered ; they are of no further use to the plant, their removal 
allows freedom of growth to the young canes, and their destruction by 
fire effectually disposes of eggs of injurious insects that may be lodged 
in the old wood and bark. 

One of the most important operations in the pruning of raspber- 
ries is that of stopping the upward growth of young canes. When 
these have attained a height of between 2 and 3 feet the extreme 
points are pinched so as to remove the terminal bud. This, while 
checking the upward extension of the cane, will promote the pushing 
of side or lateral shoots from the lower buds, and when these attain 
a length of 10 or 12 inches they should be checked by pinching their 
points; these side shoots will produce the forthcoming crop of fruit. 

When the plants are three or more years old they will send up 
several young canes. These should be thinned to 10 or 12 inches 
apart, selecting the best and destroying all others as they appear. 

After growth has ceased in the fall, shorten the side shoots to about 
10 inches. This early fall pruning will be specially important if the 
growth has been suddenly arrested by frost, as the frozen immature 
points, if not promptly removed, may lead to a diseased condition of 
the canes. Early fall pruning will prepare the plants for winter 
covering in localities where protection is necessary. 

The ripening period may be extended by cutting down some of the 
canes to about 18 inches in height or pruning back the laterals to 
three or four buds after growth has started in spring; the buds which 
are left will make a later growth, and consequently the fruit will be 
later in ripening, but this extension of the ripening period will be at 
the expense of both the size and quantity of fruit produced. 

The blackberry may be treated in a similar manner, with the ex- 
ception that in summer, pinching the canes may be left until they are 
5 feet in length; the side shoots may also be allowed greater latitude, 
and the young canes may be given a space of 15 to 18 inches apart. 

PRUNING GOOSEBERRIES AND CURRANTS. 

The gooseberry produces fruit from spurs which form on the older 
parts of branches, the best and largest usually on two-year-old wood. 
The plant should be kept in the form of a low spreading bush having 
six or more branches, which should be 10 inches apart, and rather 
open in the center, so that the branches may fruit uniformly their 
entire length, which they can not do if densely crowded throughout. 
1 A98-— 11 



162 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The main object in pruning these bushes is to promote and main- 
tain a sufficient number of healthy, vigorous fruiting spurs, and as it 
is found that spurs on wood over four years old are vastly inferior to 
those on younger stems, a system of renewal should be followed 
whereby young branches will take the place of older stems to be 
removed. There will be no lack of young growths for renewal pur- 
poses, as shoots are constantly being produced from the base of the 
plants. Select one of the strongest of these, prune it back in the fall 
to about one foot in length, taking care to prune to a bud which points. 
outward, so as to preserve the spreading habit of the bush. The 
growth of the following season should receive similar treatment, the 
leading shoots shortened back, and any side shoots cut down to within 
an inch or so of the main stem. After the third year this new branch 
will take the place of an older one, which is to be cut out from the 
base. The annual pruning consists in cutting out all side shoots and 
shortening in the leading points, which should be performed during 
the fall, the sooner after the leaves decay the better for the crop. 

In all respects the currant should be pruned similarly to the goose- 
berry. Gooseberries and currants are propagated from cuttings of 
the young wood made into lengths of about 6 inches, set in the ground 
so that the topmost bud will appear level with the surface; except in 
extreme northern districts they should be set out in late September. 
Previous to planting, all the buds should be cut out except the two 
uppermost; this is to prevent the growth of root suckers, which other- 
wise become troublesome in the proper management of the plants. 

PRUNING THE APPLE, PEAR, PLUM, AND CHERRY. 

These trees are similar in so far as they produce their fruits on 
spurs which develop on wood of two, three, or more years' growth, so 
that their treatment in regard to pruning should be very similar in 
the main. If the tree has been properly pruned at transplanting, the 
first summer will develop the foundation of a well-defined top. As 
this result depends upon the arrangement and equality of growth of 
the young shoots, these will require attention, so that in the event 
of any of them showing a superior vigor, to the detriment of others of 
equal importance for future branches, the points of such shoots 
should be pinched off; but in so doing let there be as small a removal 
of foliage as possible, the object being not to materially weaken, but 
merely to equalize, growth. If the pinching and disbudding has been 
intelligently and systematically followed, there will be no necessity 
for winter pruning, and by pursuing the same general treatment dur- 
ing the second summer the foundation for a properly formed tree 
can be well established. If more branches are deemed necessary, 
they can readily be obtained by pinching the points of leading shoots 
during the earliest stages of growth, which will cause a growth of 
side shoots, of which a selection is made and others rubbed off. It is 



PRUNING OF TREES AND OTHER PLANTS. 163 

not well to start a young tree with a great number of branches, as 
they soon become crowded, to the great injury of the plant with refer- 
ence to fruiting. A young tree managed as above described can be 
as well established in three years as it can in five years where the 
foundation of the plant is sought to be obtained by winter pruning 
with the shears or pruning knife, entailing the total loss of much 
of the vital energy, instead of utilizing the entire growth in per- 
manently building up the tree. 

This system also encourages the formation of fruit buds. There is 
nothing more certain than that by pruning back the ends of yearling 
shoots the fruit-producing period is retarded and the fruit-producing 
capabilities of the trees abridged. Fruiting buds will not be formed 
where the shoots are pruned to a few buds, which are thus forced 
into the production of more shoots instead of forming fruit spurs; 
this would speedily occur if the buds were left to their natural mode- 
and condition of growth. 

It is perfectly practical to train a tree to any desired form without 
having recourse to winter pruning. When training is performed 
while growth is active, and the position of a branch is directed 
according to the wish of the operator, either by pinching the points 
of a growing shoot or by removing buds where shoots are not 
required, the greatest amount of vital energy is economized; but 
whe"re the growth of a whole season is undisturbed until the wood is 
matured, and probably one-fourth or even more of these yearly 
growths is destroyed, there is a positive loss of time, labor, and 
material for which there is no compensating advantage, to say nothing 
of its depreciating influence on the future of the tree. 

As the trees advance in age they will become somewhat crowded 
with branches, some of which can be removed from time to time as 
seems necessary for the well-being of the trees; but this thinning 
should be done judiciously, and only a small portion removed during 
any one season. Yearly inspections should be made, and those 
branches that have become destitute of fruiting spurs, except at their 
terminal points, should be preferably cut out in thinning and a young 
twig allowed to grow up and furnish new fruiting branches in the 
way of renewal. There will be no lack of young shoots for this pur- 
pose, as they will sprout from the base of the cut branch, and the 
strongest and best placed should be selected if it is desired to intro- 
duce a new branch; if new branches are not desired, all such growths 
should be removed as they appear. 

The plum and cherry are very liable to gum exudation when the 
knife is used in pruning branches of any considerable size, conse- 
quently the training of these trees should, as far as practicable, be 
controlled by pinching and disbudding. Some varieties of both of 
these species, when in a healthy condition, will make shoots several 
feet in length in one season, and under general treatment these 



164 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

growths are pruned back after the wood is matured, otherwise, long 
naked branches would result. The proper management is to pinch 
the points of these luxuriant shoots when they have extended about 
2 feet, which will cause the pushing and growth from the lower 
buds. Such of these shoots as are required for branches should be 
allowed to extend, and all other growths pinched at their points when 
they have made a growth of 2 inches; these latter will in time form 
a nucleus for fruiting spurs. 

The main object in the pruning of all these trees is to economize all 
the growth, to procure additional branches by arresting the extension 
of shoots while vegetation is active by pinching or removing their 
extreme points without waste of foliage, and by rubbing off buds 
where shoots are not required, instead of allowing an accumulation 
of yearly growths to mature, then removing and throwing them forth 
as waste, in furtherance of pursuing a reckless operation called winter 
pruning. 

PRUNING THE PEACH AND NECTARINE. 

The peach and nectarine produce their fruits on young growths of 
the preceding year, so that one of the aims of the pruner is to secure 
young growths fairly distributed over all parts of the tree, and to 
render these valuable by an arrangement of the main branches, which 
will result in the full exposure to light of all parts of the tree. An 
unpruned peach tree will in a few years exhibit the appearance of a 
few long, comparatively slender branches almost destitute of foliage 
or fruit except at their extreme ends, and which are likely to break 
down with even a moderate crop. 

A young tree during its growth the first season after planting will 
require but little care; presuming that it was closely pruned when 
planted, it may be allowed to make all the growth possible; the greater 
the amount of foliage the more will roots be extended, so that a good 
basis may be established for the future well-being of the tree. Pinch- 
ing may be necessary so far as to suppress the extension of any of the 
shoots that seem to interfere with uniformity of growth. If pinching 
has been performed when necessity indicated, there will be but little, 
if any, winter pruning required, and then only to shorten back shoots 
in order to maintain regularity in the formation of the future tree. 

The principal treatment of peach trees, so far as pruning is con- 
cerned, is that of shortening back the new growths yearly, especially 
the strongest shoots. This is in many ways beneficial, tending to 
reduce the fruiting buds so as to prevent an overabundant crop, 
which is to be avoided so far as possible; it also tends to keep the 
trees low, which renders it easier to harvest the fruit, as well as keep- 
ing the trees in proper form. When the heads become too thick, as 
they probably will from the pruning of young shoots, they can be 
kept in shape by cutting out some of the older branches well back to 



PRUNING OP TREES AND OTHER PLANTS. 165 

short stubs, from which young shoots will be produced, and in this 
way the entire head can, from time to time, be renewed. 

Trees that are apparently worn out and have nothing but a few 
pole-like branches, unhealthy of growth and destitute of fruitful 
shoots, may be renovated by cutting them down to stumps, when a 
new head will form of vigorous growths, and in time become fruitful, 
bearing large-sized fine fruit. Peach trees that make a late growth, 
and are caught by frost when their leaves are still green and the 
points of shoots succulent, should have the points of the shoots pruned 
back at once, removing all of the immature points. This will save 
them from being affected by diseases which follow the freezing of 
unripened wood. 

PRUNING THE GRAPE. 

The grape, like the peach, fruits only on the young wood made dur- 
ing the preceding year; so that the salient point in pruning the vine 
is to provide for the retention of a sufficient amount of young wood 
to secure a crop. The time to prune is immediately after the leaves 
fall. This early pruning is important, especially in climates where 
the season is barely of sufficient length to ripen the fruits, as the 
spring growth will be more vigorous, will afford a better showing ' 
of fruit, and the shoots will advance rapidly in growth and attain 
maturity sooner than would be the case if pruning were delayed to a 
later period. 

The pruning of the grape is sometimes modified to the method 
adopted for training, but all methods of training must conform to 
certain principles of pruning if the best results of fruiting are 
expected. 

Any system of training which depends upon the retention of wood 
more than three or four years old as a foundation will be deficient in 
permanent success. The best fruit is always obtained from the 
growths of leading shoots, as compared with that produced from side 
shoots on older wood, such as are the result of what is known as spur 
pruning; the fruit from these side shoots will be a week later in 
ripening than the bunches produced on heavier wood on the terminal 
or leading canes. Hence, the best method of pruning is to arrange 
for fruiting on the vigorous terminal growths only, and not attempt 
to produce fruit on side shoots that have borne fruit, but remove 
them entirely, cutting them off so close to the central cane that no 
further growth will proceed from the main stem at that point. 

This mode of treatment may be further explained : Starting with 
a one-year-old plant set out in the spring, in favorable soil, it will be 
allowed to grow the first season without the removal of shoot or leaf, 
and a good root formation will thus be secured. At the fall pruning 
all of the growths are to be cut close down except the strongest, which 
should be cut back to four buds. This ends the first season. When 



166 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

growth commences the following spring numerous shoots will proceed 
from the plant; after these have grown 6 or 8 inches in length, pinch 
the points from all except the strongest, which is to be allowed to 
grow undisturbed, and which will form the fruiting cane for the fol- 
lowing year. The summer treatment will consist in pinching the 
point out of the leading shoot when it has reached a height of 4 or 5 
feet; then it will be allowed to grow during the remainder of the 
season. The smaller shoots around the base of the plant should be 
kept shortened, but not entirely removed. 

At the winter pruning the leading cane is to be cut back to 4 feet, 
and all the smaller shoots cut close down to one or two eyes. This 
ends the second season. The main cane will fruit the third year, and, 
in general, the fruiting shoots should be allowed to extend at will, ex- 
ception to be made if any one of these should be apparently growing 
more vigorous than the others, when it may be checked by pinching 
out its point of five or six leaves beyond the bunch of fruit. The 
main shoot should be allowed to extend until it reaches a length of 4 
feet, when the point is to be removed, and afterwards no further 
summer pruning will be necessary. Among the lower growths select 
the strongest and encourage it by repressing all other shoots, and, as 
it extends, submit it to similar treatment as the main shoot received 
the previous summer. At the winter pruning all the side shoots that 
proceed from the main cane, whether they fruited or not, should be 
removed, cutting them so close back that no buds will be left for 
further growths. The leading cane and the cane which has been 
produced from the base of the plant should be cut back to 4 feet 
in length. This terminates the third season. 

Two fruiting points are now available, and the lowest cane should 
be tied to the part which fruited last year; this will give a fruiting 
space 8 feet in length, composed of two distinct shoots. This system 
can be pursued indefinitely, a new cane being brought up from the 
base of the plant annually to maintain material for fruiting canes. 
The older canes should be extended yearly, so that their terminal 
shoots can be utilized for fruiting; all wood that has fruited should be 
removed, and after using a main service branch for three or four years 
it should also be removed by cutting back to the neck of the plant, 
thus keeping up a renewal of shoots as far and as long as necessary. 

As to summer pruning or pinching back the young bearing shoots, 
on any system of management, the less done the better. Fruit will 
form on weakly shoots, which in many cases should be removed, as 
these shoots will not ripen, remaining green, even when the fruits 
will color up and appear ripe; but it must be realized that properly 
ripened fruit can not be obtained from unripe shoots, even though the 
fruit appears to be ripe as far as color is concerned. 



POLLINATION OF POMACEOUS FRUITS. 

By M. B. Waite, 
Assistant Pathologist, Division of Vegetable Physiology and Pathology. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The failure of orchards to yield satisfactory crops from year to 
year after reaching the normal bearing age is of frequent occur- 
rence, and although adequate explanations can often be given for such 
failure, yet the reasons are sometimes very obscure. In the course 
of other investigations the writer has demonstrated that cross polli- 
nation is an important factor in the production of pome fruits, and. 
his experiments, begun, in the spring of 1890 and continued in 1892 
and 1893, opened up an interesting line of work in this connection. 
This paper consists of a brief review of the principal results of the 
work on the pear, published in Bulletin No. 5 ("The pollination of 
pear flowers") of the Division of Vegetable Physiology and Pathology, 
with additional information obtained in the experiments of 1893 and 
1894, and a fuller discussion of the apple and quince. 

HISTORICAL. 

More than one hundred years ago there was published in Germany 

a remarkable book by a botanist named Sprengel, in which was 

shown, as a result of observations, the important part played by 

insects in the pollination of flowers. This author even observed that 

in certain species of flowers cross pollination takes place, but he did 

not understand the importance of crossing, and in fact regarded it 

as simply accidental. Later, Andrew Knight, a famous hybridizer of 

plants, concluded that nature intended that crossing should take 

place between neighboring plants of the same species, but it was not 

until the master mind of Darwin attacked the problem that the true 

value of cross pollination and of the interesting modifications of 

floral structure for this purpose became known. One of the ways by 

N which the benefits of crossing are insured to plants is through their 

sterility to their own pollen. Some fifty or more species of plants 

are already known to be more or less completely fruitless when only 

pollen from the same plant is applied to their flowers, although the 

same plants mature fruits and seeds when pollen from another plant 

is used. From what follows, it will be seen that. there is a very 

strong tendency to self-sterility in the pear and apple, the tendency 

varying in the different varieties. 

167 



168 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

CROSS POLLINATION OF PEARS. 
DESCRIPTION OF THE PEAK BLOSSOM. 

The pear flower lias all the organs of a typical blossom, these 
being arranged in fives or some multiple of five. It consists of five 
brownish-green sepals, five white or pinkish petals, twenty stamens 
in four whorls of five each, a five-celled ovary, and five styles and 
stigmas (fig. 32). The young green pear grows underneath the showy 




Fig. 32.- 



-Enlarged section of a Bartlett pear flower: st, style; sp, sepal; /, filament; a, anther; 
«, stigma; p, petal; rl, disk; or, ovale. 



part of the blossom and looks like a swelling of the flower stem. In 
the center of the flower is a small, greenish-yellow, saucer-shaped 
disk, as shown in fig. 32, d on which the nectar is secreted. Extend- 
ing through the center of the disk down to the ovary are five styles. 
The ovary contains the ovules, which are small, light-colored bodies 
that grow into seeds when properly fecundated. The ends of the 
green styles and a short strip down one side are rough, and this fea- 
ture fits them especially for receiving and retaining the pollen. When 



POLLINATION OP POMACEOUS FKUIT8. 



1(50 



seen under a magnifying glass this roughness is found to consist of 
minute, finger-like projections. The stamens, which surround the 
edge of the disk, terminate in small, roundish bodies, the anthers. 
These contain the yellow pollen, and are very complicated, being 
made up of four cells, as may be seen bj r examining a very thin sec- 
tion. When mature, the anther splits at the partition, t ho latter 
shriveling away, and the pollen comes out in two masses, as if the 
anther were two-celled. 




Pin. 33. —Cluster of Bartlett pear blossoms (natural size, from a photograph ). 



FUNCTIONS OF THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BLOSSOM. 

The nectar is secreted copiously in the disk, often filling the cup 
with a large drop, and serves to attract bees and other insects, as 
docs also the pollen. The white, showy petals are a guide to the 
insects, and as the flowers grow in clusters (fig. 33) and the clusters 
arc numerous, a tree in full bloom attracts insects from long distances. 
When a bee alights on the flower the stigma brushes from its hairy 



170 



YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 




Fio.. 8i.— Buds of Bartlett pear. 



coat some of the pollen which adhered to it in previous visits to other 
trees, and, if these trees were of a different variety, the flowers are 
thus cross pollinated. The pistils mature two or three days before 
the stamens of the same flower, and the fully expanded stigma often 
protrudes through the petals before they are open, thus becoming pol- 
linated from some earlier-opening 
flower before the pollen of its own 
flower is ready — another means 
by which cross pollination takes 
place. Soon after its protrusion, 
the stigma secretes a sugary 
fluid, often in sufficient quantity 
to be quite perceptible. In this 
the pollen grain readily germi- 
nates and throws out a slender, 
thread-like tube, which grows 
downward into the pistil and 
through specially soft tissue, 
adapted to its growth, until it 
reaches the ovules. Here it en- 
ters an opening in the two outer 
coats of the ovule and comes in contact with 
the germ cell, or egg cell. A number of inter- 
esting and complicated changes now take place 
in the protoplasm of this cell 

Tand in the end of the pollen 
tube. A part of the contents 
of the latter actually passes 
through the cell walls into the 
egg cell, which, under this 
stimulus, immediately begins 
to grow and divide, ultimately 
developing into the germ of the 

seed. This stimulus not only causes the seed to grow, 
but also the surrounding fruit, the latter depending 
upon seed development in most cases. In some cases, 
however, the growth of the pollen tube may help to 
stimulate the fruit to develop independently of the 
fecundation of the ovule, which may or may not after- 
wards result, and this probably accounts for the fact that many little 
fruits begin to develop, but afterwards drop off. 




Pig. 35. - Flower of the Bart- 
lett pear (natural size). 



Fig. 36.— Bud of 
the Bartlett pear, 
with petals re- 
moved, showing 
the incurved sta- 
mens (natural 
size). 



EXPERIMENTS IN CROSSING. 



The writer's first experiments to determine the usefulness of cross 
pollination in securing the f ruitfulness of pears and other pome fruits 
consisted in preventing insect visits and the entrance of foreign pollen 



POLLINATION OF POMACEOUS FRUITS. 



171 



Fig. 37.— Emasculated 
bud of the Bartlett 
pear, showing only 
the five pistils (nat- 
ural size). 



by placing bags made of paper, cheese cloth, or mosquito netting 
over the buds a day or two before they opened, that is, when they 
began to show the white of the petals, but before any 
great number of blossoms opened. Great precau- 
tions were taken not to bag any flower which had 
opened sufficiently to expose the stigma to insects. A 
much more exact method of making experiments of 
this"kind is to carefully hand-pollinate emasculated 
flowers. This method was followed in all experiments 
after the first series. Pull-grown, unopened buds, 
like those shown in fig. 3A, were selected for the pur- 
pose. With a pair of fine, sharp-pointed scissors, or, 
still better, a small, sharp knife or a scalpel, the out- 
side floral organs, including the calyx tips, petals, 
and stamens, were removed (figs. 35, 36, and 37). 
The five pistils, which were unharmed by this process, were then 
pollinated and at once covered with a paper bag, this being fastened 

around the stem with a 
piece of soft copper wire, 
to which the label was at- 
tached. All unused flow- 
ers were cut off the clus- 
ters. The pollinating was 
donebypickingout freshly 
opened anthers from the 
flowers with a pair of small 
forceps and rubbing the 
pollen masses upon the 
stigmas. Usually the blos- 
soms from which the pollen 
was taken were cut directly 
from the trees and carried 
about in a paper bag, but 
in some cases the prefera- 
ble way was followed of al- 
lowing the flowers to open 
and burst the anthers in a 
warm room free from flies. 
After the fruits were all 
set the number resulting 
from the different kinds of 
pollen were tabulated, and 
from this thepercentages of 
efficiency were computed. 
Very early in the experiments it was found that some varieties of 
the pear, such as Anjou, Clapps Favorite, Bartlett, and Winter Nelis, 




Fro. 38.— Bartlett pear cross pollinated with the pollen of 
the Easter pear. 



172 YEARBOOK OE THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



I 



were unable to fruit when covered with bags, or, in other words, 
when insect visits and foreign pollen were excluded. The kind of bag 

used, that is, whether of paper, 
cheese cloth, or netting, seemed to 
make no difference in the results, 
but in later experiments some dif- 
ference was observed in favor of 
net bags as compared with paper 
bags. The latter probably con- 
fine the flowers too closely, but as 
all the hand-pollinated flowers were 
covered with this kind of bag and 
still set an extremely high percent- 
age of fruit, it is evident that they 
could not have caused any pro- 
nounced injury. On the other 
hand, in the case of the net bags, 
there is the possibility of small in- 
sect s passing through t he meshesof 
the net and introducing foreign pol- 
len. The results obtained with the 
varieties above named were veri- 
fied by very careful hand pollina- 
tions of emasculated flowers, the 
work being done at Brockport, 
N. Y., in 1891, at Chestnut Farm, 
Va., and at Rochester and Geneva, 
N. Y\, in 1892, and at Parry, N. J., and again at Rochester in 1893. 

DISCUSSION OP VARIETIES IN THEIR RELATION TO CROSS POLLINATION. 

It is well known that the so-called varieties of pears are propagated 
by budding, grafting, or by cuttings fc 

from some original seedling. For 
instance, all the Kieffer pear trees in 
the country have been propagated 
from portions of the original Kieffer 
tree, which grew near Philadelphia 
from seed, and therefore, strictly 
speaking, they are all portions of 
the same individual and of the same 
original seedling. The same is true 
in case of the Bartlett, An.jou, and 
all the other varieties, or, in other 
words, our horticultural varieties of 
fruit trees propagated by budding 
or grafting or by cuttings are all parts of an original individual 
seedling and do not inherently differ from it. 




Fio. 3!!.- Self pollinated Bartlett pear. 




ss» <$» 



Fig. 40.— Seeds from crossed and from self- 
pollinated Bartlett pears: a, from crossed 
pilars; b, from self -pollinated pears. 



POLLINATION OF POMACEOUS FRUITS. 



173 




Fig. 41.— Section of an apple blossom. 



Among- the sorts which were found to be more or less completely self- 
sterile are the Anjou, Bartlett, Boussock, Clairgeau, Clapps Favorite, 
Easter, Howell, Lawrence, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Sheldon, Souvenir 
de Congress, Superfln, and Winter Nelis; and among those more or 
less self-fertile are Angouleme, 
Bosc, Buff um, Flemish Beauty, 
Heathcote, Mannings Eliza- 
beth, and Seckel, and, in the 
South, Kieffer and Le Conte. 
The two last varieties are 
especially inclined to self- 
sterility in the North, particu- 
larly in cold, wet springs, but 
in Southern locations they 
fruit heavily, even in large 
blocks where no other vari- 
eties are near. The writer is 
not inclined to attach much 
importance to the strict classi- 
fication of pears into self -steri le 

and self-fertile varieties, as the more he experimented along this line 
the more the results tended to run the two classes together. The kinds 
classed as self-sterile, like Anjou and Bartlett, yielded a small percent- 
age of fruit in favorable 
seasons with self-polli- 
nation where the trees 
were in good soil and 
were well pruned and 
well cultivated, while 
the sorts classed as 
self -fertile, like Angou- 
leme, Seckel, and Kief- 
fer, were almost self- 
sterile in unfavorable 
seasons. The question 
therefore arises as to 
whether pears which 
grow to such perfec- 
tion in California, as 
Bartlett, Clapps Fa- 
vorite, and Clairgeau, 
do not find the cli- 
mate of that State so favorable as to be self-fertile. 

The crossed and self-pollinated fruits resulting from most of the 
experiments were collected and studied and quite perceptible differ- 
ences were found between them, consisting essentially in a better 




Fig. 43.— Baldwin apple cross pollinated with pollen of the 
Bellflower apple. 




Pig. 43. 



-Large specimen of self- pollinated Baldwin 
apple. 



174 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

development of the blossom end of the crossed fruits, and narrower, 

slimmer, and less pyriform self-pollinated fruits. This is well illus- 
trated in figs. 38 and 39, which 
show a typical cross and a self- 
pollinated Bartlett. Another 
interesting point brought out 
by these studies was that the 
self-pollinated fruits had only 
small, abortive seeds, or, in com- 
mon parlance, were seedless, 
while there was an abundance 
of seeds, often the full number, 
ten, in the crosses (fig. 40). 

In the self-pollinated fruits 
of late varieties there was a 
tendency to wither when ripen- 
ing, while the crossed fruits, 
gathered at the same time, 
ripened well. The fruits not 
bagged on the trees were also 

carefully observed, and as a rule were found to agree with the crosses 

rather than with the self-fertilized pears. 

CONCLUSIONS REGARDING CROSS POLLINATION OP PEARSi 

The following is a brief summary of the conclusions drawn from 
the experiments and already published in Bulletin No. 5 of the 
Division of Vegetable Physiology 
and Pathology: 

(1) Many of the common varieties 
of pears require cross pollination, be- 
ing partially or wholly incapable of 
setting fruit when limited to their 
own pollen. 

(2) Some varieties are capable of 
sel f -fertilization . 

(3) Cross pollination consists in 
applying pollen from a distinct horti- 
cultural variety, that is, one which 
has grown from a distinct seed, and 
not in using pollen from another tree 
of the same grafted variety, which is 
no better than that from the same tree. 

(4) Self-pollination takes place no 
matter whether foreign pollen is present or not. The failure to fruit 
with self-pollination is due to sterility of the pollen and not to mechan- 
ical causes, the impotency being due to lack of affinity between the 
pollen and the ovules of the same variety. 




Fits 44. 



Small specimen of self -pollinated 
Baldwin apple. 



POLLINATION OF POMACEOUS FRUITS. 175 

(5) Varieties that are absolutely self -sterile may be perfectly cross 
fertile. 

(6) The condition of nutrition and the general environment affect 
the ability of the tree to set fruit either with its own pollen or with 
that from another variety. 

(7) Pollen is transported from tree to tree by bees and other insects 
and not by the wind. 

(8) Bad weather during flowering time has a decidedly injurious 
influence on fruitage by keeping away insect visitors and affecting the 
fecundation of the flowers, and, conversely, fine weather favors cross 
pollination and the setting of the fruit. 

(9) Pears resulting from self-fertilization are very uniform in shape. 
They differ from crosses not only in size and shape, but also, in some 
cases, in time of ripening and in flavor. 

(10) Among the crosses the differences were slight or variable, so 
that the variations can not be ascribed with certainty to differences 
in pollen. 

(11) Self-fecundated pears are deficient in seeds, and the seeds pro- 
duced are usually abortive. The crosses are well supplied with sound 
seeds. 

(12) Even with those varieties which are capable of self-fecunda- 
tion the pollen of another variety is prepotent, and unless the entrance 
of foreign pollen is prevented the greater number of fruits will be 
affected by it. 

(13) The normal typical fruits and in most cases the largest and 
finest specimens from both the so-called self -sterile and self-fertile 
varieties are crosses. 

CROSS POLLINATION OF APPLES. 

In connection with the experiments on pears, a large amount of 
work was done on apples, this being possible because of the apple blos- 
soms beginning to open just as the pears go out of flower. 

DESCRIPTION OP THE APPLE BLOSSOM. 

Apple blossoms are borne in somewhat smaller clusters than pear 
blossoms, there btjing usually only six flowers per cluster. The flow- 
ers also vary more in size than do those of the pear, the central one 
often being much larger, shorter stemmed, and earlier than the others. 
This is especially striking in the King apple and other early-blooming 
vai-ieties. The apple blossom is more highly developed than the pear 
blossom, and on account of its delicate perfume, higher coloration, and 
larger size is more attractive to insects, especially to the larger bees.. 
It is formed on the same general plan (fig. 41) as the pear flower, the 
only striking difference being that the bases of its stamens are enlarged 
and hairy, and instead of curving outward they all draw together 
toward the center, and fit closely around the styles. By this arrange- 
ment the nectar disk is completely covered, and hence only the larger 



176 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

insects, such as bees and bumblebees, which can force the stamens 
apart and reach the honey with their mouth parts, can make use of the 
blossoms. Large bumblebees very seldom visit the pear, and when 
they do, they soon fly away; but they work continuously and in large 
numbers on the apple. In the writer's opinion the honey from the 
apple blossoms is superior in flavor to that from pear blossoms. As 
apple blossoms are more attractive to insects than pear blossoms, it is 
probable that the latter, in the evolution of these plants, were forced 
to bloom earlier, so that the bees might not be attracted away from 
thein. In fact, the pear blossom could not compete with the apple 
blossom for insect attention if obliged to open at the same time. 
Apple blossoms are certainly abundantly visited by insects, but in 
western New York the writer noticed that although the first trees to 
bloom were well covered with bees and bumblebees, yet when the 
main body of the orchards came into flower there were not enough 
for all the trees. This is liable to be the case where an orchard is 
very large and in sections where apple growing is the main industry. 
Notwithstanding the higher development of the apple blossom, more 
of the pear blossoms set fruit. A set of 5 or 6 per cent of an average 
bloom gives a heavy apple crop, 10 to 15 per cent being rare, while 
13.3 per cent is the average set for pear flowers, or one fruit per cluster, 
the latter averaging about seven and a half flowers each. The apple 
being ordinarily a larger tree and a more vigorous grower than .the 
pear, it is usually less within the orchardist's control by methods of 
cultivation and pruning; in other words, it is much better able to take 
care of itself than the pear. 

EXPERIMENTS IN CROSSING. 

The methods followed in the work on the apple were the same as in 
the experiments with pears. Some of the flowers were emasculated 
with the scalpel and hand-pollinated by applying the open anthers to 
the pistils, while others were simply covered with bags made of paper, 
cheese cloth, or mosquito-net, from forty to sixty of the three kinds of 
bags being used on each tree. In a general way the results were sim- 
ilar to those obtained in the experiments with pears. The division of 
the varieties into self -fertile and self -sterile sorts was not nearly so 
well marked. 

Crossing gave decidedly better results in all cases than self-pollina- 
tion. The Baldwin, which was experimented upon freely, may be 
cited as a variety that comes as near being self -fertile as any, and yet 
even this is far from being entirely so, for in the best trees the per- 
centage of fruit resulting from self-pollination was not more than one- 
fourth of that which resulted from crossing. Some of the Baldwin 
trees in fact seemed to be self-sterile, and trees of all the varieties 
occasionally set self-pollinated fruit. 

The few clusters of Nortons Melon experimented upon indicated 



POLLINATION OF POMACEOUS FRUITS. 177 

that this variety, which produces the choicest apples as to quality, is 
quite inclined to be self -fertile. This was also found to be true in the 
case of Seckel pears, and indicates that high quality is not necessarily 
associated with self -sterility. On the other hand, Rhode Island Green- 
ing, Talman Sweet, Esopus Spitzenburg, and Twenty Ounce gave very 
poor results from self-pollination, but quite a number of the trees of 
these varieties experimented with refused to fruit even under the 
stimulus of cross pollination. This occurred but a few times in the 
experiments with pears, and in such cases the appearance of the foli- 
age and the growth of the tree usually indicated that something was 
wrong, but there was no apparent reason why the apple blossoms 
on these particular trees should refuse to set fruit. 

The apples resulting from some of the experiments were collected 
and studied, and the results were found to be parallel with those ob- 
tained in the experiments with pears, the crosses being larger, more 
highly colored, and better supplied with seed (fig. 42). For example, 
the hand-crossed Baldwin apples were highly colored, well matured, 
and contained abundant seeds, while the self -fertilized fruits were ■ 
only slightly colored, were but one-fourth to two-thirds the regular 
size, and seedless. The crosses were, in other words, like the better 
specimens of apples, not bagged, from the same trees, and the self- 
fertilized fruits corresponded with the undersized, poorly-colored 
specimens. 

The unsatisfactory character of the fruits obtained from self-polli- 
nation (figs. 43 and 44) was more pronounced in the apples than in the 
pears, and gave still further evidence that self-pollination is not to be 
relied upon for apple production, especially in unfavorable seasons. 

CONCLUSIONS REGARDING CROSS POLLINATION OF APPLES. 

The practical conclusions drawn from the experiments with apples 
are the same as those from the work on pears. There are so many varie- 
ties of apples, and the conditions in different sections vary so much, 
that different sets of varieties are planted in different regions. All the 
work here described was done at Rochester, Brockport, and Geneva, 
N. Y., and as the natural conditions in that region are very favorable 
to the apple, any tendency to self -fertility was probably pretty well 
brought out. 

Although several orchards of single varieties of apples in Mis- 
souri have not yielded satisfactorily, yet the experience with large 
blocks of Ben Davis at the Olden fruit farm in that State, and in other 
extensive orchards in the West, where single varieties are planted in 
large blocks, shows that under certain circumstances crossing between 
different varieties is not necessary. 
3 A98 12 



178 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 
CROSS POLLINATION OF QUINCES. 

BESCBIPTION OF THE QUINCE BLOSSOM. 

The quince flower is larger and more showy than that of the apple, 
bat is not so delicately colored and is of much coarser texture. The 
stamens and pistils are fully twice as large as those of the apple, and 
are consider-ably thicker than those of the apple or pear. The ovary 
is also larger and eaeh earpel contains a dozen or more seeds. The 
flowers bloom later than those of the apple or pear, and are much 
better adapted to self-pollination than either, the stamens being so 
arranged that the anthers often touch the stigmas. The large size of 
the flowers is doubtless due to the fact that each winter bud produces 
but on©, instead of a cluster of six or eight, as in the ease of apples 
and pears. These buds grow on the sides of the shoots instead of at 
the tips of the fruit spurs or fruiting branches. The flowers are 
abundantly visited by insects. 

EXPERIMENTS IN CROSSING. 

Experiments in crossing were carried on with the quince at Roches- 
ter, N. Y., in 18&2 and 1893. Pollen from Orange, Ilea, Champion, 
and Meaeh was used, and the emasculated flowers were covered with 
paper bagsor cheese-cloth bags. Both the crossed and self -pollinated 
flowers produced a fairly good percentage of fruit, no difference exist- 
ing between them that could not be readily attributed to accidental 
variation. The experiments showed no such striking benefits from 
insect visits, as did those with the pear and apple. 

MISCELLANEOUS FACTORS INFLUENCING FRUITFULNESS. 

Although the main purpose of this paper is to bring out the im- 
portance of cross pollination as a factor in fruit production, the 
importance of other well-known factors influencing fruitfulness 
must not be overlooked. To plant an orchard and give attention to 
this feature only would be to invite failure. Unless the other condi- 
tions are favorable, the orchard will not be a complete success even 
with abundant cross pollination. 

It is of vital importance to plant varieties naturally fruitful and 
adapted to the soil and climate of the region. The Ben Davis and 
Winesap apples, and the Kieffer, Le Conte, and Duchess pears, for 
example, have an inherent tendency to bear fruit, and unless all odds 
are against them they will produce crops. However, it is only neces- 
sary to mention the subject of varieties here, aa its importance is 
already well understood; in fact, horticulturists are inclined to let it 
overshadow all other factors. 

The vegetative vigor of the tree exerts a decided influence on its 
capacity for setting and maturing fruit. To be jn good condition a 
tree must have a proper proportion of vegetative shoots. In the case 



POLLINATION OF POMACEOUS FRUITS. 179 

of young trees too much vigor of the vegetative parts tends to retard 
the formation of fruit spurs and blossom buds and prevents the fruit 
from setting on blossoms that have formed. On the other hand, when 
the tree has once formed the bearing habit its capacity for fruit pro- 
duction is largely determined by the vigor of the tree. Declining vigor 
first renders the tree completely self-sterile and eventually sterile to 
cross pollination. There is an apparent exception to this general 
rule, however, in trees which have been severely injured or which are 
about to die from disease, such tree's loading themselves down with 
fruit. Under such circumstances the fruit is small and of inforiov 
quality. 

Tho weather during the blooming period exerts both a direct ano 
indirect influence on the setting of fruit. Even when not injured by 
frost the blossoms are often chilled by the cold to such an extent as 
to interfere with fecundation. Moderate cold renders the self -fertile 
trees self-sterile and severe cold renders them sterile to cross pollina- 
tion as well. Warm and sunny weather at this time indirectly aids 
the fertilization by favoring insects in (heir work of cross pollination 
An excessive degree of humidity favors fungous diseases, which maj 
destroy the blossoms or tho young fruit. Dry winds, on the othei 
hand, reduce the flow of honey to almost nothing and, the writer sus- 
pects, also cut down the stigmatic secretion and interfere with feeun 
dalion. Cold, rainy weather during the flowering period may be 
disastrous, the rains knocking off the pollen, washing away the secre- 
tion of the stigma, and preventing pollination by insects. Fruit will 
not set unless a reasonable amount of warm, sunny weather occurs 
during flowering time. The vitality of tho tree is injured and the 
young fruit often killed by fungous diseases which destroy the foliage ~ 
hence, such diseases often exert sufficient influence to cause crop fail- 
ures. Again, the amount of fruit a t roc bears one year generally dot <m 
mines the yield the following year, and sometimes ail possibility of a 
crop is cut off by tho trees failing to bloom. 

The object in pointing out these various influences is to prevent too 
much importance being attached to cross pollination. It may aiso be- 
well to caution the reader against laying too much stress on classifi- 
cation into self-fertile and self-sterile varieties. The experiment- 
showed that self- fertility and self-sterility were not to be relied upoi. 
implicitly. 

The number of insect visitors in any orclwml determines to a great 
extent the amount of cross pollination carried on. The pollen of 1 in. 
pear and tho apple is not produced in sufficient quantity nor is it of 
the right consistency to be carried by the wind, and the pollination of 
these trees is therefore dependent on tho activity of insects. In at;, 
ordinary spring there is usually an abundance of insects to thoroughly 
cross pollinate orchards of a few hundred trees, but in the case o f ' 
large commercial orchards, especially where several are close to each 



180 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

other, there is not a sufficient number of insects for cross pollination 
when the main body of the trees is in bloom. If there is no apiary 
in the neighborhood, therefore, each large orchardist should keep a 
number of hives of bees. Honey bees and other members of the bee 
family are the best workers in cross pollination. 

PRACTICAL CONCLUSIONS. 

In order to insure cross pollination the following rules should be 
observed in planting orchards of pears or apples : 

(1) Use several varieties and plant not more than three or four 
rows of one kind together unless the variety is known to be perfectly 
self -fertile. If it is desired to grow one kind mainly, then every third 
tree in every third or fourth row should be of some other kind. 

(2) Where large blocks of trees of one variety have blossomed well 
for several years, but have failed to produce fruit without any 
apparent reason, graft in other varieties and supply foreign pollen, 
as the trouble is probably due to lack of cross pollination. 

(3) Be sure that there are sufficient bees in the neighborhood, or at 
least within 2 or 3 miles, to properly visit the blossoms. When possi- 
ble, endeavor to favor the bees by selecting sheltered situations for 
the orchard or by planting wind-breaks. 



NOTES ON SOME FOREST PROBLEMS. 

By GlFFORD PlNCHOT, 

Forester. 
THE PUBLIC STANDING OF FORESTRY. 

The meaning of the word "forestry" changes in the public mind 
from decade to decade. The change is due not only to a better under- 
standing of the subjects with which forestry deals, but also to a radical 
difference in the way forestry is esteemed. The progress of the knowl- 
edge of any subject is almost always accompanied by a change in the 
point of view from which that subject is regarded. Thus, electricity, 
from being a matter of purely scientific curiosity, has made its way 
in public thought to the position of one of the foremost industrial 
forces of the time, with the promise of such future usefulness that 
whatever relates to it finds a ready hearing. In somewhat the same 
way forestry is gradually winning a better standing and a larger place 
in the consideration of the people. At first forestry was understood 
to relate to trees; and it was not until recently that it began to be seen 
that it has far less to do with individual trees than with forests. At 
that time landscape work and forestry were completely confounded, 
nor even at this day is the distinction always clearly made. Street 
trees were supposed to be the special province of the forester, and 
even yet one of the great Eastern cities has a city forester, whose 
duties are not concerned with any forest land. This point of view 
has served a most useful purpose, it is true, in enlisting the counte- 
nance and support of very many persons whose interest in forest 
matters, rightly so called, would have been small indeed, but it may 
fairly be questioned whether there has not been a counterbalancing 
loss of the good will and consideration of practical lumbermen and 
owners of forest land. Apart from the aesthetic point of view just 
referred to, a serious check to the progress of forestry, or, as this side 
of it might well be called, of conservative lumbering, was the general 
praise given to European methods of forest management and the 
frequent and strenuous, but uttei-ly impracticable, advice to apply 
them in the forests of North America. To very many of the men 
upon whom the introduction of forestry in the forest depended, and 
still depends, this was a complete barrier, for it made forestry seem 
unworthy of even the most casual consideration. But these were 
mere temporary obstacles to a true understanding of forestry and 
marked what may have been inevitable stages of its progress. Another 

181 



182 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

and a worthier point of view has been that oil the effect of forests 
upon climate, a subject of which, it must be confessed, we know com- 
paratively little. To-day this subject is largely replaced in general 
discussion by the effect of forests on water supply, with which wo arc 
better acquainted. This, at last, is one of the real and vital issues 
with which true forestry is concerned. 

THE TRUE CHARACTER OF FORESTRY. 

This brief mention of some of the phases through which the pub- 
lic estimate of forestry has passed or is passing is in no sense 
intended as a criticism. It is merely an introduction to a short 
description of what the writer believes to be the true character and 
right held of forestry in the United States. The subject may be 
described under two great divisions, as follows: 

FORESTRY IX THE WOODED REGIONS. 

In wooded regions forestry has to do with the protection and pres- 
ervation of forests, but most of all with their use. The prime object 
of the forester is to make his forest i>roduce wood, and to do that 
ti'ees must bo cut down. But in order to continue producing wood 
the existence of the forest must be preserved, 'although the mature 
trees which help to compos*; it may be removed. Not only so, bvst 
the essential condition of the best health and productiveness of a 
forest is the timely removal of trees ripe for the ax. To put the 
statement of the same fact in different form, the lumberman and the 
forester both harvest the forest crop, with this difference: That in 
most cases the lumberman neither expects a second crop nor tries to 
provide for it, while the forester always does. Instead of being 
hostile or divided, as is sometimes mistakenly supposed, the forester 
and the lumberman are as necessary to each other as vise ax and its 
helve. "Without the ax the helve strikes but a weak blow; without 
the helve the ax is lacking in reach and in direction. In the same 
way the forester, without the special knowledge of the lumberman, 
can never do effective work in preserving the forests bj T using them 
nor succeed in a money way, while without the methods of the for- 
ester the lumberman will speedily exhaust his supplies of timber and 
disappear with the forests he has destroyed. But working together, 
lumberman and forester can perpetuate the supply of lumber while 
saving the forests, and so securo the essential objects of both. 

FORESTRY IN THE TREELESS REGIONS. 

In the drier regions of the West, where the timber is confined to 
the mountains and the river bottoms, the duties of the forester are 
somewhat different. There water is as important as wood, so that the 
protection of the mountain forests has a double use. In addition, 
there is the broad question of tree planting in the plains and the 



NOTES ON SOME FOREST PROBLEMS. 183 

treeless valleys. At first blush such work might seem to fall outside 
the province of the forester, on the ground that it has to do with 
trees and not with forests. But when it is remembered that protec- 
tion and wood supply are the two objects of the work, and how 
important a public service may be rendered by the introduction 
of better trees and better ways of planting them, it appears at once 
that this also is ouo of the tasks of true forestry. 

GOVERNMENT FOREST WORK. 

The work of the Government in forestry is at present conducted by 
the General Land Office, the United States Geological Survey, and the 
Division of Forestry. 

The care of the reserved and unreserved forest lands of the United 
Slates falls to the General Land Office as custodian of the public 
domain. It is charged with the safety of the public timber, outside 
the boundaries of the forest reserves, through the medium of its corps 
of special agents. The protection of the timber witliin'the reserves 
is intrusted to forest superintendents, supervisors, and rangers, whose 
duties are chiefly those of a forest police. The mapping and descrip 
tion of the forest reserves and adjacent public lands ai-e assigned to 
the United States Geological Survey. Both the Laud Office and the 
Geological Survey are in tho Department of the Interior. 

The Division of Forestry of the Department of Agriculture is con- 
cerned chiefly witli forest investigations of various kinds, such as those 
which relate to fire, to the growth of timber, and to better ways of 
handling forest lands — questions which affect the welfare of Govern- 
ment and private timber lands alike. It is tho only Government 
agency directly related to the vast interests of private forest, lands ir. 
the United States. How great these interests are will appear when it 
is known that the forest included in farms alone covers more thai; 
200,000,000 acres — more than four times the area of all tho forest 
reserves of the Government. 

This dispersion of the branches of a single subject among three 
separate organizations is trebly unfortunate. It involves a waste of 
energy, it conspires to prevent the attainment of results which might 
How from united effort, and it forces each contributor to the general 
progress of forestry into comparatively narrow and imperfectly useful 
channels. The steps by which this separation developed were natural 
and perhaps inevitable, but as time goes on the essential need of united 
effort will continue to make itself increasingly felt. 

CONSERVATIVE LUMBERING. 
EFFECT OF HEAVY TAXES. 

Conservative lumbering is related to the matter of taxes in a very 
intimate way. The whole problem of private forest lands is summed 
up in the question, Can I afford to hold my land for a second crop? 



184 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Every forest owner must answer this question before lie begins to cut, 
even though he may never put it to himself in words. The first con- 
sideration that arises is that of taxes. "What will it cost me," 
reasons the forest owner, "to pay taxes on my land for the years 
which must elapse between this cut and the next ? It will take so many 
years for the crop to ripen, and during that time I must pay yearly 
so much per acre in State and county taxes, without getting any 
return to offset the expense. I could bear the cost of protecting my 
timber from theft, and even from fire, but can I stand the taxes?" 
The general answer is "No." Here is the key to much, if not most, 
of the destruction of forests by lumbering in this country — this and 
the fact that the methods of conservative lumbering are not yet well 
known among men interested in timber land. It is true that many 
other considerations have weight, such as the necessity or desire to 
take every stick that can be moved at a profit over an expensive rail- 
road, pole road, or slide, or driven with the help of a costly dam, 
none of which will ever be used again. But the reason why they can 
serve but once is not free from the taint of the tax question. It will 
not pay to hold the land for the second crop because of the taxes, 
and so all the improvements are put in with the intention of moving 
them away or abandoning them when the timber is cut. Hundreds 
of thousands of acres in the white-pine region, notably in Pennsyl- 
vania, and in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, have been cut 
over, abandoned, sold for taxes, and finally reduced by fire to a use- 
less wilderness because- of the shortsighted policy of heavy taxation. 
To lay heavy taxes on timber land is to set a premium on forest 
destruction, a premium that is doing more than any other single fac- 
tor to hinder the spread of conservative lumbering among the owners 
of large bodies of timber land. Not only does this policy lead to the 
destruction of the forest, but it reduces eventually the sums raised by 
taxation. Devastated lands are valueless, and therefore can not be 
assessed at anything like their former rates. Then follows a reduc- 
tion in the sums raised, and then a higher tax rate for the rest of the 
real property in the region ; and so, by a roundabout but certain road, 
the chickens come home to roost, and the men who invited the destruc- 
tion of the timber that should have made and kept them prosperous 
have to pay some part at least of the penalty of their shortsightedness. 
It does not change such facts as these to explain how the heavy 
taxes happened to be assessed. It is true that the temptation to tax 
nonresident owners is very great; that companies are often made to 
suffer for their local unpopularity, and that the burden of building 
and maintaining roads and bridges and court-houses in sparsely set- 
tled countries bears heavily on their people. But when every allow- 
ance has been made, the fact still remains that heavy taxes are respon- 
sible for the barrenness of thousands of square miles which should 
never have ceased to be productive, and which must now lie fallow 



NOTES ON SOME FOKEST PROBLEMS. 185 

for man j' decades before they can be counted again among the wealth- 
making assets of the nation. It is not greatly to the interest of any 
man to protect such wastes, and so fire runs over them year after- 
year, and their possible utility recedes further and further into the 
future. 

One of the foremost objects of the advocates of better methods of 
lumbering should be to bring about a change in the tax rate of forest 
lands held chiefly for lumber. Farmers' wood lots are far less apt to 
suffer. Until such agitation is followed by a modification of the tax 
rate, one of the most stubborn enemies of the forest will keep the 
field — aliVe and powerful for harm. The extent of its power will 
appear when it is stated that in Minnesota, for example, the aggregate 
State and county tax on forest land sometimes amounts to 6 per cent 
per annum on its actual market value. 

The best way to accomplish the reduction of taxes on timber land 
is still a matter for discussion. Perhaps the most promising sugges- 
tion is to allow a definite rebate so long as the land is covered with 
growing timber, as is done in Pennsylvania, coupled with a much 
higher rate for the years when the crop is harvested. In some such 
way the capital invested in forest should be relieved/ of heavy taxes 
until the harvest, or while it is not producing a money return. Veiy 
carefully drawn laws would be essential in the adjustment of this 
very delicate matter, for the merchantable forest crop is not always 
harvested in full at a single cutting. 

LACK OF KNOWLEDGE. 

Another of the strong reasons which conspire against the introduc- 
tion of better ways of lumbering is the general uncertainty among 
forest owners as to what the best methods are and what they cost. 
The lumberman who is disposed to consider whether he can not avoid 
the devastation of the region in which he is operating, or at least do 
as little harm> as possible to its future productive power, is very often 
checked at the outset by his lack of knowledge. With all the good 
will in the world, in very many cases, and with a sincere desire to 
prevent the disastrous results which, within his own experience, have 
so often followed lumbering and fire, he is uncertain as to what he 
can do. Two things are clear: The old way of lumbering is practical, 
familiar from end to end, and the risk of loss is no greater for him 
than for his competitors, while the way to go to work to get his 
logs out cheaply, and yet keep the productive power of the forest 
unharmed, is unfamiliar, full of uncertainties, and perhaps discred- 
ited by the remembered advice of some thoughtless lover of trees, to 
"plant a tree every time you cut one down, as the Germans do." 
This proverbial remedy for all the forest evils that we deplore is, it 
may be said in passing, untrue in fact, impractical in operation, and 
wholly unsuited to bring about the end it seeks. It is therefore not 



186 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

to be wondered at that it does not commend itself to the practical 
woodsman, already disposed to skepticism by not infrequent refer- 
ences to bis own supposed vandalism and soulless greed. But the 
chief obstacle is his lack of information as to just what new methods 
of cutting or logging he should adopt, or, rather, how far the old 
methods require modification before they will secure the continued 
productive power of the forest without destroying the lumberman's 
profit. This is the question in a nutshell. To put it in a slightly 
different form, How can the lumberman get out his logs without 
destroying the eapital value of his land? It must be confessed that 
hitherto there has not been much done toward answering this vital 
question, although it lies at. the foundation of the whole matter. 
Throughout by far the greater part of the United States the lumber- 
man will look in vain for actual examples of conservative lumbering 
in forests similar to his own, or for printed directions to guide him in 
his work. Methods of conservative lumbering have been devised for 
two important tracts in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, a 
description of which, together with their results in the first year's 
cut, will be printed during the spring of .1899 as a bulletin of the 
Division of Forestry. The earlier work at Biltniore, N. C, is already 
well known among men interested in such matters. But in general 
there has been, until recently, no ready means by which practical 
information and assistance could be obtained by timber-land owners 
desirous of assuring a future value for their forests without sacrific- 
ing their present interests too much. Such information and assistance 
the Division of Forestry now undertakes to give. 

The general plan under which the Division cooperates with forest. 
owners is as follows: "When any forest owner makes known his desire 
to secure the assistance offered, the first step is a preliminary exami- 
nation of the land by an expert of the Division. That done, the 
owner and the Division are in a position to consult as to further work. 
If they are agreed upon the advisability of preparing a definite 
scheme or working plan for the handling of the forest, an agreement 
is signed by which the Division undertakes to conduct any investiga- 
tion that may be needed, such as careful cruising, or a study of the 
trees, or of methods of lumbering, while the owner agrees to pay the 
necessary traveling expenses and supply the woodsmen who may be 
required as assistants. Estimates upon these items are included in 
the agreement. Then, when the scheme of conservative lumlwring 
has been worked out, and if it is approved by the owner, the Divi 
sion, under the same conditions, will give practical assistance in put- 
ting it into effect, by marking the trees to fall, inspecting the work 
done, and in general contributing the same expert knowledge to the 
execution of the plan as it did to its preparation. Finally, tho work- 
ing plans prepared in this way will be printed, with such fullness of 
detail as will not. interfere with the business interests of the owners, 



NOTES ON SOME FOREST PROBLEMS. 187 

but with sufficient exactness, on the other hand, to enable other for- 
est owners to examine, understand, and, whenever possible, to apply 
their methods. The fundamental idea of the whole arrangement is 
to provide successful examples of conservative lumbering, and by 
giving them wide publicity to acquaint forest owners with better 
ways of handling their timber lands. 

Applications have been received covering more than 1,000,000 
acres, the plans for 100,000 acres of which have been prepared and 
are now in operation. 

FOREST CRAZING. 

The question of grazing lias aroused more opposition to the forest 
reserves than perhaps any other single issue. For years the chief 
complaint was expressed by the determined opposition to the Cascade 
Range Forest Reserve in Oregon, maintained by the owners of large 
bands of sheep on the east side, which they had been in the habit of 
summer grazing on the mountains. (See PI. X, fig. 1.) It was con- 
tended by the sheep men that, as the price of wool was lowered by 
Ihe charcoal stains which followed the passage of the sheep through 
burned timber, it was strongly to their interest to prevent the spread 
of forest fires in the mountains. On the other hand, it was thoroughly 
well established that in the past forest fires have followed sheep rang' 
ing in timbered regions; that by far the greater jwirt of such ranging 
would be impossible except for the clearings made by fire (see PL X, 
fig. 2), and that, whether it was to the interest of the owner or not, 
the sheep herders, carelessly or by intention, have frequently set fi re 
to 1 lie forest. 

A careful study of the whole question has been made on the ground 
by Mr. Frederick V. Coville, Botanist of the Department of Agricul- 
ture, whose conclusions are to be trusted. His results are strictly 
applicable only to Oregon, but taken together with facts of wider 
range — on the one hand, the tramping out of young growth by J he 
sharp hoofs of passing sheep, and, on the other, the vast numbers 
of domestic animals annually grazed in the Government forests of 
British India without serious harm to their productiveness and general 
health — they point unmistakably to the following general conclusions : 

(1) To regulate pasturage, if it is rightly done, is usually far bet 
tor than to prohibit it altogether. In the majority of cases the com- 
plete exclusion of grazing animals is not required. Throughout great 
stretches of open forest there is excellent grass and other forage, the 
harvesting of which by sheep, cattle, or horses will have little or no 
harmful effect, provided the ranges are not overstocked, and provided 
again (and this is of the first importance) that before cutting begins, 
or as soon as the reproduction of the forest is desired, grazing ani- 
mals of all kinds are completely excluded. When the reproduction 
is accomplished, and the young trees are old enough to be safe from 
harm, the animals may again be admitted, but never without careful 



188 YEASBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

supervision and control. The length of time during which such for- 
ests should be protected will vary from about one-tenth to one-fifth 
of the time that is required to produce a merchantable tree. The 
regulation of pasturage should mean that each sheep owner should 
have the exclusive right to his range for a reasonable time and at a 
reasonable fee; that no range should be overstocked; that definite 
rules should be made and enforced, and that serious breaches of them, 
or the continued occurrence of fire in any range, should forfeit the 
rights of the sheep man and the money he paid for them to the 
Government. 

(2) Many forest regions should be entirely protected against sheep. 
Such are mountains where the steepness and character of the ground 
and the importance of the water supply to the valleys below make the 
protection of the latter of vital consequence to the resident popula- 
tion. This is the case, for example, throughout the greater part of the 
Sierra Nevada in California, and in the mountains in the southern part 
of that State, where pasturing animals have already done the most 
serious injury to the interests, of the farmers in the valleys. 

TREE PLANTING IN THE PLAINS. 

Tree planting in the plains, where it has not been regarded merely 
as a method of acquiring land under the timber-culture act, has had a 
double purpose— protection from wind and a supply of wood for 
domestic consumption. Such planting has been carried out on a vast 
scale during the past thirty years. Some of it has been successful, 
but much of it has failed to answer the purpose for which the time 
and money were expended. Failure and success alike have, how- 
ever, been useful in furnishing experience in the light of which old 
methods may be improved, new methods devised, and additional and 
better kinds of trees selected for the work in the future. 

As yet no comprehensive study has been made of the planting 
already accomplished, and the vast amount of experience accumu- 
lated through the successes and failures of the past has not yet been 
made fully and easily accessible to those who would profit most by a 
knowledge of its results. Such' a study the Division of Forestry is 
about to undertake as a first and necessary step in the preparation 
of a scheme of experimental planting at such places as will best rep- 
resent an average of the -soils and climates of different parts of the 
treeless West. 

By far the greater number of available native trees, and especially 
such as can be supplied by commercial nurseries, have already been 
tested on the plains under such a variety of conditions of soil, moist- 
ure, and exposure that further experiments with them will, in very 
many cases, be rendered unnecessary by a thorough knowledge of 
what has already been done. To acquire such a knowledge, however, 
will involve long and careful work in the field. Forestry under this 



NOTES ON SOME FOREST PROBLEMS. 189 

aspect, as in nearly all others, can best be studied where the trees 
grow. 

Since 1896 experimental planting by the Division of Forestry has 
been in progress in cooperation with various agricultural colleges and 
experiment stations in the treeless regions. The work already done 
will be incorporated, so far as the circumstances will permit, in the 
new plan. 

FOREST FIRES. 

One of the first and most essential facts about forest fires is their 
commonness. Year by year they spread over vast stretches of coun- 
try, and every spring and every fall accounts of their ravages are 
brought to public attention. Few forest regions escape, and by far 
the greater part of the whole forest area of the United States bears 
the marks of fire. Yet, the forests have not disappeared. They have 
suffered enormously, and their losses from this cause increase rather 
than diminish as time goes on, but the forests are still standing in 
more or less health and value over great areas that have been burned 
over tens or hundreds of times. The explanation lies in two facts, 
each less generally appreciated than it should be, which have a vast 
influence on the present condition and value of North American for- 
ests. The first of these facts, established by the fire scars which mark 
the lower trunks of forest trees over so large a portion of our forests, 
is this : In most regions of the United States the fires that kill the old 
timber are the great exceptions. Ordinarily, fires simply run over 
the ground, burn the leaves and fallen twigs, or the grass where the 
trees stand far apart, kill a few or many or all of the young seedlings 
or sprouts, and leave the older trees scarred and blackened at the base, 
but alive. 

Where there is little combustible material on the ground, as gen- 
erally happens in very open forests, it is easy to understand that the 
fires are not fierce and the heat not great, so that the thicker bark of 
the old trees is usually a sufficient protection. Even here, however, 
the damage that fires do is sometimes very great, as shown, in PI. XI, 
where the effect of slight fire scars, at the base of a tree, upon its 
soundness and utility, is seen to have been most serious. But in 
dense forests, where the layer of inflammable material on the ground 
is often a foot or more in thickness, it is at first not easy to see why 
fire does not make the clean sweep that marks the exceptional devas- 
tating conflagration. It is very common, in such a forest, to find every 
tree marked by fire, but not one killed. The reason is that only the 
upper layer of the litter, to the depth of an inch or a few inches at 
most, was dry enough to burn at the time the fire went through. Such 
an instance is shown in PI. XII, fig. 1, together with an illustration 
(PI. XII, fig. 2), drawn from the same region, in which the whole forest 
has succumbed. 

The second of the influential facts above referred to is that the 



190 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

trees now on the ground are the successors of tens or hundreds, or, 
perhaps, of thousands of others which formerly occupied the surface 
of the country, and in due course grew old and died, or were killed 
by fire or thrown by the wind or the ax, and so have made room for 
their followers. In the same way present generations must eventu- 
ally be followed by others, whether decay, wind, lire, or the ax be 
the final means of their taking off. The important point is that a 
forest once destroyed is rarely destroyed forever. If this were not 
true, it is safe to say that scarcely an acre of timber would now be 
standing on this continent. The home-coming of the forest to land 
from which it has disappeared is often a very slow and delicate proc- 
ess, but in the end some sort of forest cover may be counted on to 
take the place of that which has gone. Hence, it is that the devastat- 
ing fires which have swept over this country for centuries have not 
succeeded in leaving it barren of trees. Forests, like nations, endure 
only at the expense of a constant succession of births and deaths 
among the individuals which compose them. . 

The question from a practical point of view, however, is not whether 
a given area will eventually grow trees again, but rather whether it 
can be of some practical use to mankind without prohibitory delay. 
Thus, a fire which may be only one of a long series of periodic devas- 
tations in the life history of a forest may mean the loss of all its value 
to humanity for so long a time that it is common to hear it said that 
such and such a piece of forest land has been made desert forever. 

A typical illustration of the relation of fire to the existence of a 
great forest, and an indication of its power in determining the kinds 
of trees of which the forest is composed, is fotind on the north side of 
the Olympic Mountains of western Washington. The magnificent 
forest about the base of this range would seem at the first glance to 
be wholly untouched and unaffected by any enemy except the wind 
and the ax. It has been described as the one region in the United 
States where the forest is entirely unaffected by human action. Yet, 
a little study shows that great stretches of it, at least, have been 
burned over within a comparatively recent time. Underneath and 
among the roots of the standing trees there is a layer of charcoal 
left by the fire that cleared the ground for their occupation, which 
may be brought to light by a little digging, or which can be seen with 
less trouble when the wind has overthrown the trees and exposed 
the ground in which they stood. But still more conclusive evidence 
is supplied by the rotting, fire-scarred stubs of old trees standing in 
the midst of the young, unscorched generation which followed the 
fire. (See PL XIII.) 

Here is a perfect example of the entire recovery of a forest after its 
apparent destruction by fire, but the ease has yet another interest. 
The Douglas Fir (Red Fir) is the most important timber tree of this 
forest, through which it is very widely scattered. It is a curious 



KOTES ON SOME FOREST PROBLEMS. 191 

fact that during a trip of some length through the northern Olympic 
region the writer was unable to find a single seedling of this tree 
under the forest cover. Yet, wherever there was an opening cleared 
by fire they were plentiful. This seems to show, although further 
evidence must be gathered before the case can be fully established, 
that the composition of this great forest is largely determined by fire. 
We have already seen how intimately fire is related to its very 
existence. 

So much for some of the more obvious characteristics of forest fires. 
Yet, oven such elementary facts as these are little known, and what 
scant knowledge has been gathered and printed regards only a very 
few of the forest types which are so numerous and so diverse over the 
vast wooded areas of this continent. As yet the study of forest fires 
in North America can hardly be said to have made more than the 
most elementary progress. 

The broad and vital question of forest fires falls naturally into two 
parts, one largely statistical, the other dealing with the natural history 
of the fires. About neither of them has a satisfactory volume of facts 
been gathered, although much more is known of the damage they do 
and the area they cover than of the details of their behavior and the 
effect they have on the soil, the trees, and the general character of the 
forest. The records of fires, for the most part, are found only in the 
forests themselves, in the vast numbers of scattered references to 
them in the public press, aud in the statistical files of those insur- 
ance companies whose policies, directly or indirectly, they affect. 
Hence, one of the most important pieces of work in regard to forest 
fires yet unaccomplished has recently been begun by the Division of 
Forestry. It is a study of the number, date, extent, and damage of 
the fires which, both before and since the advent of the white man, 
have swept from time to time through the forests of the United States; 
and already a classified list of over 1,200 fires has been made. Such 
a record will furnish the best available means for estimating the pro- 
digious loss yearly suffered by the country from this cause, and at the 
same time will show, more clearly than is possible at present, the dan- 
gerous zones, the centers from which fires spread, and the relative 
degree in which particular localities throughout the country have 
already been heavy losers in the past, or are likely to need special 
precautions in the future. It is true, of course, that the great danger 
bells are already known, and that the people who live in places spec 
ially exposed to fire are already acquainted with the risks they run; 
but until the record of fires is far more complete than it is at present, 
many of the facts essentially needed to provide against loss or to 
awaken public sentiment will remain out of reach of any but local 
inquiry. 

Beyond the somewhat trite fact that they burn and do indefinite 
damage, little is known about the real nature of forest fires in the 



192 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

different regions and types of forest in the United States. How they 
move over the ground in wet and dry weather, how they are helped 
and hindered, how they affect the soil, what harm they do to the stand- 
ing trees and why, how they affect the reproduction of the forest and 
determine the kinds of trees of which it is made up — all these ques- 
tions have been left almost untouched except upon the surface. It 
is true that vague general answers can be given to most of them, but 
of real study of forest fires there' has hitherto been very little. In 
this line also the Division of Forestry has recently undertaken to 
supply the lacking information. During the past season field work 
was begun in Colorado, "Wyoming, Montana, Wisconsin, and New York, 
chiefly in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey, and 
some progress has been made. 

It may fairly be asked what is the practical value of such studies 
of the history and nature of fires as those just described. The an- 
swer is that every kind of knowledge of an enemy may be used 
against him. Thus, if it is learned that in a certain region fire travels 
in a w T edge-shaped mass, with the fiercest heat and the most rapid 
progress at the point, it follows that the place to attack it is at the 
point of the wedge, and that the very common method of attacking 
the wings is usually a waste of time. In a similar way an accurate 
knowledge of the great damage which follows hasty and unwise back- 
firing in any given region will be of use in suppressing it. 

The study of how the fires burn yields direct assistance to the men 
whose homes lie in the threatened district. In a somewhat different 
way the historical study of fires will be of use, for whatever helps to 
call attention to the magnitude of an evil helps at the same time to 
weaken its capacity for harm. If the vast destruction fires have 
occasioned can be brought thoroughly home to the public mind in 
terms of lives lost, homes destroyed, and wealth gone up in smoke, a 
factor of notable power will be set to work in bringing about the final 
extinction of this gigantic leakage of the national resources. There 
is no friend of any public wrong so powerful as uncertainty or 
obscurity, and no foe to loss by fire so efficient as an awakened 
public sentiment. 

In these and many other ways a full and clear knowledge of forest 
fires under their various forms will help to rid the country of the 
immense and useless loss they bring from year to year. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1898. 



Plate X. 




Fig. 1.- Band of Sheep grazing on Cascade Range Forest Reserve, Wasco County. 
Oregon. (High Prairie; Altitude, 4,000 feet.) 




Fig. 2.— Seven-year-old Burn without Reproduction, on Cascade Range Forest 
Reserve, Wasco County, Oregon. (Altitude, 3,500 feet.) 



Yearbook U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 1898. 



Plate XI. 




Fig. 1. -Western Yellow Pine scarred at the Base by Fire, Hay Canyon, Black 
Hills Forest Reserve. South Dakota. 




Fig. 2. -Timber ruined by Fire Scars many >ears after the Fire, near Hill City, 
S. Dak., Black Hills Forest Reserve. 

(By permission of Henry (Jannett. geographer. U. S. Geological Survey.) 



Yearbook U. S. Oept of Agt.culture. 1898. 



Plate XII. 




Fig. 1.— Roots of Western Hemlock partly exposed by Fire, Olympic Forest 
Reserve, Washington. 'Soil still coverld with inflammable Waste, which 
at the time of the Fire was too wet to burn.) 




Fig. 2.— Mineral Soil laid bare by Fire, with charred Fragments of Douglas Fir 
(Red Firi, Lake Crescent, Olympic Mountains, Washington. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1898 



Plate XIII. 




Fig. 1 .-Charred Stub of Douglas Fir (Yellow Fir), with young 
Trees of Douglas Fir (Red Fir) grown since the Fire, Sole- 
duc Valley, Olympic Forest Reserve, Washington. 




Fig. 2.— General View of old Fire-killed Stubs (on the left and in the Back- 
ground) and young Trees grown since the Fire, all of Douglas Fir (Yellow 
and Red Fir), Soleduc Valley, Olympic Forest Reserve, Washington. 



WEEDS IN CITIES AND TOWNS. 

By Lysteii H. Dewey, 
Asuintu it t Bota n int. 

GEXERAJ., REMARKS. 

In all cities and villages there are vacant lots awaiting purchasers, 
and in many agricultural districts the unused land in towns often 
exceeds in proportion the unused land in the surrounding farms. 
These vacant lots are held in expectation that they will bo used some 
time for building sites, and their value depends on their situation and 
adaptability for this purpose. Until buildings are erected upon them 
they are usually given up to whatever will grow. While unused land 
in the country is generally covered with native vegetation, chiefly 
perennial grasses and timber, that in cities and towns has usually at 
some time been under cultivation, so that the native vegetation has 
been destroyed, and its situation is such that it is most' readily seeded 
with migratory weeds. The seeds are introduced in the packing of 
crockery, the sweepings from stores, rubbish from yards, cleanings 
from stables and stock cars, and in various kinds of garbage and 
refuse, too commonly deposited on vacant lots. Sometimes lot owners 
encourage the dumping of all kinds of material on their land to bring 
it up to the grade of adjacent streets, and when the desired grade is 
obtained the made ground, full of weed seeds, is left untouched. The 
conditions for weed production have been most admirably prepared, 
and the natural result is a plentiful crop of weeds. 

There is no direct pecuniary incentive to destroy the weeds, since 
no crops are injured by their presence. In fixing the value of a resi- 
dence site the distant view of mountain, lake, or river is an item of 
considerable importance, but a weed patch across the street or on the 
next lot is too often not taken into account. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF CITY WEEDS. 

The weeds of cities and villages are usually of the migratory class, 
cosmopolitan in character, and capable of thriving under a wide range 
of environment. According to the early European works on botany, 
plants from Asia, adventive in Europe, usually appeared first in cities. 
Many of these plants are now found about the cities and towns of 
this country. Others are native plants which have withstood the 
changed conditions due to cultivation and have acquired a weed-like 
habit. In the Eastern cities and in those on the Pacific coast Old 
3 a98 13 193 



194 



YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



"World species predominate, while in the cities of the interior, espe- 
cially in those west of the Mississippi River, there is a larger propor- 
tion of native plants. The species vary in different cities, in different 
years, and in different seasons. 

In Washington, D. C, the wild onion of winter and early spring is 
followed by the dandelion and bulbous buttercup; then come the 
wild carrot, prickly lettuce, and sweet clover, and these in turn are 
partly displaced in the fall by horscwced, ragweed, cocklebur (fig. 
45), Mexican tea, slender pigtveed, and jimson weed. Chicory, horse- 




FlCi. •!.">.— Coc'klolmr ( Ximthium ainadeiiae). 



Fin. 48.— Tall ragweed (Ambrosia trtflda). 



nettle, burdock, and gum succory are in abundant evidence through- 
out the season. Some of the most prominent weeds in Boston are 
burdock, rough pigweed, chicory, and fall dandelion. In Chicago 
rough pigweed, tall ragweed (fig. 46), and cocklebur are abundant, 
while there are hundreds of acres within the city limits covered almost 
completely with Canada thistle, and in several places Russian thistle 
is rapidly increasing. In Denver false ragweed, squirrel-tail grass, 
and Russian thistle are among the most noticeable weeds, and in San 
Jose, Cal., the vacant lots are chiefly occupied by wild licorice, spiny 



WEEDS IN CITIES AND TOWNS. 



195 



cocklebur, wild heliotrope, milk thistle, and tarweeds. In Atlanta, 
Augusta, Auburn, Mobile, and most of the cities of the Gulf States 
the weed that is by far the most injurious and the most prominent 
after midsummer is fine-leaved sneezeweed (fig. 47), a very bitter, 
yellow-flowered composite, which has been introduced during the past 
fifty years from west of the Mississippi. 

Among the most noticeable introductions in cities during the past ten 
years are galinsoga (fig. 48) in several cities of the Northeastern States ; 




Flo. 47.— Fine-leared sneezeweed (Helenium 
teivnifolivm). 



Fig. 



!.— Galinsoga (Galinsoga parvi- 
flora). 



Russian thistle, spreading eastward in cities from Michigan to Massa- 
chusetts; buffalo bur, also migrating eastward ; wild carrot, migrating 
westward; false ragweed (fig. 49) in the valleys of the Missouri and 
Upper Mississippi, and prickly lettuce in all parts of the country. 

All methods of seed dispersion are represented in city weeds, but 
those weeds having seeds adapted for distribution by wind or by burs 
are most abundant. In the vacant land about woolen mills bur-bearing 
weeds are especially abundant, while in the vicinity of grain elevators 
those weeds abound whose seeds are frequently found in grain. 



196 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



SOME GOOD EFFECTS OF WEEDS. 

The presence of weeds on vacant city lots is not quite an unmixed 
evil. While young and growing they are certainly more pleasing to 
the eye than the bare ground or the more unsightly rubbish which 
they conceal. Some species, such as oxeye daisy, wild carrot or "Queen 
Anne's lace," and the wild asters, have very pretty flowers that would 
be considered beautiful if they did not grow on common weeds. The 
pokeweed, with its bright red stems, variegated foliage, and shining 

purple-black berries, gives a 
touch of brilliant autumn color; 
and poison ivy, which is too 
often retained in parks for the 
beautiful effect of its foliage in 
autumn, decorates as well many 
walls and fences about neg- 
lected vacant lots. 

The weeds growing within 
easy reach of pupils and teach- 
ers in city schools furnish some 
material for botanical studies, 
though this source of material 
does not seem to arouse botan- 
ical enthusiasm like a ramble in 
the woods. 

Birds find in weed seeds a 
considerable portion of their 
food supply, and sometimes 
make their nests in the larger 
weeds ; but cockleburs,burdock, 
thistles, ragweeds, and other 
coarse species might well be re- 
placed by seed-bearing grasses 
and clovers, which are better 
liked by seed-eating birds. 

Asters, sweet clovers, this- 
tles, and some other weeds 
when in flower furnish honey bees with nectar, but if the coarse 
weeds were cut there would doubtless be plenty of honey-producing 
plants left for the few bees which are kept in cities and villages. 

Growing weeds, like other plants, purify the air, and herein lies the 
chief benefit conferred by their presence in cities, where numerous 
fires in dwellings, factories, and locomotives, and the breathing of 
the people continually rob the air of its oxygen and charge it with 
carbonic-acid gas. Growing plants, weeds as well as others, reverse 
this process. They withdraw from the air carbonic-acid gas and 
sometimes other injurious gases, and give off oxygen, thus tending 




Fig. 49. — False ragweed (Iva xanthifolia). 



WEEDS IN CITIES AND TOWNS. 197 

to purify the air and keep it supplied with the most essential element. 
A vacant lot covered with healthy growing weeds is better for the 
public health and is certainly more pleasing to the eye than the bare 
ground. 

SOME BAD EFFECTS OF WEEDS. 

The injuries resulting from the presence of weeds outweigh many 
times all the good that can be ascribed to them. They harbor inju- 
rious insects and fungous and bacterial diseases of cultivated plants. 
Many insects injurious to garden and field crops also live on weeds, 
upon which they thrive and multiply, and thus keep up their numbers 
ready to attack their favorite cultivated crop as soon as it is left unpro- 
tected. The control of insect enemies and fungous and bacterial dis- 
eases of field and garden crops is rendered much more difficult and 
their extermination, in some instances, is made practically impossible, 
because they exist on weeds that are not subject to the care bestowed 
on cultivated crops. 

While weeds are growing they aid in purifying the air, but when 
growth stops and they begin to decay their effect is just the opposite. 
They then absorb oxygen and give off carbonic-acid gas. A mass of 
rank vegetation decaying on vacant lots, such as is often seen even in 
the finest residence sections of large cities, can not be otherwise than 
unhealthful. Growing weeds also absorb and evaporate the surplus 
moisture from the soil, but when dead, absorption ceases and they 
shade the soil from the purifying and drying effects of sun and wind, 
and keep it damp and sour, a fit breeding place for malaria. 

Some of the most abundant and widely distributed species, as the 
ragweeds, produce immense quantities of pollen, which is extremely 
irritating to persons afflicted with hay fever and asthma. 

Several species of weeds produce very disagreeable odors, as the 
mayweed, stinkweed, and tarweed. Residents of Eastern cities com- 
plain bitterly of the flavor of garlic in the milk delivered to them, 
yet they allow the garlic to grow so abundantly in their own yards 
that the odor fills all the houses in the vicinity when the lawns are 
mowed. 

Plants that are dangerously poisonous are found in a large number 
of the cities and villages throughout the country. Henbane or deadly 
nightshade is found in a few localities. Jimson weed and purple thorn 
apple are common in most cities east of the Mississippi River. Their 
seeds, which are somewhat attractive, are very poisonous, and children 
fall victims to them every year. Nine cases of poisoning from this 
source "Were reported to the Department of Agriculture in 1897. 
Pokeweed, the root and seeds of which contain a virulent poison, is 
abundant in most of our cities. Poison ivy in the North, low poison 
ivy in the South, and poison oak on the Pacific coast, although not 
strictly weeds, deserve mention among the dangerous plants which are 
frequently allowed to grow in cities and villages. 



198 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

There is usually very little space for children's playgrounds in cities, 
and often the open places that might be used for such purposes, includ- 
ing the occasional vacant lots in sections where land is valued at from 
$10 to $50 per square foot, are covered with coarse weeds and poison- 
ous plants. In Washington, D. C, a vacant lot three blocks from the 
White House was covered during the summer of 1898 with a luxuriant 
growth of burdocks, even the signboard being hidden by the weeds. 
Opposite a million-dollar mansion, in the same city, is a vacant lot, 
which, for five years, has been given up almost exclusively to Can- 
ada thistle, chicory, and ragweed. This weed patch, which would be 
a disgraee even in the back fields of a careless farmer, is practically 
all that can be seen, save the backs of houses, from the front windows 
of the mansion. Close by, in striking contrast with this neglected 
lot, is a beautiful public park with carefully trimmed green lawn and 
well-kept shrubbery. These two extremes are found in close- prox- 
imity in many of our large cities, and from these must the children 
draw their daily lessons of nature. In one she is ugly and repellant 
with thistles and burs, and in the other she is too fine to be touched. 
In less valuable sections of the cities the children keep down weeds 
on parts of vacant lots by their constant tramping. 

Weed patches may be places of interest for the amateur botanist 
who watches the coming and going of the different species and notes 
the various adaptations of plants to eity life, but for the majority of 
city dwellers they ruin what little taste may be left for the beautiful 
in nature. 

State weed laws are rendered. ineffective by the unchecked produc- 
tion of weeds in eities. The Canada-thistle law in Illinois is probably 
bettor enforced in the country districts of that State than are the 
weed laws in any other section of the country, and the thistle could 
be easily kept in control there were it not allowed to grow undis- 
turbed in Chicago and other large cities, whence the seeds are carried 
by wind and railway cars to infest new areas. In many of the smaller 
villages the State weed laws are well enforced, or the weeds are kept 
down because of local pride in neatness, without recourse to the law, 
but this is seldom true in the larger cities- 
Injurious migratory weeds are usually first introduced into cities and 
spread from them to the farms. There are a dozen chances for the 
original introduction of a weed in cities to one upon the farm. Fine- 
leaved sneeze weed first appeared about cities in the South, and is 
now spreading to the grazing lands and cotton fields*. The Canada 
thistle in its progress across the continent has been distributed by 
railways, first to the cities. Prickly lettuce has usually been first 
observed in cities and towns in its remarkably rapid spread over the 
country.. The Russian thistle, indeed, was first introduced into the 
United States on a farm, but being taken to the eities, it now most 
frequently spreads from them to the farms. In many instances these 



WEEDS IN CITIES AND TOWNS. 199 

introduced species could have been easily destroyed upon their first 
appearance in the cities and towns, and millions of dollars damage to 
the farmers thus averted. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT. 

A vacant lot unused and given up to the growth of weeds is of very 
little benefit to anyone, and is, furthermore, a source of danger if 
not of certain injury to the community. The public welfare demands 
that all elements dangerous to life or health be removed. • This would 
require the extermination of the jimson weed, pokeweed, and other 
poisonous plants. It would also require the removal or destruction 
by fire of all masses of coarse weeds as soon as they stop growing. 
These requirements are sometimes secured by the regulations of 
health officers. 

Something beyond mere sanitation should be demanded, however. 
A vacant lot should be made to yield its highest possible value in use 
to the people. There will then be greater incentive to keep it free 
from weeds. The vacancy of a lot, even though regarded as only a 
temporary condition, should not prevent it from being put to good 
use until needed for building purposes. In the crowded portions of 
cities its best possible use is doubtless to form a playground for chil- 
dren. These need not be elaborately fitted up with costly apparatus 
like the modern playgrounds in the parks. They need only to have 
the weeds removed and the surface made reasonably level, cleared of 
rubbish, and seeded to some hardy perennial grass. Many lots, long 
vacant, will be already partly covered with turf-forming grasses, and 
will require only the removal of the weeds, when the grasses already 
established will spread over the entire surfaee. Other lots having 
nothing but a growth of ragweeds and coekleburs will have to be 
plowed, harrowed, and seeded to grasses. Recently graded lots, or 
those with sterile soil, will not at first support a good growth of grass, 
but white melilot, the "white sweet clover "so common on waste land, 
may be grown on them unless the soil is too sandy. This plant forms 
dense copses 3 to 6 feet in height, offering some of the bad features 
of tall weeds, but it is less objectionable than coekleburs, burdocks, 
and thistles, and it is rarely a troublesome weed on farms. It should 
be mowed or plowed under soon after flowering. This will rapidly 
improve the fertility of the soil so that grass may be grown. The 
grasses which survive best in waste land, unwatered lawns, or in 
parks may well be taken as an indication of those best adapted for 
seeding vacant lots. Soil, rainfall, and climate will determine which 
may be best in specific cases, but in general the following kinds are 
recommended: For the South, Bermuda grass, St. Augustine grass, 
and carpet grass; for the North, Kentucky blue grass, various-leaved 
fescue, creeping bent, and smooth brome grass. Common white 
clover in the North and Japan clover in the South are recommended 



200 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTUBE. 

for sandy soils. After the land has been leveled and covered with a 
turf it will require little further attention except an occasional mow- 
ing. The children, by their tramping, will keep down some of the 
weeds, and they may be encouraged to destroy others that appear. 
It is not expected that a fine, even turf will be maintained equal to 
that in the parks, nor is this essential for the purpose in view. The 
grass will remain green during most of the year, and when the leaves 
do turn yellow and decay there will not be enough of them to pollute 
the air or induce disease. 

In the outskirts of cities or in villages where there is plenty of open 
space for the children, vacant lots may well be used by the needy or by 
people out of employment for the cultivation of vegetables, according 
to the plan tried in Detroit, Buffalo, Columbus, Brooklyn, and Chicago, 
which has generally proved very successful for the purpose intended. 
Besides supplying the immediate wants of the deserving poor and pro- 
viding healthful exercise, this work tends to give a wholesome taste for 
agricultural life. To obtain the highest benefit from vacant lots used 
for this purpose, and to prevent them from being overrun with autumn 
weeds, they should be cleared up and seeded either to crimson clover 
(where this will grow) early in the fall or later to rye. These plants 
will cover the naked ground and keep down weeds. Crimson clover 
will increase the fertility of the soil, and in the spring its bright flow- 
ers will repay many times the slight expense of growing it. 

Where there are large areas of partly improved parks or subdivi- 
sions not yet placed upon the market, the vegetation may be kept 
down at slight expense by pasturing sheep on them. This method is 
pursued in Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, and in Central Park, New 
York, and it is found that the sheep make very effective and very 
economical lawn mowers. 

The work of destroying the weeds and improving vacant lots can 
doubtless be done best by municipal direction under the immediate 
supervision of the park or street departments. In the larger cities it 
may be difficult to obtain the necessary municipal legislation. City 
authorities may wait to feel the pressure of public sentiment, and 
public sentiment may need to be educated to a just appreciation of 
the benefits to be gained. A few good examples, which may be pro- 
duced through individual effort or by the united action of a small 
community, will demonstrate the practical utility of the work and 
lead to its extension. Examples of this kind are now found in many 
villages and suburban towns. If the practice can be made general 
in the cities and towns throughout the country it will cut off one of 
the principal avenues for the introduction of foreign weeds. 



THE USE OF KITES IN THE EXPLORATION ©F THE 

UPPER AIR. 

By C. F. Marvin, 
Professor of Meteorology, Weather Bureau. 

HISTORICAL NOTES. 

Evor since man began to observe and measure the conditions of the 
atmosphere around him a good deal of effort has been expended to 
find out what sort of conditions prevail high up in the free air. 
From what is known at present it seems that kites, which are so old 
that history does not tell us certainly of their origin, were the first 
things employed to gain this information. Nearly one hundred and 
fifty years ago Dr. Alexander Wilson, an astronomer in Edinburgh, 
Scotland, attached thermometers to kites which he flew to great 
heights, and thus ascertained the temperature in the clouds. Two 
years after this, but without any knowledge of Dr. Wilson's work, our 
own Franklin drew the lightning from the thunder clouds by means of 
a kite, and demonstrated its likeness to the electrical sparks produced 
by the laboratory machines. Balloons were unknown at this time, 
and over fifty years elapsed before scientists began to use them for 
conducting researches in the upper air. 

In 1895 Prof. Willis L. Moore, the present Chief of the Weather 
Bureau, decided to undertake, by means of kites, the most complete 
survey of the free upper air ever before attempted. The plan adopted 
was to equip a number of stations distributed over the United States 
with kites and to make daily ascensions, sending up automatic instru- 
ments to a nearly uniform height of a mile if possible, the object 
being to secure a record of the meteorological conditions in the free air. 
Prior experiments made at the Weather Bureau and by others else- 
where had demonstrated the possibility of using kites for such a pur- 
pose, but very much remained to be done to bring the whole kite 
apparatus to that state of efficiency required in securing a successful 
execution of so difficult an undertaking. 

While the Weather Bureau has been conducting this work, which 
comprises almost daily observations in a free horizontal air stratum 
about a mile high, independent kite ascensions have been made by 
•several private individuals, the most important of which in the 
United States are the ascensions jnade at the Blue Hill Observatory, 
near Boston, under the direction of Mr. A. L. Rotch. 

The results from a single station of this sort serve to show only the 

201 



202 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

change in atmospheric conditions as the kites pass up or down 
through successive strata; or, if the kites are kept continuously at a 
fixed elevation, the observations show the change in conditions from 
hour to hour. 

In Europe small balloons, equipped with automatic instruments, 
have been cast free, from time to time, and have ascended to very 
great heights before losing their bouyancy, when, slowly falling to 
the ground, they have thus brought back records of the conditions at 
extreme heights in the atmosphere which were never reached before. 
Lately European meteorologists have employed both kites and bal- 
loons for atmospheric explorations, so that we may fairly say that 
kites are now no longer toys only, but are highly valuable pieces 
of scientific apparatus as well, the use of which will no doubt be 
greatly extended in the near future. 




FlO. 50.— Standard Weather Bureau kite. 



STANDARD WEATHER BUREAU KITE AND APPARATUS. 



THE KITE. 
/ 

The modern scientific kite is a far more efficient structure than any 
of the well-known toys, but its construction is correspondingly com- 
plicated, and, in most cases, somewhat more than the average 
mechanical skill and facilities are required to build one. Fig. 50 is 
taken from a photograph of one of those used by the Weather Bureau 
in its aerial work. The oval object seen suspended between the cells 
is the automatic instrument which produces the desired record. 
This kite contains nearly 70 square feet of supporting surface, and, 
in a strong wind, will exert a pull amounting to from 60 to 100 pounds 
and over. Of course, such a kite can not be flown and managed 
directly from the hand. The line is carried upon substantial reeling 
apparatus, which, in turn, is securely anchored to the ground. 



USE OF KITES IN EXPLORATION OF UPPER AIR, 203 

DESCBIPIION OF HEELS. 

One of the hand reels employed at kite stations is shown in fig. 51. 
The largo iron drum contains between 2 and 3 miles of fine steel 
music wire, joined in one continuous length. The greater part of this 
is often carried out by the kite in making a high ascension. 




Fia. 51.— Standard Weather Bureau band red. 



This wire is the lightest, and, relatively, the finest and strongest 
material known. The size employed in the Weather Bureau work is 
about the thiekness of an ordinary pin, and yet has a tensile strength 
at the point of breaking of quite 200'pounds. The box containing the 



204 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

reel revolves upon the table beneath, thus permitting the wire to lead 
off to the kite in whatever direction it may take. 

The unwinding of the wire under the pull of the kite is perfeetly 
and easily controlled by a brake, the lever of which is seen project- 
ing to the right in the figure. A spring attached to one of the crank 
handles enables the pull of the kite, in pounds, to be determined. 
Certain dials arranged on the axle of the drum give the amount of 
wire out to the kite, and finally, the inclination of the wire is shown 
by means of a graduated arc and radius rod, seen over the drum in 
the figure. 

A matter of great importance in the construction of a kite reel is 
to secure sufficient strength in the rim to withstand the enormous 
cumulative pressure exerted by a largo amount of Aviro wound in 
under great tension. A single turn of wire around the drum under a 
uniform strain of 50 pounds, for example, tends to produce a com- 
pressive stress of 50 pounds at every point around the rim. The 
next turn, at the same tension, adds 50 pounds to the preceding stress, 
and so on. Two thousand turns at this rate will, therefore, produce 
a pressure of 100,000 pounds, or 500 tons. The heavy rim of the cast- 
iron drum, shown in fig. 51, is calculated to safely resist a crushing 
pressure of fully 1,000 tons. In actual practice the crushing pressure 
is not quite so great as that calculated by the process indicated above, 
because the material of the reel yields a little as the pressure increases, 
and this lessens the tension on the turns of wire already wound on 
the drum. The side flanges of the drum must also be very strong, as 
the wire crowds sidewise against these with great force. It is best on 
this account not to wind the wire on in smooth and even layers, but 
rather to crisscross the turns of wire slightly, but in a regular man- 
ner. Wound in this way, the wire tends to support itself, even with- 
out side flanges; at any rate, the lateral pressure is greatly reduced, 
and, moreover, the outside turns of wire are not able to squeeze down 
through what is already wound on the reel, as they tend to do when 
the wire is wound in an even manner like thread on a spool. 

When flying at an elevation of from 5,000 to 7,000 feet, one of the 
Weather Bureau kites, supporting its instrument, will pull from (50 to 
80 pounds, if not more, and from 8,000 to 10,000 feet of wire will be 
out. To wind all this wire in under such conditions is really a very 
laborious operation, and generally requires two men at pretty hard 
work for from a half to three-quarters of an hour or more. 

In fig. 52 the automatic hand or steam kite reel, designed by the 
writer for use at the central station just outside of Washington, D. C. , is 
seen as it appears completely housed and not in use. The reel, with a 
portion of the engine arranged for service, is shown in PI. XIV, fig. 1. 

The drum is of the same strength and construction as the one shown 
in fig. 51 and can be operated by hand by aid of cranks, which can be 
applied or detached at any moment desired. One is seen in PI. XIV, 



> 

X 




Fig. 1.- Automatic Kite Reel, arranged for Service. 



Fig. 2.— Kite Meteorograph (Marvin). 



USE OF KITES IN EXPLORATION OF UPPER AIR. 



205 



fig. 1, on the end of the axis of the drum. It is usually employed in 
this position to aid in starting a kite in flight during light winds. The 
crank can also be operated on the end of the shaft, seen a little farther 
back in the same figure. In this position of the crank the drum is 
driven indirectly, but with increased power, by means of the gearing 
shown. 

In a favorable wind the tension on the line is more than sufficient 
to unwind the wire and the ascension of the kite is then controlled by 
means of the lever projecting upward at an angle in the rear of the 
drum. This operates the strap-iron brake fitted around the flange of 
the drum, and a very gentle pressure suffices to regulate the speed of 
the drum or to stop it completely even with the wire under the greatest 
tension. 

Ordinarily, the work of winding in the line is done with the engine, 
the main slraft of which is extended across the reel box close to the 








Fig. 52.— Automatic hand or steam reel housed. 

floor. A belt from this runs the shaft carrying the small gear wheel. 
The large gear wheel runs loose on the axis of the drum, but when it 
is desired to wind in wire a lever at the back of the reel, not seen in 
PI. XIV, fig. 1, is gradually shifted, thereby slowly starting the drum 
into revolution by means of a friction-clutch connecting it to the large 
gear wheel. 

The arrangement of wheels seen in PI. XIV, fig. 1, in front of the drum 
serves several purposes. The wire from the drum passes first down- 
ward and underneath the dynamometer and distributing wheel, thence 
up through the hollow support of the wheel seen at the top of the 
figure, over which the wire passes out to the kite. This latter wheel 
is free to turn, castor fashion, on ball bearings, about a vertical axis 
and align itself to the direction of the kite. 

The first wheel inside the box, around which the wire' passes, is 



206 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

mounted in a pivoted frame governed by springs. The pull of the 
■wire stretches the springs more or less, and the corresponding motion 
of the pivoted frame is communicated to the index and recording pen 
of the dynamograph, the recording cylinder of which, with some of 
the details, can be seen in the front of the figure. By this arrange- 
ment the tension on the line is indicated and can be continuously 
recorded at all times, no matter whether the wire is in motion either 
way or standing still. 

Furthermore, this same wheel in its pivoted frame is so mounted as 
to oscillate laterally in a regular manner, thereby guiding and distri- 
buting the wire over the surfaee of the drum in a prescribed manner. 
The oscillating motion is given to the wheel by means of the cam, 
plainly seen in the figure. For the reasons already given, the guid- 
ing mechanisms distribute the wire in a crisscross fashion, so arranged 
that the turning point at the flanges of the drum occur successively 
at different points around the circumference, thus avoiding the 
heaping up of tho wire at certain points. 

The wheel at the top of the figure is just 3 feet in circumference, 
and serves to indicate the length of wire out by means of a suitable 
dial mounted at its axis. The length of the wire is also indicated by 
another set of dials operated directly from the axis of the main drum. 

The bent radial arm and graduated arc, seen attached to the top 
wheel, are employed to measure the angular inclination of the wire 
as it leads off to the kite. 

THE METEOROGRAPH. 

The instrument sent up with the kite to secure the automatic record 
of the conditions of the air is called a meteorograph. It is quite a 
complicated and remarkable affair, and withal, is very light, weighing 
only about 2. 1 pounds. The instrument is seen in fig. 50 as it appears 
attached to the kite and inclosed within its light, aluminum case. 
PI. XIV, fig. 2, shows the mechanism inside the case. 

The sheet upon which the record is produced is wound around the 
cylinder seen at the bottom of tho figure. A clock-work inside the 
cylinder causes it to revolve at a slow and uniform rate of one revolu- 
tion in twelve hours. 

Four different meteorological conditions are recorded by the four 
pens of this instrument. The pen on the right traces a line on the 
paper which shows the humidity of the air, the pen being actuated by 
a strand of human hairs stretched inside the long tube seen at the top 
of the figure. These hairs have the property of lengthening when 
subjected to moist air and shortening in dry air. 

The next pen toward the left traces a line upon the record sheet, 
which shows the pressure of the air, the pen being actuated by the 
gang of five round, thin, objects seen between the pressure and 
humidity pens in the figure. 



USE OF KITES IN EXPLORATION OF UPPER AIR. 207 

The next pen in order traces a line showing the temperature of the 
air, which acts upon a special form of thermometer contained within 
the long tube at the top. When the instrument is attached to the 
kite the wind blows directly through this tube, thereby acting strongly 
upon both the thermometer and the hair hygrometer inside. 

The pen at the extreme left is designed to record, electrically, the 
A'elocity of the wind. For this purpose a small anemometer, not shown 
in any of the illustrations, is fixed to the kite and connected to the 
instrument by wires. The pen will then make little marks on the 
record sheet corresponding to every 2 miles of wind movement. 

OBJECTS OP EXPLORATIONS. 

A very few remarks will show the great importance in meteorologi- 
cal studies and weather forecasting of such observations as can be 
obtained by means of kites. These give the conditions prevailing in 
the free atmosphere, often in and above the clouds themselves, at 
points far removed from the disturbing effects of great cities, forests, 
the earth's surface, etc. In fact, observations thus obtained are truly 
characteristic conditions of great masses of the atmosphere, and when 
regularly and completely determined they afford far more exact and 
probably earlier indications of important forthcoming atmospheric 
changes than the most elaborate observations taken at the surface. 
The tops of our highest buildings are, after all, but an insignificant 
distance up in the free air, and all surface conditions are always 
modified as a result of the actual contact of the air with the earth and 
the immediate effect of the latter upon adjacent portions of the air. 

CONSTRUCTION OF A MODERN KITE. 

As some of the readers of this paper may desire to build and fly a 
good tailless kite of modern type, a simple method of constructing 
a small-sized cellular kite for pleasure purposes is given in detail. 
Fig. 53 shows a perspective view of the kite complete. 

THE STICKS. 

The sticks are best made of straight-grained spruce, but white pine 
also answers very well. Either lonsdale cambric or calico may be 
used for the covering. Some small tacks and coarse, waxed, linen 
thread are also required. The sticks should be cut to the following 
dimensions: 

Four longitudinal corner spines, one-fourth of an inch thick, five- 
eighths of an inch wide, and 40 inches long. 

Two central longitudinal spines, three-eighths of an inch square by 
40 inches long. 

Two short vertical struts, one-fourth of an inch thick, 1 inch wide, 
and llf inches long. 

Four diagonal struts, one-fourth of an inch thick, five-eighths of an 
inch wide, and 37 J inches long. 



208 



YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 



The real backbone of the kite consists of a central truss, which is 
made up as shown in fig. 5-1. 

The long sticks are three-eighths of an inch square. At 5^ inches 
from each end a slight notch is formed on one side to receive the 
uprights. A notch is shown at n, and its depth should not exceed one- 




Fio. 53.— Perspective view of a modern kite. 



sixteenth of an inch. The notches may, indeed, be omitted entirely. 
The uprights must be cut perfectly square and true on the ends, and 
are then cut to the form shown at B. These are seated squarely in the 
notches of the long spines and firmly lashed in place with coarse, 
waxed, linen thread, as shown enlarged in fig. 57. Waxed shoe- 




Fig. 54.— Central truss. 



makers' or harness makers' twine is the best material for this pur- 
pose, but any coarse thread or fine string, thoroughly waxed, will 
suffice. 

Fig. 55 shows the form to which the corner longitudinal spines should 
be dressed, the long, straight edge being slightly rounded, as shown 
in the end view. Notice that the notches at the opposite ends are not 
at the same distance from the end. 



USE OP KITES IN EXPLORATION OP UPPER AIR. 209 

THE CLOTH, THREAD, ETC. 

The covering of the kite is made of two long strips of cloth. Both 
edges of the strips should be hemmed, oven if one edge has a selvage, 
and when so hemmed, the width should be just 12 inches. The total 
length of the strip, when stretched about as it will be on the kite, 
should be 96| inches, the half inch being allowed for the lap of the 
goods in sewing the two ends together. It may be remarked here that 
it is generally better to carefully tear the cloth to the proper length 
and width, rather than try to cut it, as more accurate results will be 
gained by the first method. The opposite ends of each cloth strip 
should be carefully and evenly lapped the one-half inch and strongly 
sewed together with a double seam, thus forming two endless bands. 

The next step is to mark the cloth bands at the places that are to be 
fastened to the frame. Stretch each cloth band out smooth and 
straight over two thin sticks run through inside the band. It is well 
to make the seam in the band come over or near the edge of one of 
the sticks. When the band is smooth and evenly stretched, draw a 
pencil line across the band exactly in the middle, where it turns 
around the edge of each stick. Let the line near the seam be marked 



Pio. 55.— Longitudinal corner spine. 

A and the opposite line B. Now shift the cloth around the sticks so 
that the lines A and B approach each other, but do not pass. Care- 
fully adjust the band so that when evenly stretched the line A is just 
12 inches from B, and mark the cloth, as before, where it passes over 
the edge of each stick. Shift the cloth again still farther around the 
sticks; this time let the line A and B pass each other, and, when they 
are again separated just 12 inches and the cloth evenly stretched, 
draw pencil lines at the edges of the sticks as before. Time and care 
spent in laying out these lines accurately on the cloth, so as to divide 
it into equal portions ivhen stretched, will be well repaid in the even 
flying of the kite. 

The cloth bands are now ready to be tacked to the sticks. Put one 
of the bands over the central truss and tack the line A down with five 
or six small (2-ounce) tacks to one of the sticks; for example, as 
shown from a to b, fig. 54. The opposite line r B, must be tacked to 
the opposite stick from c to d. The remaining band is similarly 
tacked to the opposite end of the truss. Finally, the four corner 
longitudinal spines are passed within the bands and the appropriate 
lines of the cloth tacked to the sticks. The only point needing special 
attention at this step is to arrange the corner spines so that their 
1 A98— 14 



210 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

notches will stand in proper relation. Referring to fig. 55, it will be 
recalled that the small notch at one end of each spine is nearer the 
end than at the opposite end. In tacking the spines to the cloth, all 
that is necessary is that one pair of spines in opposite corners shall 
have the notches the shorter distance from the end and the notches 
of the other pair be at the longer distance. In other words, for exam- 
ple, tack short-ended spines in the C and D corners, as they appear in 
fig. 53 ; then the long ends of the remaining spines must occupy the 
E and F corners of fig. 53. When so arranged, one diagonal strut 
stepped in the notches will pass in front of and the other behind the 
uprights of the central truss. 

All that now remains to be done is to fit up the diagonal struts. 
Fig. 56 shows a finished diagonal strut. It is difficult to determine 
beforehand the exact length these should be, because the amount the 
cloth bands will stretch is uncertain. The length indicated in fig. 56 
is about right, if all the other dimensions specified herein are care- 
fully adhered to. Make up a pair of the struts about a half inch too 
long at first, then, by trying them in the kite and cutting out the 
notches deeper and deeper, a perfectly satisfactory fit can "be secured 
and the cloth braced out smooth and taut. Care must be taken to 



f ff 36~i~ 

U- r ~ ? — 

Dgy 



/V- ^- 



Pig. 56.— Diagonal strut. 



keep the two struts of the same pair the same length. This fitting 
had best be done before reducing the cross section of the sticks 
between the ends. The enlarged ends, when finished, should have 
about the dimensions shown in fig: 56; then, to prevent the forks 
from splitting off, it is quite necessary to lash the ends just back of 
the notch with a serving of good, waxed thread. Instead of cutting 
these struts out of a solid piece, as described above, some may prefer 
to build up the enlargements at the end by gluing on small cleats, 
finally lashing the waxed thread over all as before. 

It is understood, of course, that the diagonal struts are to be inserted 
within the cells of the kite, so that the notched ends enter the shal- 
low notches of the corner spines, shown at a and b, fig. 55. One diago- 
nal strut passes in front of, and the other behind, the upright of the 
central truss in each cell, and the three sticks are firihly bound 
together at the point of crossing with waxed thread. 

METHODS OP BRIDLING. 

Two methods of bridling the kite will be described. Cut off about 
6 feet of stout cord and tie one end to the central truss at A, as shown 
in fig. 54, the cord passing through small holes pierced in the cloth 



USE OF KITES IN EXPLORATION OF UPPER AIR. 



211 



covering. The knot employed at this point is shown enlarged at A, 
fig. 57. The flying line should be tied to the free end of this cord 
by means of bowline knots, as shown at B, fig. 57. This knot is strong, 




Pio. 57.— First form of bridle. 



never slips, and can be easily untied, no matter how much the line 
may have been strained. 

The one-point attachment of bridle, described above, is better suited 
to strong than light winds, and sometimes in lighter winds it may be 




Fig. 58.— Second form of bridle; c, enlarged knot (loosened). 

more satisfactory to employ the two-point attachment of bridle shown 
in fig. 58. In this the free end of the 6-foot piece of cord is shown 
tied to the central truss at b, thus forming the bridle, a, b, c; the 



212 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

main line being attached at the point c by a kind of knot shown 
enlarged at one side. This will not slip of itself, but the point of 
attachment can easily be adjusted as may be desired. 

To be perfectly safe, the flying line for this kite should have a ten- 
sile strength of from 50 to 60 pounds and be equally strong through- 
out. During light winds a finer line will answer, but strong currents 
are frequently encountered as the kite ascends, and a weaker line 
than specified above is likely to be broken. 

FLYING THE KITE. 

If the* wind is favorable for flying, the best way to start the kite in 
flight is to run out 150 feet or so of twine while the kite is held by an 
assistant. When all is ready, the assistant may toss the kite upward 
a little in the direction in which it is to go. It will take care of itself 
afterwards. It is important the kite be cast off directly in line with 
the wind, otherwise it may seem to dart badly. When fairly up the 
kite may sweep a little from side to side, but if it ever darts or turns 
over, there is something radically wrong, probably due to an uneven 
distribution of the cloth surface, or some permanent distortion of the 
framework. Sometimes the weight of the wood varies, and one side 
is heavier than the other. This should be corrected by weighting the 
light side with a small strip of sheet lead, or otherwise. 

If the wind is very light, a finer twine may be used in flying, and it 
may be necessary to run a little with a long string out, in order to get 
the kite into upper and more rapidly moving currents. 

When the wind is very strong, drop the ball of twine on the ground 
so that the cord can pay out rapidly, and let the kite go up directly 
and quickly from the hand. 

TANDEM KITES. 

Several kites can be sent up on the same line. When an additional 
kite is to be sent up, it must be first carried out, say, 100 feet, 
attached to a separate line of that length, the end being tied to a loop 
formed in the main line. When all is ready, the kite is tossed up, as 
already described. 



UTILIZATION OP RESIDUES FROM BEET-SUGAR MANU- 
FACTURE IN CATTLE FEEDING. 

By Guilford L. Spencer, 
Assistant in Division of Chemistry. 

PULP FEEDING IN EUROPE. 

In visiting the sugar-beet farms of Europe, the excellent condition 
of the beef and dairy cattle is quite noticeable. This desirable result 
is in a large measure attributable to feeding the beet pulps from 
the sugar factories to the cattle. In addition to the pulps, a small 
proportion of molasses is also often fed. 

It is customary in Europe, especially in Germany, to guaranty a 
certain proportion of pulp to each farmer who is a shareholder in the 
factory, as part compensation for his beets, and to pay other farmers 
not receiving pulp a somewhat higher price, approximately 75 cents 
per ton. The shareholders contract to furnish the beets from a cer- 
tain area, and can depend upon receiving pulp in proportion to this 
acreage. The beet pulp is, moreover, in such demand that farmers 
not shareholders contract to plant a certain acreage to beets, and are 
then also supplied pulp as part compensation. 

The pulp is especially prized in the sugar-producing sections for 
feeding milch cows. The general results of such feeding are a large 
flow of rich milk and the production of butter of good flavor. 

RESIDUES FROM BEET-SUOAR MANUFACTURE. 

In the sugar-beet industry the roots are topped in the fields prior to 
transportation to the factory, and the crown of the beet is removed by 
means of a sharp, heavy knife applied at or near the lowest leaf scar. 
Experience and chemical tests have demonstrated that there is a ten- 
dency for various salts to accumulate in the crown of the beet in 
greater quantities than in other parts of the root. Many of the salts 
retard the crystallization of the sugar in the manufacturing processes, 
and increase the production of molasses. It is for this reason that 
the manufacturers are very strict in their specifications relative to 
topping. 

The tops, or crowns, may therefore be considered among the resi- 
dues of the manufacture. They may be fed to cattle, but with hardly 
as satisfactory results as would be obtained by feeding the entire beet, 
owing to the large proportion of salts. In view of the necessity of 

213 



214 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

maintaining the fertility of the land, it is not usually advisable to 
feed the beet tops; they should be left in the fields to rot and be 
turned under in subsequent operations. However, where the manure 
from the cattle fed in part npon beet crowns and leaves is returned 
to the land such feeding is profitable. 

In the earlier days of the beet-sugar industry in this country diffi- 
culty was experienced in some localities in persuading the farmers to 
leave the beet tops upon the ground instead of feeding them or haul- 
ing them to the factory, thus increasing the tare, and special induce- 
ments were necessary to convince th6in of the advisability of so 
doing. 

The next important residue, and that which has been already briefly 
commented upon, is the beet pulp. This pulp is the residue of the beet 
remaining after the removal of the juice, or, according to present prac- 
tice, after the removal of those parts readily soluble in water at mod- 
erate temperatures. 

PROCESSES FOR EXTRACTING SUGAR PROM BEETS. 

Until within the last decade three processes of extracting rhe sugar 
from the beet were in vogue, each producing characteristic pulps. 
These processes are termed the "hydraulic-press," the "continuous- 
press," and the ' ' diffusion. " In the first two processes the roots were 
first reduced to a fine pulp by means of rasps. In the hydraulic proc- 
ess this pulp was placed in sacks and submitted to heavy pressure, 
then moistened with water, and again pressed. This method produced 
very dry pulps of great feeding value and in an excellent condition 
for conservation. In the continuous-press process the pulp was passed 
between rollers, the residue saturated with water, and again pressed. 
This process produced a pulp of greater humidity than the hydraulic 
pulps, and of less feeding value. These processes have disappeared 
from the sugar factories, and are probably used in few, if any, of the 
distilleries; therefore the character of the pulps produced need receive 
no further consideration. 

The process now employed by sugar factories in the extraction of 
the juice from the beet is termed "diffusion." The beets, after being 
thoroughly washed, are sliced into long, grooved pieces, somewhat 
approximating the letter V, in cross section. These slices are trans- 
ferred to large iron vessels, and are treated with successive portions 
of hot water, heated to approximately 160° F. The vessels are closed 
and the water is under a few pounds' pressure during the process. 
After the extraction of the juice the pulp is pressed in continuous 
apparatus, and is then ready for delivery to farmers. The pulp in 
this condition is quite moist, still retaining about 89 per cent of 
water. 



RESIDUES FROM BEET-SUGAR MANUFACTURE. 
DIFFUSION PULPS. 



215 



The following may be considered an average analysis of diffusion 
pulps: 1 

Analysis of diffusion pulps. 



Ingredients. 


Fresh 
pulp. 


Dry 

material. 




Per cent. 

89.09 

.92 

6.52 

1.98 

.09 

1.40 


Per cent. 




8.43 
59.76 
18.15 
.83 
12.83 






Fat 




Total 


100 

10.91 


100 









The analyses, of which the above table gives mean results, were 
made by a commission of experts in France, including Messrs. 
Dupbnt, Vivien, Lucas, Duvin, and Durot. A brief resume of feeding 
experiments conducted by this commission will be given further on. 

A small percentage of cane sugar is included in the percentage of 
digestible carbohydrates given in the table. After the pulp has been 
stored in silos for a short time, the sugar, which does not usually 
exceed from 4 to 6 pounds in quantity in a ton of the fresh material, 
gradually disappears through fermentation, and therefore is lost, at 
least in part, before the pulp is fed. The nutritive ratio (per cent 
fat multiplied by 2.25 plus per cent digestible carbohydrates, divided 
by per cent proteids) of diffusion pulps approximates 1:7.2. This is 
a medium ratio, and agrees fairly well with the Wolf-Lehmann 
standard for fattening a steer. A calculation on a somewhat different 
basis, assigning -a money value to each of the constituents of. the 
materials, indicates that beet pulp is worth about half as much as 
corn silage. 

The usual European practice in feeding beet pulp to beef cattle is 
to mix a small quantity of linseed-oil cake and chopped alfalfa with 
the material. 

FEEDING EXPERIMENTS, WITH BEET P0U». 1 

Few records, if any, of carefully controlled American experiments 
'in feeding cattle on pulp are available; hence, those made in France 
by the commission already alluded to are given here. 

At the time these experiments were. made, the hydraulic and con- 
tinuous press methods of extracting the juice from the beets were 
employed to a far greater extent than the diffusion process. In con- 
sequence of the increasing number of diffusion plants at this time, 

■Bulletin No. 52, Division of Chemistry; also House Doc. No. 396, Fifty-fifth 
Congress, first session. 



216 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

the question of the relative values of the different pulps was the 
subject of frequent discussion, and many disputes between the fac- 
tories and the farmers were referred to the courts. The experiments 
were made in connection with the settlement of one of these disputes. 
The gentlemen who composed the commission appointed by the court 
rank high among the leading experts of Europe in matters relating to 
the beet industry, and the experiments quoted are therefore of the 
highest value. Data relative to press pulps are omitted, as these 
pulps are ho longer of importance. 

The following animals were used in the tests: (1) Beef cattle; (2) 
oxen; (3) milch cows; (4) sheep; (5) ewes-. Before beginning the 
tests the animals were all gradually accustomed to the change from 
their customary ration to diffusion pulp. 

(1) Beef cattle. — Twelve beeves each received every day, in three 
meals, 115 pounds of diffusion pulp, mixed with 6.6 pounds chopped 
alfalfa and 6.6 pounds linseed-oil cake. Their weight increased an 
average of 2.214 pounds per day. Taking into account the values of 
the increased weight of meat, and of the alfalfa and linseed-oil cake, 
that of the diffusion pulp is $1,316 per 1,000 kilograms, or 2,200 
pounds. 

(2) Oxen. — Four oxen received each per day 126.8 pounds of diffu- 
sion pulp, mixed With 12 pounds of alfalfa and 2.2 pounds of linseed- 
oil cake. These cattle decreased in weight somewhat the first fifteen 
days and did less work than usual, but in the second fifteen days 
they had entirely recovered. The trial continued two months and a 
half. In making a calculation similar to the one above, the value of 
the diffusion pulp was $0,956 per 1,000 kilograms (2,200 pounds). 

(3) Milch cows. — The test with cows lasted thirty days. Two cows 

were used, one Flemish the other Dutch. Prior to the test the cattle 

were fed on dry alfalfa with a small quantity of press pulps from 

beets. The cows were each given per day 99.2 pounds of diffusion 

pulp with 4.4 pounds of alfalfa. The tests indicated that the pulp is 

of greater value as regards lactation than in the production of flesh. 

The effect of this ration on the product of cream, calculated, of 

course, in cubic centimeters, is shown in the following table: 

• 
Cows fed on diffusion pulp. 



Date. 



Percentage of cream 
to milk. 



Cow No. 1. Cow No. 2. 



April 27 
May 1- 
May 12. 
May 19. 



8.00 
7.60 
7.50 
7.50 



7.00 
8.00 
8.00 
8.00 



RESIDUES PROM BEET-SUGAR MANUFACTURE. 217 

From these tests, it was inferred that the milk of the cows fed from 
diffusion pulp contained an average of 7.68 per cent of cream. The 
butter produced from this milk did not have the peculiar odor which 
is present in that from cows fed on press pulps. 

(4) Sheep. — In this test twenty merino sheep were fed on diffusion 
pulp. The rations fed per animal and the resulting increase were as 
follows: 

Average rations per'head: Pounds. 

Pulp '. 11.88 

Linseed-oilcake .44 

Chopped alfalfa 1.10 

Weight of sheep: 

April4 2,085.6 

April 26 2,217.6 

Total increase 133.0 

The sheep eat the pulp with avidity; hence, it is unnecessary to 
make other additions to it. On a basis of this experiment with 
sheep, the value of the diffusion pulp was calculated to be $1.74 per 
1,000 kilograms (2,200 pounds). 

(5) Eives. — The ewes were obtained from a flock from which the 
lambs had just been separated. In feeding the ewes, to which a some- 
what larger ration was given than in the preceding experiment, the 
value of the pulp was calculated to be $1,206 per 1,000 kilograms 
(2,200 pounds). 

Cost and feeding value of the pulp. — Not taking into account trans- 
portation, the commission estimated the value of the pulp per 1,000 
kilograms (2,200 pounds) at $1.22, and from calculations based on a 
cattle food analysis, at $1,288. 

From these experiments, one may draw the same conclusion rela- 
tive to the feeding value of pulp as was drawn from the analytical 
data, namely, the material is very fattening food. The experiments 
in question, and many others, also indicate that pulp may be fed to 
dairy cattle with great success. The results with cattle doing heavy 
work indicate that pulp will find its best application in fattening ani- 
mals for the market and in feeding milch cows, rather than as a ration 
for draft animals. 

PULP FEEDING IN THE UNITED STATES. 

While, as already stated, so far as the writer is informed, no experi- 
ments corresponding with those conducted in Europe have been made 
in this country, much has been accomplished in a practical way in 
pulp feeding. Pulp has been fed to dairy cattle in California for 
many years with satisfactory results. Reports from the Pecos Valley 
in New Mexico show the satisfactory feeding of large numbers of 
sheep, and a good demand for pulp. 

A letter from Vice-President Thomas R. Cutler, of the Utah Beet 



218 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Sugar Company, Lehi, states that the company has been feeding pulp 
the past four years. This pulp is stored in silos, a little coarse salt 
being mixed with it at the rate of approximately 5 pounds per ton of 
pulp. The cattle and sheep eat the pulp greedily, cattle consuming 
an average of 100 pounds per day. The pulp is mixed with from 10 
to 15 pounds of hay per 100 pounds for "roughness." The animals 
fatten rapidly, and altogether the results obtained have been very 
satisfactory. 

The conditions which obtain in the vicinity of the Nebraska factories 
are somewhat different from those in the other localities mentioned. 
The writer recently visited a factory at Grand Island, and found there 
a very large pile of pulp, the accumulations of several seasons, the 
demand for this by-product at the factory being far from keeping 
pace with the' manufacture. The products of the different seasons 
form distinct layers which may be readily separated. No effort is 
made to conserve the pulp. Considerable quantities of this pulp are 
given for the asking to farmers within easy hauling distance, and the 
remainder accumulates near the factory. Although the pulp is a 
decomposing mass to a depth of several inches, it is not offensive. 
On removing the decomposing portion at the surface, that part of the 
pulp at greater depths is of a cheese-like consistency, and may be 
readily removed with a shovel. The managers of the factory state 
that the cattle and sheep greedily devour the pulp without regard to 
its age, and are even fond of the portions near the surface of the heap. 

Pulp is also fed to cattle at Grand Island immediately after bring- 
ing them in from the ranges. These cattle have known but little 
restraint, and have been accustomed to feed only upon the grasses of 
the prairies; nevertheless, on being given the beet pulp, they eat it 
without hesitation. A large owner of such cattle at Grand Island 
stated to the writer that he found the pulp of great feeding vaJue, 
and especially valuable in changing the feed from grass to grain. He 
feeds the pulp in mixture with corn, and the moisture of the pulp 
serves to soften the grain. This feeding with pulp is necessarily 
discontinued when freezing weather sets in, partly on account of the 
waste of corn in the frozen pulp. 

The factory at Grand Island has met with little success in dispos- 
ing of the final molasses for feeding purposes. 

Mr. G. H. Spitzli, manager of the First New York Beet Sugar Com- 
pany, at Rome, conducted experiments in feeding, a summary of the 
results of which are given from a letter by that gentleman to the 
Department of Agriculture. 

No very extensive experiments in feeding have been made at the 
Rome factory. Last year fourteen head of cattle were purchased 
about December 22 and fed on pulp mixed with a little cut hay and 
one pint of beet molasses for a period of four and one-third months, 



RESIDUES FROM BEET-SUGAR MANUFACTURE. 219 

to May 1. An ordinary bnshel basket of pulp, with the molasses 
spread over the top, was fed three times per day. The average gain in 
weight of the cattle, as shown May 1, was 328 pounds. The animals 
were two-year olds, and grew considerably in height as well as taking 
on additional flesh. Mr. Spitzli also states that on a farm at Kirk- 
land, N. Y., where blooded jersey jstock is raised, the pulp is fed to 
milch cows with very satisfactory results. 

The factory at Rome, N. Y., is this year selling the pulp at 50 cents 
per ton, and is finding a satisfactory market for it within hauling 
distance of the factory. The pulp is also being sold to several cattle 
raisers, who pay 50 cents per ton freight on it in addition to the fac- 
tory price. From present indications, the supply at 50 cents per ton 
will not meet the demand next season. 

It is evident that pulp will be in greatest demand at factories 
located as that at Rome, N. Y., at least for the next few years of the 
beet-sugar industry in the United States. In Nebraska and in States 
where similar conditions obtain and cattle foods are of low cost, the 
demand for pulp will increase but slowly. The largest demand will 
be in the dairy districts, and, other conditions being equal, the great- 
est expansion of the beet-sugar industry may be looked for in the 
great dairying States. 

MOLASSES AS A FOOD FOR CATTLE. 

The next residue of feeding value is the final molasses. In the 
processes of manufacture the juice is purified, evaporated to a dense 
sirup, and a part of the sugar then removed by successive crystalliza- 
tions. After each crystallization and removal of sugar, the proportion 
of the saline matters and other impurities to the sugar increases, and 
after a time no more sugar will crystallize in this residue, which is 
termed molasses. This molasses then contains approximately 50 per 
cent of sugar and a large proportion of saline and other substances. 
Notwithstanding the feeding value of the molasses, due to its sugar 
content, it can not be fed in large quantities on account of the action 
of the saline matters present. The feeding of molasses is now prac- 
ticed only as mentioned in connection with the experiments at Rome, 
N- Y., and in prepared-food mixtures. 

Several of the American factories employ a saccharate process and 
precipitate the sugar from molasses as a lime compound, which finally 
decomposes, leaving a very pure sugar solution. Other factories sell 
the molasses to the distillers, and others find it a drug on the market 
and difficult to dispose of; hence, the desirability of devising satisfac- 
tory methods of feeding this by-product. 

In view of probable future and extended investigations by the 
Chemist of the Department on the feeding value of molasses, further 
discussion of the question at this time is needless. 



220 YEARBOOK OP. THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 
VALUE OP BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY TO THE PARMER. 

This brief discussion of the feeding value of the residues from the 
manufacture of beet sugar indicates the great value a large extension 
of the industry would be to the American farmers. It would not only 
give them a means of further diversifying their crops, but would 
afford a valuable and cheap food in the cattle industry and materially 
increase the prosperity of the agricultural interests. 



BIRDS AS WEED DESTROYERS. 

By Sylvester D. Judd, Ph. D. 
Assistant in Biological Survey. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The problem of weed destruction is perennial in every land where 
agriculture is* practiced. Indeed, so serious is it, that soil culture 
may be said to be an everlasting war against weeds. For a thorough 
understanding of the weed problem, it is necessary not only to define 
a weed, and to study its relation to crops, but to ascertain what are 
the agents, natural or artificial, which act as weed destroyers, 

A weed is a plant out of place. Certain plants seem to have formed 
a habit of constantly getting out of place, and installing themselves 
in cultivated ground. Whether actually among crops or in adjacent 
waste land, from which they can spread to cultivated soil, they are 
always a menace. In the garden they occupy the room allotted to use- 
ful plants and appropriate their light, water, and food, so that any 
check on these noxious plants, a million of which can spring up on a 
single acre, will not only lessen nature's chance of populating the soil 
with these worse than useless species, but will enable the farmer to 
attain greater success with cultivated crops. The hoe and the culti- 
vator will do much to eradicate them, but some will always succeed in 
ripening a multitude of seeds to sprout the following season. Certain 
garden weeds produce an incredible number of seeds. ' A single plant 
of one of these species may mature as many as a hundred thousand 
seeds in a season, and if unchecked would produce in the spring of 
the third year ten billion plants. 

SEED-EATING BIRDS. 

Fortunately certain agents are at work to check this harvest, and 
perhaps the most efficient among them are seed-eating birds. Each 
fall and winter they flock in myriads to agricultural districts and live 
upon the ripened seed of weeds. Since they attack weeds in the most 
critical stage of life, the seed period, it follows that their services 
must be of enormous practical value. The benefits are greatest in 
the case of hoed crops, since here are found the largest number of 
annual weeds, which, of course, are killed by frost and must depend 
for perpetuation solely upon seeds. The principal weeds which birds 

281 



222 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



prevent from seeding are ragweed, pigeon grass, smartweed, bindweed, 
crab grass, lamb's-quarters, and pigweed. (See fig. 59.) It is some- 
times asserted that no thrifty farmer will allow these noxious species 
to ripen seed, but such prevention is practically impossible, because 
even if all the edges of fields and all waste ground could be cleared, 
weed patches along ditches, roads and hedgerows would still remain 

to disseminate seed to culti- 
vated land. It is in just these 
places that birds congregate 
in greatest numbers. 
. Some birds eat more or less 
weed seed throughout the year 
even when insects are most 
abundant. But their good 
work practically extends from 
early autumn until late spring, 
and is perhaps most notice- 
able in winter, when the 
ground is white with snow. 
During cold weather most of 
the birds about the farm feed 
extensively upon seed, and 
gorge themselves until their 
stomachs and gullets become 
completely distended. It is 
not at all uncommon for a 
crow blackbird to eat from 30 
to 50 seeds of smartweed or 
bindweed, or a field sparrow 
100 seeds of crab grass, at a 
single meal. In the stomach 
of a Nuttall's sparrow were 
found 300 seeds of amaranth 
(see fig. 60), and in another 300 
seeds of lamb's-quarters; a 
tree sparrow had consumed 700 

Fig. 59.— Four common weeds, the seeds of which seeds Of pigeon grass, while a 

r:^,^r° th; "' ° rab ~ s«°wflake from Shrewsbury, 

Mass., which had been break- 
fasting in a garden in February, had picked up 1,000 seeds of pig- 
weed. The birds most actively engaged in consuming weed seed 
are sparrows and finches, including more than a score of species, 1 
horned larks, blackbirds, cowbirds, meadow larks, doves, and quail. 

' These species include the tree, song, field, chipping, grasshopper, fox, Nut- 
tall's, golden-crowned, white-crowned, and white-throated sparrows, juncos, snow- 
flakes, goldfinches, pine siskin, redpolls, towhees, and grosbeaks. 




BIRDS AS WEED DESTROYERS. 



223 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 

Sparrows are the most abundant and widely distributed of the smaller 
birds inhabiting the rural districts of the United States. Their inti- 
mate association with agricultural interests has suggested the impor- 
tance of a careful inquiry as to their food habits, and such an investi- 
gation based on field observations and an examination of the contents 
of stomachs in the laboratory is now being made by the Biological 
Survey. Sparrows have been collected in practically all the States, 
the District of Columbia, and Canada, and 
some 4,000 stomachs have already been ex- 
amined. The results show that during the 
colder half of the year the food of these 
birds consists almost entirely of the seeds 
of weeds. 

Sparrows generally seem to be regarded 
with favor, but the English sparrow drives 
away native birds and .does so much dam- 
age to grain and fruit that it is considered a 
pest. The native sparrows might also be 
suspected of injuring crops; but though 
they frequently sample grain in stubble 
fields they have not, as yet, been found 
guilty of committing serious depredations. 
In order to compare the grain-eating pro- 
pensities of the various species, specimens 
were collected in a field a few miles south of 
Washington, D. C, before and after the 
wheat was cut. Of nineteen native birds, 
representing song, field, chipping, and grass- 
hopper sparrows, only two had eaten grain, 
and these had taken only one kernel each, 
while every one of the five English spar- 
rows was gorged with wheat. But with all 
his faults, the English sparrow does some 
good by assisting in the work of weed-seed 
destruction. Flocks of thousands of these 
birds may be seen every autumn on the 
lawns of the Department of Agriculture, 
feeding on crab grass (Panicum sanguinale) and yard grass (Eleusine 
indica), two weeds which crowd out good turf-making grasses. The 
English sparrow also deserves credit for destroying seed of the dan- 
delion (Taraxacum taraxacum) y which is a prolific weed through- 
out the United States, especially in lawns, cemeteries, and pastures. 

In 1894 English sparrows were observed by the writer destroying 
dandelion seeds in Cambridge, Mass., and during the last three 
years in the public parks of Washington, D. C. In the latter city 




Fia. 60.— Weed seeds commonly 
eaten 'by birds: o, bindweed; 
6, lamb's-quarters; c, purslane; 
d, amaranth; e, spotted spurge; 
/, ragweed; g, pigeon grass; ft, 
dandelion. 



224 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



the birds eat these seeds from the middle of March until the middle 
of August, but chiefly in April and the first half of May, when the 
lawns are literally yellow with flowers. After the yellow petal-like 
corollas have disappeared the flower presents an elongated, green, 
egg-shaped body with a downy tuft at the upper end, and in this 
stage it is most frequently attacked by the English sparrow. The 
bird removes several long scales of the inner involucre by a clean cut 
close to the receptacle or base of the head, thus exposing the plumed 
seeds, or akenes. He seizes a mouthful of these akenes and then lops 
off the plumes with his bill and swallows the seeds. In many cases, 
especially when hungry, he does not take the trouble to remove the 
plumes. Generally a score of seeds are dropped in tearing open a 

head, and usually a 
few are left cling- 
ing to the edge of 
the receptacle. The 
mutilation caused 
by the birds' beaks 
can be detected un- 
til the flower stalk 
dries and falls. 

In order to deter- 
mine how much 
damage was done to 
dandelions on the 
lawns of the Depart- 
ment of Agricul- 
ture, every flower 
stalk was picked 
from a rectangular space 6 feet 2 inches long by 3 feet 3 inches wide. 
This was on April 29, 1898. Of the 413 stalks collected, 358 showed 
unmistakable marks of the sparrow's bill. On the next day 293 
stalks were gathered from a circle 2 feet in diameter on the other 
side of the lawn, and 275, or 93 per cent, proved to be mutilated. 
These and similar observations seem to show that at least three-fourths 
of the dandelions which bloom in April and May on the Department 
lawns are mutilated by birds. 

In the destruction of dandelion seeds the English sparrow is aided 
by several native birds, chiefly the song sparrow (Melospiza fasciata), 
chipping sparrow (Spizella socialis), white-throated sparrow (Zono- 
trichia cdbicoUis), and goldfinch (Astragalinus tristis). So far as ob- 
served the native birds usually do not cut open dandelions, but feed 
upon those left by the English sparrow. The song sparrow, however, 
is capable of getting out seeds alone, for one which was kept in captiv- 
ity manipulated dandelions in precisely the same way as the English 
sparrow. The song sparrow (fig. 61) and the chipping sparrow make 
a practice of feeding from the short-stemmed heads that have already 




Pio. 61.— Song sparrow {Melospiza fasciata). 



Yearbook U. S Dept ol Agriculture, 1898. 



Plate XV. 




Four common Seed-eating Birds. 

1. J unco; 2, White-throated Sparrow: ft. Fox Sparrow; 4. Tree Sparrow. 



BIRDS AS WEED DESTROYERS. 



225 



been opened, but even here the chipping sparrow has difficulty in pull- 
ing out the seeds, and often simply picks up those which have been 
dropped. Goldfinches frequently pursue an entirely different course, 
although they also pick seeds from the green involucres torn open by 
English sparrows. On May 3, 1898, a dozen goldfinches were observed 
for a couple of hours on the Department lawns. First they hopped 
along the ground ; then one bird flew to a dandelion stalk 6 inches high, 

alighted crosswise, and 
moving toward the downy 
ball until it bent the whole 
stem to the ground, ate seed 
after seed (fig. 62). 

Besides the lawn weeds 
already mentioned, such as 
dandelions, crab grass, and 
yard grass, several others, 
including pigeon grass, 
knotweed, sedge, oxalis, 
and chickweed furnish food 
for birds. These plants are 
also troublesome in other 
places besides lawns. Knot- 
weed {Polygonum avicu- 
lare) litters up paths and 
roads or grows in spots 
where turf is broken, chick- 
.weed {Alsine media) occurs 
in plowed ground, and 
pigeon grass (Chcetocloa glauca and C. viridis), which is considered 
one of the worst weeds in Minnesota, is found among many crops. 
The seeds of these plants are eaten by the song sparrow, chipping 
sparrow, field sparrow, junco, English sparrow, tree sparrow, Gam- 
bel's sparrow, and white-throated and white-crowned sparrows. 

Among the weeds which are troublesome in fields, especially among 
hoed crops, may be mentioned ragweed {Ambrosia artemismfolia), 
several species of the genus Polygonum, including bindweed (P. con- 
volvulus), smartweed (P. lapathefolium), and knotweed (P. avieu- 
lare), pigweed (Amarantus retroflexus and other species), nut grass 
and other sedges {Cyperacece), crab grass {Panicum sanguinale), 
pigeon grass {Chaztocloa viridis and glauca), lamb's-quarters {Cheno- 
podium album), and chickweed {Alsine media). Every one of these 
weeds is an annual, not living over the winter, and their seeds con- 
stitute fully three-fourths of the food of a score of native sparrows 
during the colder half of the year. Prof. F. E. L. Beal, who has care- 
fully studied this subject in the Upper Mississippi Valley, has esti- 
mated the amount of weed se6d eaten by the tree sparrow {Spizella 
1 A 98 15 




Fig. 62.— Goldfinch (Astragalinus tristis). 



226 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

monticola), junco (Junco hyemalis), and other sparrows that swarm 
down from Canada in the fall and feed in the rank growth of weeds 
bordering roadsides and cultivated fields. He examined the stomachs 
of many tree sparrows and found them entirely filled with weed seed, 
and concluded that each bird consumed at least a quarter of an ounce 
daily. Upon this basis, after making a fair allowance of the number 
of birds to the square mile, he calculated that in the State of Iowa 
alone the tree sparrow annually destroys about 1,750,000 pounds, or 
about 875 tons, of weed seed during its winter sojourn. 

Besides tree sparrows and juncos, the most important gregarious 
sparrows that destroy weeds in the Mississippi Valley and on the 
Great Plains are the fox sparrow (PassereUa iliaca), snowflake 
{Passerina nivalis), the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leuco- 
phrys), Harris's sparrow (Zonotrichia querula), and longspurs (Cdl- 
carius lapponicus, C. ornatus, C. pictus, and Bhyncophanes mccoiv- 
nii). Farther south are found lark finches (Chondestes grammacus 
and Chondestes grammacus striyatus), while on the Pacific slope 
occur NuttalPs sparrow (Zonotrichia I. nuttalli), the golden-crowned 
sparrow (Zonotrichia coronata), and Townsend's sparrow (PassereUa 
iliaca unalaschcensis). East of the Alleghenies the most active weed 
eaters are the tree sparrow, fox sparrow, junco, white- throated spar- 
row, song sparrow, field sparrow, and chipping sparrow. (See PI. XV. ) 

On a farm in Maryland, just outside the District of Columbia, tree 
sparrows, fox sparrows, whitethroats, song sparrows, and juncos 
fairly swarmed during December in the briers of the ditches between 
the cornfields. They came into the open fields to feed upon weed 
seed, and worked hardest where the smartweed formed a tangle on 
low ground. Later in the season the place was carefully examined. 
In one cornfield near a ditch the smartweed formed a thicket over 3 
feet high, and the ground beneath was literally black with seeds. 
Examination showed that these seeds had been cracked open and the 
meat removed. In a rectangular space of 18 square inches were 
found 1,130 half seeds and only 2 whole seeds. Even as late as May 
13 the birds were still feeding on the seeds of these and other weeds 
in the fields; in fact, out of a collection of 16 sparrows, 12, mainly 
song, chipping, and field sparrows, had been eating old weed seed. 
A search was made for seeds of various weeds; but so thoroughly 
had the work been done that only half a dozen seeds could be found. 
The birds had taken practically all the seed that was not covered; in 
fact, the song sparrow and several others scratch up much buried seed. 

Most of the song sparrows, practically all the field, chipping, ves- 
per, and grasshopper sparrows, dickcissels, lark finches, and Harris's 
sparrows of thecentralportionof theTJnitedStatesspend the winter in 
the South, while their places are taken in the North by snowflakes, 
juncos, clay-colored longspurs, fox sparrows, and white-throated and 
white-crowned sparrows. All these birds have much the same food 



BIRDS AS WEED DESTROYERS. 



227 



habits, but they differ in the quantity and kind of seed which they eat. 
Thus, the tree sparrows, or "winter chippies," snowfiakes, and long- 
spurs feed largely upon seeds of grasses, especially those of pigeon 
grass, crab grass, and allied species, while the white-throated sparrow 
in the Eastern States, Nuttall's sparrow in the Pacific-coast region, 
and the white-crowned sparrow so abundant in the central part of the 
United States, are particularly fond of amaranth and lamb's-quarters. 
In January the whitethroat depends upon ragweed and various spe- 
cies of Polygonum, such as bindweed, knotweed, and smartweed, for 
more than half of its food ; the white-crowned and fox sparrows take 
nearly as much as the whitethroat, while juncos destroy a still 
greater amount of ragweed. 




Fig. 63.— Dickcissel (Spiza americana). 

The chippy and song sparrow are perhaps the best known of all the 
native sparrows of the United States. When not living in hedgerows 
or bushes about buildings the song sparrow inhabits the shrubbery 
along water courses. It seeks its food on the ground, generally 
among bushes or weeds, and has a peculiar mouse-like way of run- 
ning through the grass. Seeds of weeds, especially smartweed, 
bindweed, and other species of the genus Polygonum, pigeon grass, 
pigweed, lamb's-quarters, and ragweed, and also some crab grass, form 
four-fifths of the food of this species during the colder half of the year. 
Ninety-five out of a hundred of the birds collected during March and 



228 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

April had eaten weed seed, and many stomachs contained from 50 to 
200 seeds each. 

The chipping sparrow is a familiar little bird, readily recognized 
by its reddish cap, cicada-like note, and habit of lining its nest with 
horsehair. It eats the seeds of such troublesome grasses as pigeon 
grass, crab grass, and closely allied species, and during September 
and October these and other weed seeds make up three-fourths of 
its food. 

The field sparrow (Spizella pusilla) is closely related to the chipping 
sparrow, but may be distinguished by its reddish bill. It is thor- 
oughly commonplace in appearance, and in habits is much shyer 
than the chipping sparrow, which is often called a dooryard bird. 
Field sparrows are very abundant about the farm, and their food 
consists of practically the same seeds as those eaten by its relative. 




Fig. 64— Lark finch (Chondestes grammacus). 

The grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum passerinus), 
so called from its dry, monotonous note, is even more a bird of the 
fields than the field sparrow. It is one of the few species that eats 
the seeds of rib grass (Plantago lanceolata), The dickcissel \Spiza 
americana, fig. 63) of the Central States, which also has an insect- 
like note, is larger than the grasshopper sparrow, and its plumage 
is conspicuously marked with bright yellow, black, and gray, some- 
what like that of a meadow lark. The lark finch ( Chondestes gram- 
macus, fig. 64) is also a large sparrow of striking appearance. Its 
head is striped with black, and from this fact it is known in certain 
sections as ' ' snake bird." It is particularly fond of the seeds of legu- 
minous plants. The vesper sparrow (Poaicetes gramineus), celebrated 
for its twilight chanting, is as much a bird of the open grassy fields 



BIRDS AS WEED DESTROYERS. 229 

as the lark finch or dickcissel. When disturbed it flits up from the 
ground, spreading its white-splashed tail, and alights but a short dis- 
tance away to resume its work. However varied in dress or habit, 
all the native sparrows are alike in subsisting largely upon seeds of 
noxious plants. 

The goldfinch (Astragalinus tristis, fig. 62), or wild canary, is as 
useful as it is beautiful, and as a weed destroyer has few equals. It 
confines its attention very largely to one family of plants, the Com- 
posite, and is especially fond of thistles, wild lettuce, wild sunflower, 
and ragweed. It is so often seen on thistles, both Canada and bull 
thistles, that it is commonly known as the thistle bird. Near Wash- 
ington, D. C, a flock of a dozen birds was seen during the latter part 
of August feeding on sunflowers that had escaped from cultivation, 
and in the Central and Western States the goldfinches do much good 
by eating the seeds of wild sunflowers and other closely related 
weeds. They have 'also been seen feeding upon wild lettuce {Lactuca 
spicata), and probably eat prickly lettuce (Lactuca scariola), which 
has proved the most rapidly spreading weed ever introduced into this 
country, but as yet no actual observations as to the latter food habit 
have been made. Stomachs collected in August were filled with 
seeds of Composite, mostly sunflowers (various species of Helianthus) 
and thistles (Carduus lanceolatus and other species). 

At Burlington, Iowa, during July and August, Mr. Paul Bartsch 
found goldfinches feeding exclusively upon the bull thistle ( Carduus 
lanceolatus). He was able to approach within a few feet of several birds 
while thus engaged, and noticed that the seeds or akenes were bitten off 
and swallowed, while the plumes or pappus floated away. When there 
was no wind, the pappus often failed to fly away, and clung to the birds, 
almost burying them with down. A dozen of the birds were killed 
and their gizzards and gullets were found literally crammed with 
thistle seeds. At Sing Sing, N. Y. , goldfinches have been seen eating 
.the seeds of the Scotch thistle (Orwpordon acanthium) and boneset 
(Eupatorium perfoliatum). Cone flowers (Rudbeckia Jiirta), prairie 
sunflowers (G-aillardia), evening primroses, catnip, elephant's foot 
(Elephantopus sp.), and mullein also form part of their food, and late 
in the season they turn their attention to ragweed and consume great 
quantities of the seeds of this troublesome species. In winter and 
spring large flocks feed to some extent upon the seeds of conifers and 
catkin-bearing trees, such as the sycamore and birch. In destroying 
the seeds of the gray birch (Betula populifolia) on the edge of grass 
lands they do some good, for this tree has a habit of seeding adjacent 
pastures, which then grow up into a thicket of young saplings. 

The pine siskin (Spinus pinus) and the redpoll linnet (Acanthis 
linaria) are two drab-gray birds related to the goldfinch, which feed 
largely upon seeds of conifers, sycamores, birches, and alders, but 
also descend to the ground to eat weed seed. In winter they feed upon 
sow thistles (Sonchus ohraceus), field asters (Aster sp.), and golden- 
rods (Solidago sp.). The redpoll linnet is known to destroy mullein 



230 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

seeds ( Verbascum thapsus), and the pine siskin is often seen consum- 
ing quantities of seeds of chickweed (Alsine media), lamb's-quarters 
(Chenopodium album), and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisia folia). 

The common Eastern towhee, or chewink (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), 
and the green and the brown towhees of the far West are great 
scratchers, and there is little doubt but that they find many seeds that 
other birds fail to secure. Unfortunately, their food habits have not 
been sufficiently studied to furnish any detailed account of their value 
as weed destroyers. 

The grosbeaks likewise have been insufficiently studied. The even 
ing grosbeak ( Coccothraustes vespertinus) and the rose-breasted gros- 
beak (Zamelodia ludoviciana) are known to eat seeds of ragweed, and 
the blue grosbeak (Quiraca ccerulea) feeds upon a variety of weed 
seeds. The cardinal grosbeak (Cardinalis cardinalis), or redbird of 
the South, is abundant along hedgerows and briery tangles adjoining 
farms, and during the winter months does good work by feeding upon 
the seeds of such noxious plants as ragweed, pigeon grass, bindweed, 
and smartweed. 

HORNED LARKS. 

Horned larks (Otocoris sp.) occur either as residents or winter 
visitants throughout the greater part of the United States. They are 
strictly terrestrial, and inhabit either open fields, or grassy, gravelly, 
or sandy plains. In midwinter they may be found in flocks on plowed 
fields, where the land is lying fallow, picking up seeds of weeds, 
which if left would germinate and cause trouble the following season. 
When thus employed, the larks select mainly the same seeds as the 
cardinal grosbeak, but occasionally they also eat buttonweed (Diodia 
teres) and sorrel (Rumex acetosella). 

BLACKBIRDS AND THEIR ALLIES. 

The several species of blackbirds, although subsisting quite exten- 
sively upon weed seed, do considerable damage to crops. This is par- 
ticularly noticeable in the Mississippi Valley, where redwings (Age- 
laius phazniceus), yellow-heads (XantJiocephalus xanthocephalus), and 
crow blackbirds (Quiscalus quiscida) flock to the grainfields by the 
million. The ravages in the rice fields of the South by the bobolink, 
or reedbird (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), in company with the redwings, 
are even more serious. The rusty grackles (Scolecophagus carolinus), 
Brewer's blackbird (Scolecophagus cyanocephalus), and the cowbird 
(MolotJirus ater) are less injurious. All these birds are fond of pigeon 
grass, paspalum, crab grass, pigweed, knotweed, and ragweed, and 
the cowbird also eats the seeds of wild sunflowers, gromwell (Litko- 
spermum sp.), sorrel, mustard (Brassica nigra), chickweed, and 
thistie. More than 10 per cent of the food of the crow blackbird, 
and more than 75 per cent of that of the redwing, during the colder 
half of the year, consists of weed seed. 

The meadow lark (Sturnella magna) has long been placed on the 
border line of game birds, but it is a mistake to class any bird as 
game when its usefulness and beauty so far surpass its value as food. 



BIRDS AS WEED DESTROYERS. 



231 



The farmer can not afford to dispense with the services of the meadow 
lark, for it busies itself all summer eating grasshoppers and noxious 
insects, and when autumn comes varies its diet with ragweed, pigeon 
grass, and other weeds, until in December these noxious plants 
comprise 25 per cent of its food. 

GAME BIRDS. 

The ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbeUus) of the Eastern woodlands 
sometimes eats small quantities of weed seed, while the prairie hen 
(Tympanuchus americanus), seeking its food in the open or near 
cultivated fields in the great agricultural region of the Central United 
States, does still more service. In the West and Southwest the Cali- 
fornia valley quails (Lophortyx californicus and L. californicus vatti- 




Pio. 65.— Mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura). 

cola) and Gambel's quail (Lophortyx gambelii) consume weed seeds, 
but they also commit wholesale depredations on fruit. The Eastern 
quail, or bob white (Oolinus virginianus), on the contrary, seldom if 
ever causes the fruit grower any trouble, but does much good by 
destroying weed seed in fields where grain has been cut and a rank 
growth of weeds has taken its place. Seeds of rib grass, tickfoil, and 
berries of nightshade (Solarium sp. ) are sometimes eaten, and pigeon 
grass and smartweed are frequently consumed in large quantities. 
The amount of grain found in the few stomachs thus far examined is 
surprisingly small, while the proportion of weed seed is astonishingly 
large, in some cases crops and gizzards being literally gorged with 
hundreds of .seeds of ragweed. 

The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura, fig. 65) is abundant 



232 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

throughout much of the United States, and is especially common in 
stubble fields and waste places grown up to weeds. It is preemi- 
nently a seed eater, and although at times turning its attention to 
grain it nevertheless consumes an enormous amount of weed seed. 
The crop of one dove secured in a rye field in Warner, Tenn., con- 
tained 7,500 seeds of Oxalis stricta. Just outside the District of 
Columbia the bird has been seen feeding in fields overgrown with 
pigeon grass and ragweed, and especially in old cornfields, where 
smartweed and bindweed formed tangles of sufficient extent to injure 
the crop. In the Eastern States it has a peculiar habit of picking up 
pokeweed seeds and crushing them in its muscular stomach. Several 
weeds belonging to the genera Lithospermum, Oxalis, and Euphorbia 
are also utilized as food to a somewhat lesser extent. In California 
the dove feeds upon the seeds of a leguminous weed, known as turkey 
mullein (Eremocarpus setigerus). The habit is so well known in 
some localities that a botanist upon inquiring how he could collect 
some seeds of this plant was advised to shoot a few doves and open 
their crops. The ground dove {Columbigallina passerina terrestris) 
of the Southern States is very similar to the mourning dove in food 
habits, and probably does almost as much good in eradicating weeds. 

SUMMARY. 

No less than fifty different birds act as weed destroyers, and the nox- 
ious plants which they help to eradicate number more than threescore 
species. Some of these plants are much more in favor than others, 
while several are almost universally sought after. During the colder 
half of the year food is furnished for many species of birds by well- 
known and widely distributed weeds. 

The blackbirds, the bobolink, the dove, and the English sparrow, 
in spite of grain-eating proclivities, do much good by consuming large 
quantities of weed seed. 

Shore larks and grosbeaks also render considerable service, while 
the meadow lark is even more beneficial. Goldfinches destroy weeds 
which are not touched by other birds, confining their attacks chiefly 
to one group of plants (the Compositse), many of the members of 
which are serious pests. 

But the birds which accomplish most as weed destroyers are the 
score or more of native sparrows that flock to the weed patches in 
early autumn and remain until late spring. During cold weather 
they require an abundance of food to keep their bodies warm, and it is 
their habit to keep their stomachs and gullets heaping full. Often 
one of these birds is found to have eaten 300 seeds of pigeon grass or 
500 seeds of lamb's-quarters or pigweed. Because of their grega- 
rious and terrestrial habits, they are efficient consumers of seeds of 
ragweed, pigeon grass, crab grass, bindweed, purslane, smartweed, 
and pigweed. In short, these birds are little weeders whose work is 
seldom noted, but always felt. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO BEANS AND PEAS. 

By F. H. Chittenden, 
Assistant Entomologist. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Beans, peas, cowpeas, and other edible legumes are subject to 
injury by certain species of beetles, commonly known as weevils, 
which deposit their eggs upon or within the pods on the growing 
plants in the field or garden and develop within the seed. Four forms 
of these weevils, members of the genus Bruchus of the family Bru- 
chidse, which inhabit the United States, are very serious drawbacks to 
the culture of these crops in many portions of the country. The spe- 
cific enemy of the pea is the pea weevil, and of the bean, the common 
bean weevil, both of sufficiently wide distribution and abundance to 
hold the highest rank among injurious insects.- Cowpeas are attacked 
by two species of these beetles, known, respectively, as the four- 
spotted bean weevil and the cowpea weevil. These latter are of con- 
siderable importance economically in the Southern States and in 
tropical climates, as well as in northern localities in which cowpeas 
are grown or to which they are from time to time shipped in seed 
from the South and from abroad. 

As with the insects that live upon stored cereals, the inroads of 
the larvae of these weevils in leguminous seeds cause great waste, 
and particularly is this true of beans that are kept in store for any 
considerable time. In former times popular opinion held that the 
germination of leguminous food seed was not impaired by the action 
of the larval beetle in eating out its interior, but this belief was 
erroneous, as will be shown in the discussion of the nature of the 
damage by the pea weevil. 

It is not probable that any serious trouble follows the consumption 
by human beings of the immature weevils in green peas or beans, but 
the use for food of badly infested dry seed filled with the dead bodies 
and excrement of the beetles would very naturally be attended with 
unpleasant consequences. Kirby and Spence narrate that "in the 
year 1780 an alarm was spread in some parts of France that people 
had been poisoned by eating worm-eaten peas, and they were forbid- 
den by authority to be exposed in the market." 

When the crop is made and harvested, and even before, the insects 



234 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

which have undergone their successive changes from larva and pupa 
within and at the expense of the seed, gnaw their way out and make 
their appearance, often in great numbers, in the garden or in the 
bags, barrels, and other receptacles in which the seed has been stored. 
Then for the first time the farmer, merchant, or housekeeper becomes 
aware of their presence. 

All of the above-mentioned species of insects live within the in- 
fested seed throughout the winter, and all but one of them (the pea 
weevil) continue to breed for successive generations in the stored 
material. In addition there are other weevils which injure seed in a 
similar manner in foreign countries and whose introduction into the 
United States in seed material is to be guarded against. 

In the fields the growing pods are invaded by the boll worm and the 
larva of the pea moth, and the foliage is preyed upon by numerous 
insects. None, however, save in exceptional years and in limited dis- 
tricts, is of as much importance as the species which develop within 
the matured seed. Of foliage feeders, the bean leaf-beetle and bean 
ladybird, blister beetles, cutworms, and other caterpillars are deserv- 
ing of special mention. Several forms of plant-bugs, leaf -hoppers, and 
plant-lice also exhaust the plants by sapping their juices. 

All of the species considered in the present paper that inhabit the 
Eastern United States have been under observation by the writer in 
the vicinity of Washington, D. 0. 

THE PEA WEEVIL. 
(Bruchus pisorum Linn.) 

GENERAL APPEARANCE AND METHOD OF WORK. 

Seed peas are often found with a single round hole in them due to 
the attack of the pea weevil, or, as it is sometimes incorrectly called, 
the " pea bug." This is the largest of the pea- and bean-feeding wee- 
vils found in this country, measuring about a fifth of an inch (5mm.) 
in length and half that in width. Its ground color is black, but it is 
thickly covered with brown pubescence, variegated with black and 
white markings arranged as shown in fig. 60, a. The sides of the 
thorax are notched or toothed, and the abdomen, which projects 
beyond the elytra or wing-covers, is coated with whitish pubescence 
and marked by two black spots. The hind femora or thighs are thick- 
ened and each bears two prominent teeth. 

HISTORY AND ORIGIN. 

This weevil has long been known as an enemy to the pea. About 
the middle of the last century the celebrated Swedish traveler and 
naturalist Pehr Kalm gave an account of it and its ravages in 
America, stating, in 1748, that at that time the culture of the pea 
had been abandoned in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and southern 
New York on account of this insect. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO BEANS AND PEAS. 



235 



Most writers on economic entomology have agreed that this species, 
presumably because it was first found in peas in North America, is 
indigenous to this country, from whence it has been introduced into 
southern and middle Europe. There are reasons for believing, how- 
ever, that it came originally, 
with so many other injurious 
insects which live upon culti- 
vated seeds, from the Orient. 1 
This species now occurs over 
nearly the entire globe, wher- 
ever peas are cultivated. It is 
scarcely known, however, in 
the colder countries of north- 
ern Europe, and does com- 
paratively little damage in 
the colder parts of Canada; 

hence, it happens that seed peas for planting in the United States 
are largely imported from Canada or are bought from seed dealers 
who obtain them from our more Northern States. What was true in 
Kalm's time in New Jersey, when peas could not be sown on account 
of the insects which consumed them, may almost be said at present of 
many localities in the United States. 




Fig. 



6.— Bruchua pisorum: a, adult beetle; 6, larva; 
c, pupa— all greatly enlarged (original). 



NATURE OF INJURY. 

It is no uncommon sight to see every pea in a pod infested with this 
weevil; and although nearly every one is familiar with the appear- 
ance of "buggy" peas, it is not generally known that in eating green 
peas we often eat also a larva or "worm" with nearly every pea. 
The only external evidence of infestation in a green pea is a minute 
dot on its surface, but in dry seed the cell inhabited by the insect is 
visible under the skin, while later the beetles may be seen with their 
heads poking through holes which they have made in the skin. 

Until recently the belief was more or less prevalent that the larva 
working within the seed, by some wonderful instinct, avoided the 
germ or embryo, and that weevil-infested peas were therefore of 
equal value for seed to uninfested ones, but' this is incorrect. Many 
"weeviled" seed will germinate, but as they are deficient in plant 
food the resulting plant is apt to be weakly and nonproductive. Of 
500 peas tested by Prof. E. A. Popenoe in Kansas in 1890 only one- 
fourth germinated, and the partial destruction of the cotyledons ren- 
dered the future growth of these doubtful, while an examination of 
275 injured peas showed only 69 in which the germ was not wholly 

1 Two reasons for this belief may be mentioned: It belongs to a group of the 
genus Brnchus, having the sides of the thorax toothed, and not represented by 
any native species; furthermore, peas are not native to North America, and no 
other food plant is known for this weevil. 



236 



YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



or partially destroyed. Of a lot of seed tested in Canada by Dr. 
James Fletcher, Dominion entomologist, 17 per cent grew, but only 
2 per cent made strong looking plants producing seed, all the others 
being stunted and weak. Another lot tested in which the radicle 
had been injured by the weevil in escaping from the seed did not 
grow at all. 

LIFE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT. 

The beetles appear on the vines when the peas are in blossom and 

the eggs 1 are deposited singly upon the surface of the pods, being 

attached by a peculiar viscid secretion which turns white in drying. 

The minute, newly hatched, or post-embryonic larva 2 bores through 

the pod opposite a pea, which it 
enters and casts its skin, after 
which it appears as a larva of the 
ordinary Bruchid type. Within 
the developing pea the larva feeds 
and grows apace, and when fully 
matured presents the appearance 
indicated at 6 of fig. 66. It is 
somewhat maggot-like in general 
aspect, nearly cylindrical, fleshy, 
strongly wrinkled and perfectly 
white throughout except in the 
region of its minute mouth-parts, 
where it is brown. The larva in 
this stage has' been described as 
apodous, or footless, but this is 
an error, as it has three pairs of 
very apparent legs. The full- 
grown larva measures in its natu- 
ral curved position about a fourth 
of an inch (6 mm.) and is nearly twice as long as its diameter. It 
now eats a circular hole in the pea, leaving only the thin outer mem- 
brane as a covering, after which it lines the interior of the pea with a 
thin layer of paste, excluding its excrement, and within the cell thus 
formed it changes to pupa. 

The pupa is white and delicate like the larva and shows the notched 
sides of the thorax (fig. 66, c). In this stage the insect remains for a 

1 The egg is about one- twentieth of an inch in length (1.5 mm.), yellow in color, 
three times as long as wide, pointed at one end and blunt at the other. Eggs are 
shown, natural size, in situ on the pod in fig. 67, at d, and magnified at a. 

2 At this stage the larvse are of the nearly cylindrical form shown by fig. 67, e. 
They are provided with three pairs of short temporary or false legs, each composed 
of only three apparent joints (see /). Upon the thorax there is a series of six 
strong retrorse spines, bordering which are two plates, strongly toothed along their 
outer border (see g) . Both plates and legs are evanescent, but they assist the larva 
in obtaining entrance to the pea. 




Fig. 67. — Bruchus pisorum: a, egg on pod; 6, 
cross section of opening of larval mine; c, 
young larva and opening on inside of pod by 
which it had entered, enlarged; d, d, d, eggs 
on pod, slightly enlarged; e, embryonic larva, 
greatly enlarged; /, leg of same; g, protho- 
racic spinous processes, more enlarged (reen- 
graved from Insect Life). 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO BEANS AND PEAS. 237 

period dependent upon atmospheric conditions, a week or several 
days longer. Individuals that were kept under observation at the 
Department developed in seventeen days in the hottest July weather, 
and in nine days in seasonable weather in August. The periods of 
the other stages of this insect, the egg and the larva, do not appear 
to have been observed. 

The first adults of the new generation that have been observed in 
the vicinity of the District of Columbia appeared on the 21st of July, 
but other individuals developed as late as the middle of August. A 
very considerable proportion of the beetles leave the seed in the latter 
part of the summer and in the autumn in this latitude, but farther 
north the beetles are said to remain in their cells usually until the 
succeeding spring, when many are planted with the seed. In its 
adult condition this species passes the winter. It develops only a 
single generation annually. As it does not breed in dry peaSj the 
new generation for another year is dependent on such beetles as are 
contained in planted seed or which escape from the storeroom. 

PREDACEOUS ENEMIES. 

Among natural enemies, the Baltimore oriole, Harris tells us, splits 
open the green pods for the sake of the larvse within the peas, and 
the crow blackbird is said to devour great numbers of the beetles in 
the Spring, but the introduction of the English sparrow leaves few 
of these birds near our gardens, and no other natural checks in the 
shape of predaceous or parasitic insects are known for this weevil. 

REMEDIES. 

Holding over seed.-— A simple and effective remedy, and one that 
has been in operation for fifty years or more, consists merely in keep- 
ing seed peas in a close receptacle, such as a tight bag or box, over 
one season before planting. The beetles which issue die without 
being able to lay their eggs in the field. The primary injury to the 
seed has been effected by the larva the first summer and after the 
weevil develops, always during the first autumn in the writer's expe- 
rience, further damage practically ceases. 

Late planting. — Comparative immunity from pea weevil attack is 
claimed by growers in some localities by simply planting late, and 
the writer is disposed to the belief that in some localities, at least — as 
for example, in the neighborhood of Washington, where two crops 
could be grown on the same beds — late planting is all that is neces- 
sary to secure sound seed stock. 

Fumigation with bisulphide of carbon. — When it is desired to plant 
the first season after gathering the seed, bags in which peas have 
been kept tightly closed should be placed in a tight box or vessel and 
disinfected with bisulphide of carbon, at the rate of an ounce or two 
to 100 pounds of seed. This method will kill the weevils without 



238 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

destroying the germinative power of the seed, and its effectiveness is 
in proportion to the tightness of the receptacle. Benzine and naph- 
tha or gasoline will serve the same purpose. In the use of all these 
remedies care should be observed, on account of their inflammability, 
not to treat material in the immediate vicinity of fire, such as a 
lighted lamp or cigar. 

In many portions of this country where peas are extensively grown, 
seedsmen and other large growers have a building especially con- 
structed for fumigation and made as nearly air-tight as possible. 
This building is filled with bags of peas and the bisulphide is then 
evaporated in shallow pans containing about a fourth of a pound each 
and distributed about on the bags. This liquid rapidly volatilizes, 
and, being heavier than air, descends and permeates the infested 
mass, destroying all insects which it may contain. 

Peas are usually subjected to this treatment for forty-eight hours 
when they are desired for planting; but if for food, they may be 
freely exposed until the fumes of the chemical shall have passed 
entirely away. In the fumigation of a reasonably close room or 
building it is customary to evaporate a pound or a pound and a half 
of the bisulphide for every thousand cubic feet of space. If smaller 
quantities of seed are fumigated, one ounce is evaporated to a hun- 
dred pounds of infested material, and in still smaller quantities a 
tablespoonful is used for each cubic foot. In comparatively empty 
rooms, and in such as do not admit of being tightly closed, two or 
three times the above quantity of the chemical is sometimes neces- 
sary. The effects of fumigation are best in warm weather, when the 
insects are active. 

Throwing seed into water. — The custom of throwing seed into water 
just before planting is of some value if employed with discretion. 
One has but to try it for himself to demonstrate that what is true of 
one kind of seed will not apply to another. The smallest and lightest 
varieties of pea will float when infested or damaged, while large, 
heavy seed affected by this weevil will sink to the bottom. Sound 
seed only should be used for planting, and injured peas, unless used 
as food for swine or fowls, should be burned. 

Warm storage. — Some growers report good success in the storage of 
peas in tight receptacles in rooms where they are kept warm all win- 
ter. The beetles are induced to leave the peas prematurely, particu- 
larly if the seed be occassionally stirred or otherwise agitated, and 
die before the seed is wanted for planting. This remedy is useful in 
southern latitudes, where the bulk of the beetles escape in the autumn, 
but is stated not to be so successful farther north where the adult 
insects usually remain in the seed until the spring. 

Heat is of value in destroying insects in stored material, and it has 
been found by experiment that a temperature of 145° F. will kill the 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO BEANS AND PEAS. 239 

weevils in the seed without injury to the germinative property of the 
seed. A similar remedy consists in soaking infested seed for one 
minute in boiling water. A longer time is apt to injure it for planting. 
No efficient preventive of injury by this weevil is known, but coop- 
eration in the treatment of infested seed and in clean culture would 
render further remedy unnecessary. 

THE COMMON BEAN WEEVIL. 

(Bruchus obtectus Say.) 

The most formidable enemy to the culture of beans in the United 
States as well as in many other countries, is the common bean weevil 
(Bruchus obtectus Say). In the nature of its attack it differs from the 
pea weevil in that it not only oviposits and develops in the pods in 
the field but continues to breed for successive generations in seed, 
after harvest and storage, until the seed is useless for planting or as 
food for man or stock. 




Flo. 68.— Bruchus obtectus: a, beetle; 6, larva; c, pupa— all greatly enlarged (original). 

As with peas, the market gardens of the North provide the dry 
seed for consumption and for planting in the Southern States. In the 
country about Washington it is next to impossible to procure a crop 
of beans uninfested by this weevil ; hence, the stores of the city are 
supplied mainly from the North, New York State furnishing the great- 
est quantities. 

DESCRIPTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 

The adult of this bean weevil is smaller than the preceding species. 
It varies considerably in size, but its length will average about an 
eighth of an inch (3 mm.). It is thickly coated with fine brown -gray 
and olive pubescence which gives the body that color. The wing- 
covers are mottled, as shown in fig. 68, a. From the pea weevil this 
species may also be known by the different shaped thorax and the two 
small teeth in addition to the large tooth with which the thighs are 
armed. In fig. 69, a, the beetle is represented in profile with its head 
bent under in its natural resting position. 



240 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 




Pig: eS.—Bruchus obtectus: a, beetle in profile; 6, 
section of bean pod, showing slit for deposition of 
egg: c, portion of interior of pod, showing egg 
mass inserted through slit; d, head of post-em- 
bryonic larva, front view; e, portion of thoracic 
joints of mature larva, showing legs— all except 
b much enlarged (a-d reengraved from Riley, 
e original). 



The history of this species begins with its description by the pio- 
neer Western naturalist Thomas Say, in July, 1831. The first eco- 
nomic or biologic account of the insect appeared just thirty years later, 

but strangely enough it was 
not until the year 1870 that it 
attracted any marked atten- 
tion by its injuries to crops. 

Until recently this species, 
like the preceding, was gener- 
ally believed to be indigenous 
to this country, which will ac- 
count for its name, American 
bean weevil. M. A. Fauvel, 
the distinguished French cole- 
opterist, has expressed the 
opinion that this species is neo- 
tropical, and owes its origin to 
Central or South America; the 
question may rest here until 
some good reason can be shown 
for a contrary belief. It is cer- 
tainly not native to the United 
States, and if introduced from 
the Eastern Hemisphere probably became acclimated in tropical 
America before establishing itself in the North. There are several 
species of edible Phaseolus, or wild bean, native there, and the fact of 
the original specimens from 
which the species was described 
having come from Louisiana, 
probably from the vicinity of 
some seaport, lends color to this 
hypothesis. The species has 
spread by the distribution of 
infested seed rather than by 
flight, which will explain its 
next recorded appearance in 
Rhode Island in 1860, in New 
York two or three years later, 
and, in the next decade, in New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Illinois, 
Kansas, Missouri, and else- 
where. By 1873 it was recog- 
nized as the most abundant spe- 
cies of Bruchus over the region east of the Rocky Mountains. The 
distribution of the bean weevil is now world-wide. It occurs in nearly 
every State and Territory of the Union, and in the Antilles and 




Fia.70. — Bruchus obtectus: a, post-embryonic 
larva; 6, prothoracic crest; e, head, from front, 
d, from side; e, antenna; /, thoracic leg; g, rear 
view of tarsus; A, front view of same— a 
greatly enlarged, b-h still more enlarged 
(reengraved from Insect Life). 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO BEANS AND PEAS. 241 

Mexico, and is generally diffused through Central and South America, 
in the latter country from Venezuela to Buenos Ayres. It is also 
known in southern Europe in the Mediterranean region, in Persia, 
Indo-China, Algeria and South Africa, Madeira, the Azores, and the 
Canary Islands. 

LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS. 

Oviposition, as has been stated, takes place primarily in the field, 
the eggs 1 being deposited upon or inserted in the pod through a hole 
made by the jaws of the female and through openings, such as are 
caused by its drying and splitting. A group of eggs is shown in out- 
line in fig. 69, c, and the slit made by the beetle for their insertion on 
the ventral suture of a pod will be seen at 6, fig. 69. In shelled beans 
the eggs are dropped loosely in the bag or other receptacle in which 
they are stored, or are placed in holes made by the weevils in their 
exit from the seed. Less seldom they are attached to the outer 
surface of the seed. 

Immediately after entering a bean the larva 2 undergoes its first 
molt, losing its long legs, hairs, and .thoracic plates, and when full 
fed takes on the appearance shown in fig. 68, b, which represents 
an individual just before transformation to pupa. In this advanced 
condition the legs show only as pads, but a day or two earlier they 
have more the character of legs, although, of course, rudimentary (see 
fig. 69, e). Before transforming to pupa the larva leaves' the cell in 
which it has fed and forms an oval pupal chamber with smooth com- 
pact walls. Within this it transforms to pupa (fig. 68, c), in which 
stage it may be distinguished from the pea weevil by lacking the 
notches on the sides of the thorax. 

Experiment has demonstrated that the eggs show a variation in 
period of hatching from five days in the hottest weather to twenty 
days in a cool exposure, and the larval stage requires from eleven to 
forty-two, and the pupal stage from five to eighteen days, making for 
the entire life cycle a period varying from twenty-one to eighty days, 
according to season and locality. There are probably produced 
annually an average of six generations in latitudes such as the District 
of Columbia and a less number in more northern localities. 

Unlike the pea weevil, a large number of individuals will develop in 
a bean, as many as twenty-eight having been found within a single 
seed. It will thus readily be seen that the first outdoor generation or 
any single indoor generation is capable of exhausting seed and com- 
pletely ruining it for food or planting or any other practical purpose, 

1 The eggs, as would naturally be expected from the smaller size of the beetle, 
are not so large as those of the pea weevil, measuring only a fiftieth of an inch 
(0.55-. 7 mm. ) , which is two and a half times their diameter They are cylindrical 
ovate and of the color of ground glass, caused by close granulation. 

8 The post-embryonic larva differs from that of other bean and pea weevils by its 
larger temporary legs and by other characters, which are shown in fig. 70. 
1 A98 16 



242 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

except, perhaps, as hog feed. This was conclusively proven in- the 
autumn of 1897 in the case of both the first outdoor and an indoor 
generation observed in the city of Washington. 

The beetles begin to issue from beans in the field in a climate like 
that of the District of Columbia and adjacent parts of Maryland and 
Virginia as early as October, when in the natural course of events the 
eggs for a new brood would be deposited in such pods as had cracked 
open so as to expose the seeds within. 

It is perhaps superfluous to state that this beetle prefers the bean 
as a host plant, but it will also breed in cowpeas in the field as well as 
in store, and in confinement, at least, develops in dried peas, lentils, 
and chick-peas. Whether the insect would attack these legumes in 
the field in the presence of an abundant supply of its more favored 
food plants remains to be seen. 

It is no more true of seed infested by this species than of that 
attacked by the pea weevil that germination is not impaired by the 
work of the weevil in the bean. It has been proved experimentally 
by Professor Popenoe that weeviled beans should not be planted. In 
a test made at Manhattan, Kans., only 50 per cent of the infested seed 
used germinated, and only 30 per cent could by any possibility have 
passed the germinating stage, and these, owing to more or less exten- 
sive injury to the seed leaves, would probably have produced plants 
of low vigor and correspondingly low productiveness. 

Two species of parasitic Chalcidid flies, Eupelmus cyaniceps Ashm. 
and Bruchobius laticottis Ashm., are valuable as destroyers of this 
beetle. 

REMEDIES. 

No efficient means are known for the prevention of the attacks of 
the bean weevil in the field; hence, we must place our chief reliance 
upon the thorough destruction of the insects in the dried seed. 

From the fact that this species continues to breed for upward of 
a year in dried seed, it is obvious that neither the expedient of hold- 
ing over seed for a year before planting nor that of planting late for 
seed stock would be productive of good, as in the case of the pea 
weevil. Recourse must therefore be had to fumigation or to heat, 
and the earlier the seed is treated after it has" been gathered the 
better the result. 

Just before it is planted seed infested with this bean weevil should 
be lightly thrown into water. Badly injured seed will float, and may 
then be picked out or poured off and destroyed. Sound seed only 
should be reserved for planting. 

THE COWPEA WEEVIL. 

(Bruehuss chinen&is Linn.) 

Cowpeas, while subject to attack by the preceding species, are far 
more liable to be infested by two other beetles, the cowpea weevil and 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO BEANS AND PEAS. 



243 



the four-spotted bean weevil, both of which appear to be specific 
enemies of this plant, and which injure its seed in the same manner 
as the common bean weevil. Like that species they begin work in the 
garden and field and continue to breed in the stored seed, until they 
entirely spoil it as food for stock, and seriously impair its germinating 
power. Both species are generally distributed and injurious in the 
South, and are widening their range with the increasing use of their 
food plant as a soil renovator and as forage. 

These two species of weevil resemble each other after a manner 
superficially, in appearance as in habit, but they differ to some extent 
in various details of their life economy as well as in structure and 
distribution. 

GENERAL APPEARANCE, ORIGIN, AND DISTRIBUTION. 

The cowpea weevil may be readily distinguished from the four- 
spotted species by the two large, elevated ivory-like lobes at the base 
of the thorax and by the strongly 
pectinate antennae of the male 
(see fig. 71, a). 1 

This is undoubtedly an Old 
World species and an ancient 
enemy of edible pulse. 

Linnaeus described this species 
in 1758, giving it its specific name 
from its known habitat at that 
time. On this head he wrote 
"Habited in Pisis omnis generis, 
e China allaiis," and we may 
safely conclude that China was 
the original home of this species. Like the common bean weevil, it is 
now widely known through its distribution by commerce, being partic- 
ularly abundant in tropical countries. Its recorded distribution 
abroad includes Europe; China, Japan, and the East Indies in Asia; 
Egypt, Sierra Leone, Barbary, Algeria, and the Cape of Good Hope in 
Africa ;* Puerto Rico, Panama, Brazil, and Chile in tropical America. 
It has been for some time thoroughly acclimated throughout the 
Southern States of the Union, and from present knowledge it is fairly 
certain that it is capable of establishing itself wherever its food plant 
will grow. Recent observation shows that the species is a permanent 
inhabitant of the District of Columbia, and of Maryland and Virginia 
in the immediate vicinity. Westward it occurs as far north as Iowa. 

1 The ground color is dull red, sometimes more or less blackish, variegated with 
yellow and gray or white pubescence. The pattern of the elytra varies, that 
shown in the illustration being the prevailing form of specimens reared in the 
District of Columbia. The darkest spots at the sides are not round and conspic- 
uous as in the four-spotted bean weevil, and the apical spots are sometimes want- 
ing, while often black is the prevailing color of the dorsal surface. 




Flo. 71. — Bruchu8 chinensis: a, adult male; 6, 
egg; c, post-embryonic larva; d, front view of 
head of same; e, thoracic leg of same— a much 
enlarged, b-e more enlarged (original). 



244 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The cowpea is credited with having first been cultivated in this 
country in the early days of the eighteenth century, but there is no 
available earlier record of the occurrence of the insect here than 1853. ' 

LIFE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT. 

The cowpea weevil does not differ very strikingly in its life habits 
and economy from the common bean weevil. A careful study of the 
biology of each, however, has been rewarded by the development of 
certain points of difference, which may be briefly summarized. 

The egg 2 when freshly laid is clear and translucent, but becomes 
grayish white with age. The eggs are deposited on the outside of the 
growing pods in the field and upon the dried seeds, and are attached 
by a glutinous substance which covers the egg and extends somewhat 
around it. The larva? 3 hatch from them in four, five, or more days, 
depending upon the season and other circumstances, and burrow into 
the pods to the developing seed, which they penetrate. In two or 
three weeks in midsummer weather they have attained full growth, 
when they present much the same appearance as the larvae of the 
previously mentioned weevils. The pupa state lasts from about four 
or five days in warm weather to considerably longer in cooler weather, 
when the beetle form is assumed. The beetle gnaws its way out of 
the seed, in the same manner as do the other species of Bruchus, by 
cutting a round flap through the skin of the pod. The first brood 
which develops in the field attains maturity at least by the third week 
of September, and perhaps earlier, if we may judge by the appear- 
ance of the exit holes in the pods and the further fact that certain 
varieties of cowpea mature sooner than this. 

The beetles continue to develop in the dried and stored seed for 
several generations, in fact, until the seed becomes completely ruined 
for any practical purpose and unfit even for the sustenance of this 
insect. In a very short time decomposition sets in, inviting swarms 
of mites, and the beetles are forced to other quarters in their struggle 
for existence. 

In a fairly warm indoor temperature six or seven -broods probably 
develop annually in a latitude like that of Washington, D. C. 

It is yet early to say with positiveness which varieties of seed are 
most subject to infestation by this insect. The "Unknown" cowpea 
seems to be a favorite seed, but the insect is also injurious to all other 

' F. E. Melsheimer, Cat. Col. U. 8. 1853, p. 99, mentioned as scutellaris Fab., syno- 
nym of sinuatus Sen. 

2 The egg, shown in outline at fig. 71, b, is ovate, about six- tenths of a millimeter 
in length and two-thirds as wide, convex exteriorly and flattened interiorly at the 
point of attachment. 

3 The newly- hatched larva (fig. 71, c) resembles somewhat that of the pea weevil. 
It is of course smaller, the minute temporary legs (see e) are apparently not jointed, 
and the prothoracic plate (d) bears blunt, rounded teeth instead of acute spines. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO BEANS AND PEAS. 



245 



varieties, to "adsuki " beans (Phaseolus radiatus), pigeon peas (Caja- 
nus indica), common peas, lentils, and chick-peas (Cicer arielinum), 
and to the Ceylonese seeds known in their native home as "koln" 
and " muneta." Table beans of different varieties also serve as food 
for this species. 

It has-been noticed of this weevil that material infested by it under- 
goes a marked elevation in temperature, particularly at times when 
the beetles are undergoing transformation and issuing from the seed. 
In one instance the temperature of a small sack of seed infested by 
the cowpea weevil was found to be 25° F. higher than the surrounding 
atmosphere. 

This weevil is sometimes attacked while in an immature condition 
by two or more Chalcidid parasites, and quite frequently falls a prey 
to the omnivorous mite Pediculoirles (Heteropus) ventHcosus Newp., 
which destroys it in all stages. 

REMEDIES. 

The similarity of the life habits of this and the common bean 
weevil renders it amenable to the same remedies, bisulphide of carbon 
or heat. 

THE POUR-SPOTTED BEAN WEEVIL. 
, (Bruchus quadrimaculatus Fab. ) 

DISTRIBUTION AND HISTORY. 

The four-spotted bean weevil is the more slender species and differs 
from the cowpea weevil by many characters. 1 What appears to be 
the commonest form of col- 
oration is illustrated at fig. 
72, a. 

This species is undoubt- 
edly exotic, but its origin 
and the time of its introduc- 
tion are obscure. Olivier, 
in his "Histoire naturelle 
des Insectes" (Vol. IV, No. 
79, p. 19), published in 1795, 
notes its occurrence in "Car- 
olina, where it lives in peas." 
The original description of 
the species appeared three years earlier, and was from specimens from 
Santa Cruz, West Indies'. Other earlier records are also American, 

1 The ground color is black, with black, gray, and white pubescence. The an- 
tennae are serrate and not pectinate in the male. The basal lobe of the thorax is 
marked with white pubescence only. The elytra are longer, and the gray and 
white pubescence is so arranged as to leave four large black spots, whence the 
species derives its name. These markings are variable and often lacking. 




Fig. 72. 



-Bruchus h-maculatus: a, beetle; ft, 
pupa— all enlarged (original). 



246 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 




including Brazil and Mexico; but it is probable that the insect, like 
its preferred food plant, the cowpea, is from the tropical Orient. 

Its distribution extends throughout the South, and in all probability 
wherever cowpeas grow. It is evidently acclimated as far north as 
Iowa. Abroad it is recorded from Venezuela, Brazil, Mexico, 
British Honduras, the West Indies, East Indies, Sierra Leone, 
Ethiopia, southern France, Italy, and elsewhere. 

Since Olivier's note on the food plant of this species there was a 
lapse of nearly a century before any attention was drawn to it in its 
economic or biologic aspect in this country. In 1893 it was mentioned 
as having been found at the first Atlanta Cotton Exposition in 1885, 
infesting "black-eyed table beans" from Texas. At the Columbian 

Exposition in 1893 it was breed- 
ing in great numbers in beans 
and cowpeas in the exhibits of 
Brazil and Venezuela, most of 
the exhibited seeds being badly 
decomposed toward the latter 
days of the exposition. In suc- 
ceeding years complaints were 
received from various sources. 
The cowpea is the favorite food, 
the "black-eye" variety seem- 
ing to be preferred. Peas and 
beans of various sorts are also 
attacked. 

The writer has noticed of this 
species more than of any other 
insect that attacks stored pro- 
ducts that decomposition sets in in the material infested at a very 
early period, and that this is more noticeable in cowpeas than in any 
other seed. 

Repeated experiments, conducted at various times with different 
lots of cowpeas infested with this species, tend to show that it breeds 
with greater facility in fresh and slightly moist seed, such as is often 
furnished by the development of a brood of its own kind, than in 
dry seed, and it is therefore advisable to keep seed in a perfectly dry 
atmosphere. 

In its life economy this weevil very nearly resembles the two pre- 
ceding species. 1 

1 The egg closely resembles that of the cowpea weevil, but it is perceptibly 
larger and proportionately wider, more broadly rounded anteriorly and more 
narrowed posteriorly, being apically pointed, with the extreme apex produced. 
The eggs are shown as deposited on an infested cowpea at fig. 73, a, and more en- 
larged at b. The newly-hatched larva, shown in profile at c, resembles that of 
the cowpea weevil, but the thorax (d) is armed on the lower portion of the plate 



Pig. 73.— Bruchus U-maculatus: a, cowpea, showing 
holes made by weevils in their escape from seed, 
also eggs deposited on surface; o, egg in outline; 
c, post-embryonic larva; d, head of same; c, 
prothoracic leg; /, spine above spiracle of first 
abdominal segment— a twice natural size, b, c 
greatly enlarged, d, e, / more enlarged (origi- 
nal). 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO BEANS AND PEAS. 247 

REMEDIES. 

The remedies to be employed against, this species are the same as 
for the common bean weevil. 

FOREIGN BEAN AND LENTIL WEEVILS. 

In foreign countries there are other species of bean- and pea- 
feeding weevils related to the four species previously noted from 
their in j uriousness here, three of which are of sufficient importance 
in their native or adopted homes to merit brief mention in this 
connection. These foreign weevils have been imported into the 
United States numbers of times, but, so far as at present known, 
none have yet become acclimated with us. In all probability their 
introduction will be effected sooner or later, in spite of the reported 
failures of such individuals as have been brought hero to survive and 
procreate. 

The European Bean Weevil (BtucJius rufvmanus Boh.). — The 
most important of the foreign weevils is the one above mentioned. It 
is common and destructive in Europe and in North Africa. In these 
countries it takes the place of our common B. obtectus, and although 
it feeds on peas as well as various sorts of beans, appears to favor the 
broad or Windsor varieties. 

This species is very closely related to the pea weevil, being of the 
same size and of similar appearance. It can, however, be readily 
distinguished by its much narrower thorax and fainter markings, 
particularly the large spots on the pygidium, which are only weakly 
indicated. 

The importation in 1870 into New York or New Jersey of a lot of 
"pea pods" from Switzerland infested by this weevil first brought 
the species to public notice and led to general belief that it was 
actually introduced here. It was doubtless brought to this country 
in seed before that date, as it has been many times since. 

The writer found it in nearly every one of many samples of Wind- 
sor beans exhibited at the Columbian Exposition in 1893. During the 
same year the species was found in peas at College Station, Tex. 

In its life history it does not appear to differ materially from the 
congeneric pea weevil. Like that species, it oviposits on the growing 
pods in the field, and the beetle matures in the early autumn and 
winters over usually in the seed. As with its congener also it pro- 
duces only a single generation a year, but the large size of the beans 

with three acutely pointed teeth, on each side, and the teeth on the upper portion 
are also pointed. The legs (e) are apparently two-jointed. The fully matured 
larva is shown in fig. 72 at b, and the pupa at c. This species, like the preceding, 
is subject to the attacks of the mite Pedieuloides ventricoms Newp., which 
destroys it in its various stages and often in great numbers. Two species of 
Chalcidid parasites, Bruehobhcs latieollis Ashm. and Aplastomorpha prattii Ashm. , 
MSS. , also assist in its destruction. 



248 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 







which it most often inhabits enables several beetles to live within a 
seed. 

The Lentil Weevil (Bruchus lentis Boh.). — This weevil, as its 
name indicates, is the specific enmey of the seed of the lentil and does 
considerableinjurytothatlegume. Itbelongsto the same group as the 
European bean weevil and the pea weevil, and is probably, like them, 
indigenous to the Eastern Hemisphere, where it ranges through mid- 
dle and southern Europe, Egypt, and Syria. The adult beetle resem- 
bles in miniature the latter species, measuring only an eighth of an 
inch. 

The lentil weevil was first brought to public notice in this country 
in 1880, when it occurred in imported lentils at Buffalo, N. Y. In 
1893 it was found by the writer in various exhibits of lentils at the 
Columbian Exposition ; in 1894, in lentils received from Boston, Mass. , 

at this Department, and again the fol- 
lowing year in a lot of the same seed 
received from Egypt and designed for 
distribution in this country. Beetles 
in this last lot were numerous, alive, 
and active in the middle of February, 
but the entire consignment was thor- 
oughly fumigated before being distribu- 
ted. Lentils are sparingly grown in 
some parts of this country, but the 
weevil, so far as is known, has not yet 
been introduced. Its permanent intro- 
duction, however, would appear to be 
assured, as this seed, which is already under cultivation in limited 
areas, becomes better known and appreciated, and will be accom- 
plished by the increased importation of foreign seed for food and for 
planting, unless proper means are employed to prevent it by inspec- 
tion and fumigation. 

The Mexican Bean Weevil {Spermophaguspectoralis Shp.). — The 
third foreign weevil that will be mentioned is shown in fig. 74. It 
is an inhabitant of South and Central America and breeds in the seed 
of beans and cowpeas. Its eggs, also illustrated, are round in outline. 
The species oviposits freely upon stored seed, and there is, therefore, 
every indication that it breeds like our common bean weevil for suc- 
cessive generations in the same material. It occurred in great numbers 
at the Columbian Exposition, but the infested material was all fumi- 
gated or destroyed under the writer's direction, and thus its possible 
introduction from that source prevented. The bean weevil is con- 
generic with five described species (Zabrotes) indigenous to the United 
States, one of which occurs as far north as Maryland, and although it 
is a tropical form, its introduction in time into the Southern States 
would not appear improbable. 



Fig. 74. — Spermophaguspectoralis: wee- 
vil at right, much enlarged; Mex- 
ican bean at left showing: below, 
holes made by beetle in egress ; above, 
a group of eges on surface, three 
times natural size (original). 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO BEANS AND PEAS. 



249 



BLISTER BEETLES. 

Several of the many species of Meloidse, or blister beetles, that are 
so destructive in gardens, particularly in the Southwest, are very 
injurious to beans, peas, and other leguminous crop plants. These 
insects are gregarious, and it is their habit, in their seasons of 
abundance, to congregate in great numbers, when, as they feed 
most voraciously (apparently consuming many times as much as they 
are able to assimilate) they injure a crop beyond recovery in a few 
days. 

The Ash-gray Blister Beetle (Macrobasis unicolor Kby.).— The 
most troublesome blister-beetle enemy of legumens in the East is the 
one here figured. This beetle is elongate in form, rather soft-bodied, 
and of a uniform ash-gray color, produced by a dense covering of minute 
hairs of this shade. The female is illustrated at fig. 75 and at the left 
is shown a male antenna. It inhabits the entire Eastern United States 
from Canada, New England, and South Da- 
kota to Florida and Texas, extending west- 
ward to Kansas and Nebraska. 

This species does severe injury to beans 
and peas by devouring the leaves, and the 
past year it was found upon cowpeas and 
soy beans at Washington. Of other legu- 
mens it attacks clover, locust and honey 
locust, and numerous wild plants, such as 
lupines, astragalus, and wild indigo. It is 
quite a serious enemy of the potato, and has 
been reported by Department correspond- 
ents to do damage to tomatoes, sweet pota- 
toes, anemones, and chrysanthemums. 

The beetles are actively destructive for a 
month or more. In the latitude of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia they make their appearance about the middle of 
June and farther north from one to four weeks later. 

In their life history blister beetles differ greatly from other Coleop- 
terain that they undergo a more complicated series of metamorphoses. 
The class to which this species belongs feeds upon the eggs of locusts 
or grasshoppers. The blister-beetle eggs are laid on plants or upon 
the ground. From each hatches a small long-legged larva, called a 
" triungulin," which runs actively about in search of a grasshopper 
egg-pod, which it enters and feeds upon. After a time it casta its 
skin and assumes what is called the "carabidoid" larval stage, and 
when it next molts, it resembles a white grub, the " scarabseidoid " 
larval stage. When a larva has finished its quota of locusts' eggs, it 
undergoes a third molt and forms within its own skin what is known 
as the "coarctate" larval stage or "pseudopupa," and in this condi- 
tion usually passes the winter. In the spring the fourth and ultimate 




Fig. 75.— Macrobasis unicolor: fe- 
male beetle at right, twice nat- 
ural size; male antenna at left, 
greatly enlarged (original). 



250 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

larval molt takes place, and with the fifth molt the insect enters upon 
the true pupal stage, and in due time transforms to a beetle. 

Blister beetles are not an unmixed evil, since they do some good in 
their larval stage to compensate in a measure for the harm they occa- 
sion to our crops; for the habit of the larvae of feeding upon grass- 
hopper eggs renders them of very material aid in keeping these 
pernicious insects in check. This is especially true of the Western 
States, where both blister beetles and grasshoppers abound. But the 
benefit derived from the in3ect while in its larval stage is really more 
than counterbalanced by the loss it occasions in fields and gardens; 
hence, insecticides or other measures should be employed to destroy 
the beetles when they occur in harmful numbers. 

Remedies. — Paris green is one of the best remedies for blister 
beetles when they occur on potatoes and most 
other crops. It may be applied dry, mixed with 
from 10 to 20 parts of flour, plaster, or air-slaked 
lime, or in the form of a spray, also mixed with 
lime or Bordeaux mixture, at the rate of a 
quarter of a pound of the poison to 40 gallons of 
the diluent. But, unfortunately, in the use of 
an arsenite upon beans there is difficulty in 
obtaining a dry mixture or solution sufficiently 
strong for the destruction of the insects which 
will not endanger the plants by burning or 
scalding. The addition of lime mitigates this 
Pits. 76.— cantharia nuttaiu: to a certain extent. Repeated applications are 

female beetle, one-third some ti m eS necessary, since the poisoned bee- 
larger than natural size ■, 

(original). ties are replaced by others. 

A remedy which is employed with success in 
the Western States consists in sending a line of men and boys through 
infested fields to drive the beetle's, by short flights and running, 
before them until they alight in windrows of hay, straw, or other dry 
vegetable material which have previously been prepared along the 
leeward side of the field. When the beetles have taken refuge in 
such a windrow, it is fired and the beetles are burned. 

After what has been said concerning the voracity of these beetles it 
is almost superfluous to add that whatever remedy is employed should 
be applied at the outset of attack in order to be of substantial value. 

Nuttall's Blister Beetle (Cantharis nuMalli Say). — This spe- 
cies is to the bean industry in the Northwest what the ash-gray blis- 
ter beetle is in the Eastern States. The beetle (fig. 76) is a large and 
beautiful insect, variable both in color and size. It is bright metallic 
green, the head and thorax have usually a coppery luster, and the 
wing-covers are often purple. In measurement it varies from a little 
over half to nearly an inch. Its habitat extends from the Mississippi 
River to the Rocky Mountains, and it is particularly abundant in South 




INSECTS INJURIOUS TO BEANS AND PEAS. 251 

Dakota, Minnesota, Colorado, Montana, western Nebraska, and the 
Northwest Territories of Canada. It is a near relative of the Spanish 
fly, the Cantharis vesicatoria or cantharides of commerce, has the 
same blistering properties; and might be put to the same use. In 
fact, all the members of this family'possess a vesicating principle, and 
the native representatives, nearly two hundred species in number, 
could all be used as cantharides. 

The life history of this blister beetle is unknown, but it is probably 
similar to that of the preceding species. The beetles make their first 
appearance about July 1, ravenously devour the blossoms and tender 
leaves of beans and other garden vegetables, and, if report speaks 
truly, they are capable of destroying a crop in a day. Fortunately 
this species is sporadic in its attack, its appearance in destructive num- 
bers following years of excessive locust or grasshopper abundance. 
Were it otherwise, growers of beans in the territory which it inhabits 
might be obliged entirely to abandon the cultivation of thtecrop. 

Remedies. — Prom the rapidity with which this insect works, it is 
obvious that poisons are of little value. We must, therefore, resort 
to mechanical measures for its destruction, and in the employment of 
these promptness and thoroughness are the essentials. The beetles 
may be destroyed by one of three methods:, (1) By driving them into 
windrows of dry straw or similar material and burning them; (2) by 
sweeping them into a net, such as is used by insect collectors, and 
throwing the captured insects into a fire; (3) by beating the beetles 
into specially prepared pans of water on which there is a thin scum 
of coal oil. 

THE BEAN LADYBIRD. 
(EpUachna corrupta Muls.) 1 

This species, which is called also the spotted bean beetle, has been 
known as injurious only a few years, and its field of operation is 
limited both as regards the number of crop plants affected and the 
territory over which it ranges. 

This beetle is one of three species of the ladybird family (Coccinel- 
lidse) known to live by choice on vegetable matter, the other species 
being predaceous and subsisting largely upon plant-lice and soft- 
bodied larvsB. It is nearly hemispherical, in outline broadly oval, 
and its length is a little more than a fourth of an inch. Its color is 
light yellowish brown, and each wing-cover bears four black spots 
(see fig. 77, b). 

This species was originally described from Mexico. In 1864 it was 
recorded from the United States, but it was not until 1883 that any^ 
thing appears to have been published concerning its habits. In this 
year it did serious injury to wax beans in Colorado. In later years 

1 This name, according to Rev. H. S. Gorham, must give way to E. varivestis 
Mule. (See Biol. Centr.-Am., Col., Vol. VII, p. 242.) 



252 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

similar instances of injury were reported from New Mexico. Its dis- 
tribution comprises also Arizona and western Kansas. 

The insect is described as being the worst enemy to the bean crop 
in the West, its work being compared to that of the Colorado potato 
beetle, and in some localities it is stated to frequently destroy entire 
crops. It devours in both larval and adult stages all parts of a bean 
plant, leaves, flowers, and green pods. The female beetle deposits 
her yellowish-brown eggs in large clusters on the under surface of bean 
leaves (fig. 77, d), and the larvse feed chiefly upon the lower sides of 




Pig. 77.— Epilachna corrupta: «, larva; 6, beetle; c, pupa; d, egg mass— all about 
three times natural size original). 



the leaves. The full-grown larva shown in the illustration at a 
is of about the same length as the beetle, in color yellow, and cov- 
ered with stout branched spines. When fully matured, it attaches 
itself to a leaf by its posterior end and transforms to pupa (c). The 
beetle, where observed in New Mexico, makes its appearance from the 
latter part of June to the middle of July, and the new brood of beetles 
is to be found in September and October. The winter is passed in 
the adult stage, and only a single generation has been observed in a 
year. 

The eggs are preyed upon by two predaceous ladybirds, Hippo- 
darnia convergens Guer. and Coccinella transversoguttata Fab. The 
beetle when disturbed has a habit, possessed in common by other lady- 
birds, of drawing up its legs so that a small drop of yellow liquid, hav- 
ing a disagreeable odor, exudes from each kneejoint, and it is probable 
that this enables it to secure for itself comparative immunity from the 
attacks of birds and other enemies. 



REMEDIES. 

Paris green suggests itself as the most useful insecticide for this 
species, but unless great care be taken in its application, certain varie- 
ties of beans are liable to be killed by the scorching of their leaves. 
It should be applied as an underspray at the first appearance of the 
beetles. Kerosene emulsion applied also as an underspray gives still 
better results, as it is not open to the same objection of poisoning the 
plants as in the case of the arsenites. Hand-picking of the beetles 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO BEANS AND PEAS. 



253 



and their eggs upon their earliest appearance is a measure of preven- 
tion that would compensate for the time and labor on small kitchen 



gardens. 

THE BEAN LEAP-BEETLE. 
(Cerotoma trifurcata Forst.) 

An insect of considerable importance in the Gulf States, and of some- 
what minor import farther northward in the vicinity of Maryland and 
Virginia, is the bean leaf -beetle {Cerotoma trifurcata Forst.). This 
species first became known as an enemy to beans in 1875, from its 
inj uries in Shawnee County, Kans. In later years it attracted attention 
successively in portions of New Jersey, Louisiana, Indiana, Delaware, 
Ohio, Maryland, and .Virginia, and during the year 1897 was particu- 
larly numerous and troublesome in the last two States. Injury is due 
to the adult beetle, which eats 
large round holes in the grow- 
ing leaves of beans and cow- 
peas, and certain other legu- 
minous plants, including culti- 
vated beggarweed or tickseed 
(Besmodium tortuosum), a 
plant which is grown to some 
extent in the South for forage 
and as a soil renewer. The 
larvae also do their share of 
damage by feeding on the 
roots and upon the main stems 
of the plants just below the 
surface of the ground. 

The adult beetle is a mem- 
ber of the family Chrysome- 
lidae and resembles in sev- 
eral particulars the cucumber 

beetles (Diabrotica). It measures from a seventh to a fifth of an inch 
(3.5-5 mm.) in length, and is nearly twice as long as wide. It varies 
greatly in color, from pale yellowish or buff to dull greasy red, with 
black markings, arranged, in what appears to be the typical form, as 
in fig. 78, a. Individuals often occur, however, in which the elytral 
marking is almost if not entirely wanting. 

This species is native to North America and found from Canada 
southward to the Gulf States and westward to Kansas and Minnesota. 
It ranges from the Transition to the Lower Austral life zones, being 
most abundant and injurious in the last. 

The bean leaf-beetle feeds both on cowpeas and beans, and of the 
latter the low-growing, or dwarf, varieties are usually most injured, 
since their period of growth is shorter, while the pole beans put out 
new leaves after injury has ceased. The beetles when abundant strip 




Pig. 78.— Cerotoma trifurcata: a, adult beetle; b, 
pupa; c, larva; d, side view of anal segment of 
larva; e, leg of same; /, egg— or, b, c enlarged 
about six times, d, e, / more enlarged (author's 
illustration). 



254 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

the leaves to their veins and midribs. Ordinarily they would seldom 
attract attention, as they feed and rest during the greater portion of 
the day almost exclusively on the under side of the leaves. Before 
the cultivation of beans in the United States, this beetle fed upon its 
wild food plants, of which tick trefoil (Meibomia), bush-clover (Les- 
pedeza), and hog peanut (Falcata) are known. The beetles are rather 
sluggish and seldom seen in flight, nor are they easily disturbed, and 
hence may be readily captured by hand. W hen alarmed, they drop 
to the ground, but soon reascend to the plant. 

In the extreme South the beetles appear as early as April, and 
farther northward as late as June. The minute orange-colored eggs 
(shown much enlarged at fig. 78, /) are laid around the stem of the 
insects' food plant, just below the surface, and in clusters of from six 
to ten or more, and the larvse when hatched eat around the stem and 
feed also upon the roots. The eggs hatch in from five to eight days, 
and the larvsB attain full growth in from four to six or seven weeks. 
The full-grown larva is shown in fig. 78, c, enlarged about six times. 
It is nearly cylindrical in form, milk-white in color, with darker head 
and anal segment. It measures about three-tenths of an inch in 
length (7-8 mm.), and is about an eighth as wide as long. The 
pupa, shown at b, fig. 78, is white like the larva and delicate in texture. 
The pupa state lasts from five to eight days, these periods varying 
with the conditions of heat, dryness, or moisture. The entire life 
cycle requires from six to nine weeks. The periods indicated are for 
the latitude of the District of Columbia. In the most northern range 
of the species there is probably only one generation a year. In Mary- 
land and Virginia there are evidently two, the former developing 
during July, the latter in September. In the Gulf States there is 
probably a third generation, as the beetles are numerous there as 
late as October. 

REMEDIES. 

The sluggishness of the beetles indicates hand-picking as of value 
in small gardens early in the season. Pyrethrum is said to be use- 
ful in checking its depredations, but the chief reliance would be in 
spraying with one of the arsenicals, where the insect is sufficiently 
numerous to justify a poisonous insecticide. This remedy should be 
employed on the first appearance of the insects in order to stop them 
at the outset and to avoid possible poisoning of the bean pods if 
these are to be eaten green. An important measure is clean culture 
and the careful weeding out of wild food plants, such as tick trefoil 
and bush-clover, in the neighborhood of cultivated crops. 

OTHER INJURIOUS BEETLES. 

Several other species of beetles of omnivorous habits in their adult 
condition attack leguminous food plants. Prominent among these 
are the banded flea-beetle (Systena tceniata Say) and the pale-striped 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO BEANS AND PEAS. 255 

flea-beetle (8. blanda Mels. 1 ), species of common occurrence on 
beans. In 1894 the former was reported to have been very destruc- 
tive in Ohio, where large fields were seriously damaged. These bee- 
tles are often met with in gardens and attack a variety of plants, 
such as beets, melons, carrots, and potatoes, but fortunately they are 
.only sporadically injurious. 

Beans may be protected against these insects by a dusting of air- 
slaked lime, which will force them to feed upon their wild food 
plants, which consist chiefly of common garden weeds. Bordeaux 
mixture applied as a spray is of value as a repellent against flea- 
beetles, and will doubtless prove effective against the present spe- 
cies. If the beetles are present in great abundance, Paris green 
should be added to the spraying mixture. 

In the neighborhood of the District of Columbia the twelve-spotted 
cucumber beetle (Diabrotica 12-punctata 01.) attacks the foliage of 
beans and other edible legumes in the same manner as does the 
bean leaf -beetle, sometimes also injuring the pods. 

THE BOLL WORM OR CORN-EAR WORM. 
(Heliothis armiger Hbn.) 

The maturing pods of beans, peas, and cowpeas are often found 
bored full of holes and the seed within devoured. The insect most 
often concerned in damage of this nature is Heliothis armiger Hbn., 
better known as an enemy of cotton, corn, and tomatoes, whence it 
has received the vernacular names cotton boll worm, corn-ear worm, 
and tomato fruit worm. It is a species of wide distribution and de- 
structiveness, but whether it is indigenous to this country or imported 
is not known. 

In addition to the crops mentioned, this species feeds upon and 
injures tobacco, pumpkin, squash, melons, red pepper, okra, and 
other vegetables, and among garden flowers it attacks gladiolus, 
geranium, mallow, and mignonette. In Europe it is injurious to 
chick-peas and lucern. In feeding upon beans and cowpeas it de- 
vours a seed or two and then comes out and enters another pod. A 
single larva is capable of ruining several pods. One that was kept 
under observation destroyed a pod in a day. Even if only a single 
hole is made the damage is apt to be considerable, as the pod is 
likely to become more or less decomposed and access is afforded to 
other insects and to rain. The same is true of the injuries by this 
insect to other fruits. 

The adult of the boll worm is a Noctuid moth. Its general color is 
ocher yellow, more or less variegated with blackish markings, and 
arranged as in fig. 79, a. It measures about an inch and a half across 
its expanded fdre-wings. 



1 The latter is considered by some authorities a variety oif the former. 



256 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



The larva or caterpillar varies greatly in color, different shades of 
pink, purple, and green being the prevailing ground tints. One of the 
dark striped forms is shown at b and a light, nearly immaculate form 
at c. Individuals that have fed more or less freely exposed to sun- 
light are darker and 
brighter colored than 
such as have lived hid- 
den from view within 
bean pods, ears of corn, 
or tomatoes. 

The eggs of the boll 
worm are laid at twi- 
light upon any portion 
of a plant and they 
hatch in from two days 
to a week. The cater- 
pillar attains its full 
development in from 
two to four weeks, when 
it enters the ground 
and transforms to a 
lightmahogany-colored 
chrysalis (see fig. 79, d). 
The duration of this 
stage is from one week 
to a month. The aver- 
age life cycle from egg 
to adult is between five 
and six weeks in the South, and the number of annual generations 
varies probably from about two or three in the northern range of the 
species to four or five in the cotton States. 

' REMEDIES. 

The habit of the boll worm larva of feeding in concealment renders 
it practically impossible to kill it with poisons. When it occurs on 
cotton a trap crop of corn is employed with profit, and it is possible 
that recourse might be had to similar measures when the insect 
occurs in peas and beans. Thorough applications of Paris green, 
either in the form of a spray or dry in powder, will doubtless kill the 
younger caterpillars, but string beans treated in this manner should 
be rinsed in water before cooking or before sending them to market. 
Late fall plowing is of value in ridding infested fields of the boll 
worm, but there is no practical remedy known for this insect when it 
occurs in corn ears or tomatoes. 




Pig. 79. — Heliothis armiger: a, moth; 6, dark larva; c, lighter 
larva entering pod; d, pnpa; e, last segment of same, ventral 
view— all somewhat enlarged (original). 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO BEANS AND PEAS. 



257 



THE PEA MOTH. 
(Semasia nigricana Steph.) 

For a number of years past the larva of the pea moth has done in- 
jury to peas in the Dominion of Canada, where the cultivation of this 
crop is an important industry. It especially affects late crops, dam- 
aging the ripening peas in the pods. This is a comparatively new 
importation from the Old World, where it has been known for many 
years as an enemy of the pea. It is as yet practically unknown in 
the United States, but the pea growers of New York and New Eng- 
land and other Northern States should be warned against it. 

No remedy appears to be known for this species beyond early fall 
plowing and the destruction of the infested vines. 

CUTWORMS AND OTHER CATERPILLARS. 

Cutworms. — Numerous leaf -feeding caterpillars feed upon the 
foliage of leguminous garden plants, of which cutworms of several 
species are among the most important, often causing extensive dam- 
age to young plants by 
cutting them off, and to 
older plants by sever- 
ing their leaves and ten- 
der shoots. One of our 
common forms often 
found on beans and peas 
is shown in fig. 80. It 
is called the Western 
striped cutworm (Feltia 
subgothica Haw. ), and is 
widely distributed and 
injurious. Other spe- 
cies troublesome to peas 
are the clover cutworm 
{Mamesira trifolii Rott.) and the zebra caterpillar (M. picta Harr.). 

The best cutworm remedy is a bait composed of bunches of clover, 
grass, or weeds, poisoned by dipping them into a solution of arsenic 
or Paris green, or of a mash of bran poisoned in a similar manner 
and scattered about at the bases of the vines. 

The Yellow Bear (SpUosoma virginica Fab.). — A large hairy cat- 
erpillar called yellow bear or woolly bear sometimes does considerable 
harm to peas and beans. It is one of the commonest of garden pests, 
and appears to thrive equally well upon any sort of herbaceous plant, 
from garden vegetables, fruits, and flowers to weeds and grasses. It 
infests alike fields of corn and cotton, orchards, and vineyards, and 
sometimes defoliates forest and shade trees. 

The adult, known as the ermine moth, but commonly called "the 
1 A98— -17 




Fig. 80.- 



-Feltia xubgothica: mature moth above, larva be 
low— somewhat enlarged (original). 



258 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

miller" (fig. 81, a), has a wing expanse of from 1.} to If inches, is 
white in color, with a black discal spot on the fore-wings and two on 
the hind-wings. The yellow eggs are deposited in large clusters on 
the under sides of leaves. The caterpillar when full grown measures 
about 2 inches, and varies in color from pale cream (c) to dark red 
or brown (b). Transformation to pupa takes place in a loose cocoon 
constructed from its own hairs (see d and e). In this state it remains 
for from twelve days to a month. There are evidently two genera- 
tions annually in a climate such as that of Maryland and Virginia, 




Pig. 81.— Spilosoma virginica: a, female moth; 6, full-grown larva; c, light form of larva T not 
quite mature; d, cocoon; e, pupa— all slightly enlarged (original). 

the first appearing about June, the second wintering over as pupa 
and issuing in the spring. The moth is nocturnal and seldom seen 
during the daytime. 

REMEDIES. 

The caterpillars may be killed with the arsenites, and the best time 
for their destruction is just after they have hatched from the egg 
clusters, when they are feeding together. When more mature, their 
presence is indicated by the large holes they make in the leaves 
of the plants which they infest, and they may then be picked off 
from the under side of the leaves, where they feed by preference, and 
crushed. This means of reducing them may be employed with bene- 
fit, as they are capable of doing an immense amount of injury in a 
very short time. 

The Salt-marsh Caterpillar (Leticarctia acrcea Dru.). — A larva 
very similar to the above, and known as the salt-marsh caterpillar 
from its ravages in forage crops grown in the salt marshes of the 
New England States, is sometimes injurious to peas and beans. It is 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO BEANS AND PEAS. 



259 



amenable at such times to the same remedies as advised against the 
yellow bear. 

The Bean Leap-roller (JEudamus proteus Linn). — A caterpillar 
known as the bean leaf -roller or " roller- worm " is injurious in the 
Gulf States to leguminous plants, particularly beans, as also cultivated 
"beggarweed." It is the larva of a butterfly called the swallow- 
1 ailed skipper. The ground color of the larva is yellowish, its head 
being darker and marked with two orange spots near the mandibles. 
The head is prominent and separated from the body by the narrow 
neck, a character which will serve to distinguish it from any other 
common caterpillar on garden crops. 

This caterpillar may be successfully controlled by a spraying with > 
Paris green oh its first appearance. 

PLANT-LICE, PLANT-BUGS, AND LEAP-HOPPERS. 

Several species of plant-lice, plant-bugs, and leaf-hoppers weaken 
the vitality of pea, cowpea, and bean plants by sucking their juices. 




Fig. 82.— Hatticug uhleri: a, brachypterous female; 6, full-winged female: e, male; d, head of 
male in outline— a, 6, c much enlarged, d more enlarged (author's illustration). 

Of the plant-lice, Aphis gossypii Glov., A. rumicis Linn., and Sipho- 
nophora erigeronensis Thos. (?) have been the most abundant forms 
on these legumes in the neighborhood of the District of Columbia in 
recent years. 
Of the leaf -hoppers that infest these plants, Empoasca fabw Harr. 



260 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

has long been known as injurious to beans. Two related species, E. 
mali LeB. and E. flavescens Fab., have recently been observed to 
have similar habits. 

The plant-bug best known as an enemy of beans is HaUicus nMeri 
Giard (fig. 82), which has been reported as doing damage in Kansas and 
Ohio, living in great numbers on the under sides of the leaves, punctur- 
ing them so as to cause the death of the tissues in small irregular white 
patches. This same species was quite injurious on hothouse chrys- 
anthemums in the city of Washington recently, and somewhat trouble- 
some on beans in Maryland in the vicinity of Washington. This insect 
in its brachypterous or short- winged form greatly resembles the black 
flea-beetle of the genus Epitrix, alike in appearance, in the nature of 
its work, and in its saltatory power. It may be called the garden flea- 
hopper. 

The standard remedy for plant-lice, leaf -hoppers, and plant-bugs is 
kerosene emulsion, and, as the pea- and bean-infesting species feed 
chiefly onjbhe under sides of the leaves of these plants, an underspray- 
ing is necessary. 



WORK IN VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY. 

By Albert F. Woods, 
■Acting Chief of Division of Vegetable Physiology and Pathology. 

INTRODUCTION. 

It will be readily understood by those who have read the paper on 
the work of the Division of Vegetable Physiology and Pathology in the 
Yearbook for 1897 that most of the problems investigated by the Divi- 
sion require years for complete mastery. Much of the work done and 
advance made during the year were necessarily of a technical nature. 
This is particularly true of the work of plant breeding, where the prob- 
lems of heredity and changes produced by crossing and intercrossing 
must be carefully worked out and understood. Hybrids must be made 
in large numbers, selected, crossed, and intercrossed for several years 
before the desired result is obtained. In the case of diseases, the life 
history of parasites causing them and the physiological relations of 
these parasites to their hosts must be studied until throughly known 
and understood, {t is upon this knowledge that all preventive meas- 
ures and treatments are based and the conditions for the greatest 
productiveness and value of a crop determined. The method of treat- 
ing a disease recommended one year may be materially changed the 
next in favor of a cheaper or more effective remedy suggested by the 
discovery of some new fact. The work is not completed until the 
method is known by which the cost and labor of producing any crop 
and overcoming its diseases are reduced to a minimum and the plants 
are made to yield the largest profit. This paper must, however, be 
limited to a brief presentation of the more practical results of the 
work of the year. 

THE GRAIN SMUTS. 

It is estimated that oat smut alone destroys each year in the United 
States over $18,000,Q00 worth of grain. The other grains, especially 
wheat, rye, and barley, also suffer severely from smut diseases; 
the amount, however, has not been estimated. A careful review of 
all the work done on this subject up to the present time was made 
during the year. As the different kinds of smut require different 
treatment, each kind was carefully described and illustrated, so that 
it can be distinguished by the farmer, and the latest and best meth- 
ods of preventing it given. The results were published in Farmers' 

Bulletin No. 75. 

861, 



262 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

THE GRAIN RUSTS. 

The aggregate loss to the United States from grain rusts is esti- 
mated to be greater than from all other diseases of these crops. A 
three years' test for rust resistance of over nine hundred good varieties 
of wheat obtained from every wheat country of importance in the 
world was closed during 1897. The results showed more conclusively 
than ever before that varieties from southern and eastern Russia are by 
far the best 'adapted to the greater portion of the wheat regions of the 
United States. They are the most resistant to drought and cold, and, 
on the whole, to rust also; are more certain in yield, though not 
yielding heavily, and produce a very high quality of grain. 

The principal varieties found to be the most resistant to orange leaf 
rust in any part of the country, if sown in good time, are the winter 
wheats Turkey, Mennonite, Pringles No. 5, Rieti, and Odessa, and the 
spring wheats, Haynes Blue Stem and Saskatchewan Fife. 

Durum and Poulard wheats are very resistant to leaf rust, but so 
far have been used chiefly for macaroni. A few of the most impor- 
tant of these wheats are Arnautka, Taganrog, Belotourka, Medeah, 
and Hybrid de Galland. The work has made clear the extremely im- 
portant point that the leaf rusts, which have been the ones mainly 
studied hitherto, are not nearly so destructive as the black stem 
rusts of wheat and oats. More attention must therefore be given to 
these latter forms. In addition to confirming still further that the 
orange leaf rust of wheat (Puccinia rubigo-vera tritici) lives over 
winter in this country in the uredo, or summer stage, the same has 
now been proved true of the corresponding form on rye (P. rubigo-vera 
secalis). The spores start first on self-sown grain, and from this the 
regular fall-sown crop may be infected. All farms should therefore 
be kept constantly free from self-sown wheat and rye. 

The black stem rust of wheat occurs also on Hordeum jubatum 
(sqUirrel-tail grass), but does not winter its uredo in this country so 
far as known. We have proved beyond doubt now that Dactylis 
glomerata (orchard grass) and Arrhenatherum elatius (oat grass) act 
as hosts of the black stem rust of oats (P. graminis avence). Oats 
may therefore be readily infected with this destructive rust by being 
sown near these two grasses; other grasses are strongly suspected. 

The rusts of Agrostis alba vulgaris (redtop) and several species of 
Elymus and Agropyrum are not equivalent to any of the cereal rusts, 
as has been supposed. For the first time in America it has been proved 
that the ^Ecidium, or cluster-cup rust, of Rhamnus (buckthorn), in 
this case R. lanceolata, is connected with the crown rust (Puccinia 
coronata) of oats and of Phalaris caroliniana (Carolina canary grass). 
A full presentation of the work will shortly be published. 



WORK IN VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY. 263 

BLACK ROT OF CABBAGE. 

One of the most important diseases of truck and garden crops stud- 
ied during the year was the black rot of cabbage. The disease 
also attacks turnips, cauliflowers, wild mustards, and other related 
plants. With cabbage it causes dwarfing, one-sided growth of the 
heads, or the entire absence of heads. The leaves, turn yellow from 
the edges inward and finally fall off. The woody layer of the stem is 
black or brown. The trouble was found to be due to a yellow bacte- 
rium, which gains entrance to the tissuesof the plant mainly through 
the water pores on the edges of the leaves or through injuries pro- 
duced by. insects. The disease has been found doing serious damage 
in many of the important cabbage-growing districts of the Eastern 
and Central States and as far west as Iowa and Nebraska. Its known 
distribution now includes sixteen States, and it will likely be found 
in many more. Where the disease has a start the loss is from 30 to 75 
per cent of the crop. Losses from this cause around Racine, Wis. , alone 
during the last three years have been estimated at over $100,000. 
The disease is spread mainly by transplanting plants from soils con- 
taminated with the germ to new soils, which in turn become infected, 
and to some extent also by leaf -eating insects and slugs. 

The best preventive measures that can at present be suggested 
are to avoid planting on land where the disease has appeared, and 
to use especial caution in regard to the seed bed. Avoid the use of 
manures contaminated with cabbage refuse, and keep up constant 
warfare against the cabbage butterfly and the harlequin cabbage bug. 
A full description of the disease and preventive measures were pub- 
lished in Farmers' Bulletin No. 68. 

VARIOUS IMPORTANT DISEASES. 

On the Pacific coast a new and destructive disease of bulbs was 
investigated, its bacterial nature established, the mode of infection 
learned, and a practical means of prevention recommended. A new 
bacterial disease of walnuts, the cause and treatment of which have 
been worked out within the past two years, has been under investi- 
gation in both the laboratory and field. Several new facts of impor- 
tance were learned, such as the common way in which the organism 
causing the disease passes the winter, the manner of rapid spring 
infection of the trees, and the chemical action of the germ upon the 
tissues. 

Much additional work has been done on apple canker and peach 
leaf curl, two of the most serious diseases affecting these fruits. The 
methods of treatment recommended have proved highly successful, 
and when put into general use will save several millions of dollars 
annually to the growers of these crops. An obscure disease causing 
the death of buds and twigs of Japan plum, and thought to be a 
physiological trouble, was" finally traced to a peach bud mite. A 
circular on the subject has been prepared and will be published in 



264 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

cooperation with the Division of Entomology. Two kinds of root rot of 
peach and plum were found to be doing serious damage in the South. 

During the work on sooty mold, a fungous disease of the orange 
and lemon which follows attacks of the mealy wing, or white fly, it was 
discovered that the mealy wings are themselves affected by two fungous 
diseases. Experiments made during the year have proved that the 
diseases of the mealy wing can be spread artificially, and may thus be 
used as a means of combating this much-dreaded pest. Experiments 
in spreading these friendly -fungi will be carried on in cooperation 
with the Division of Entomology. 

Among greenhouse crops the leaf-spot disease of violets was care- 
fully worked out and proved to be due to a fungus, a new species of 
Alternaria. The best means of preventing the disease were found to 
be rigid selection of vigorous stock for planting, careful attention to 
cultivation and watering, and avoiding the use of tobacco for fumigat- 
ing against insects, tobacco having been found to injure the leaves, 
making them more susceptible to infection by the fungus. In this 
connection, a method of using hydrocyanic-acid gas for fumigating 
violets and a number of other greenhouse crops was carefully worked 
out, and. the results will appear in a circular to be issued by the 
Division of Entomology. It causes no injury to the leaves or flowers, 
and thus reduces to a minimum the danger of spot from fumigation. 
In the selection experiments carried on in connection with this work 
the productiveness of the plants has been raised 50 per cent, besides 
making them more resistant to disease. A widely distributed disease 
of carnations known as Bacteriosis, and hitherto supposed to be due to 
bacteria, was thoroughly investigated, and it was found that bacteria 
do not cause the disease, but that the plants react to the attacks 
of aphides, thrips, and other insects. In such cases all the charac- 
teristics of the malady in question are produced. The problem of 
preventing this disease is thus greatly simplified. 

Much progress has also been made in the study of other diseases of 
violets, carnations, hyacinths, tomatoes, cucumbers, and other forcing- 
house crops. 

PLANT BREEDING. 

The year has marked a great advance in the work done in plant 
breeding. A paper on "Hybrids and their utilization in plant breed- 
ing," published in the Yearbook for 1897, presents very clearly the 
possibilities of great improvement in our cultivated plants by this 
means. It is beginning to be pretty generally understood - that a great 
many diseases of plants are due to a lack of power on the part of the 
latter to completely adapt themselves to their surroundings and main- 
tain a well-balanced vigor and resistance to unfavorable conditions 
and parasitic enemies. The lack of complete adaptation to surround- 
ings is sometimes very slight, but nevertheless sufficient to make the 
difference between a profitable and unprofitable crop. 



WORK IN VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY. 265 

GRAPES. 

The disease known as coulure, or falling of the flowers and young 
fruit of the finest raisin grapes of California, is a good ease in point. 
An investigation of the disease showed that the dropping of the flowers 
and fruit is due mainly to unfavorable climatic conditions at or about 
the time when the first crop of grapes is in bloom. The varieties most 
susceptible are the Muscat of Alexandria and Muscatel Gordo Blanco, 
the finest and most highly prized raisin grapes in existence. Although 
they are tender varieties, they do well in California except for this 
disease. As a result of investigations it was ascertained that if the 
first bloom could be delayed until the weather became fine or if the 
plants were protected from cold or unfavorable atmospheric changes 
the injury would not occur. The problem, then, was to delay the 
flowering of the vines or increase their hardiness, so that they might 
escape the bad weather at flowering time or be able to stand it with- 
out injury. To overcome this weakness the two varieties mentioned 
have been crossed with Malaga, an exceedingly thrifty grower, very 
hardy, resistant to disease, and an excellent raisin grape, though not 
equal to the Muscat or Muscatel Gordo Blanco. About twenty thou- 
sand crosses "were made. The new seedlings are now several years 
old. When they come to maturity those having the hardiness of the 
Malaga and the fruiting qualities of the finer varieties will be selected. 
In this way it is believed that coulure and a number of other diseases 
due to the lack of hardiness can be overcome, and many millions of 
dollars saved annually to the grape growers of the Pacific coast. 

HARDY ORANGES. 

A similar problem to the one just discussed, and one of the greatest 
importance to citrus culture, is to secure a hardy orange that will 
successfully resist the severe freezes that cause such great destruction 
in Florida, California, and Louisiana. The experiments so far made, 
especially during the past year, show conclusively that the common 
orange may be successfully hybridized with the so-called trifoliate 
orange, a" hardy sort, of poor quality, which can be grown as far 
■north as Philadelphia. About one hundred and fifty of these hybrids 
have been produced and are now growing in the greenhouses of the 
Department. Many of them show by their foliage that they are inter- 
mediate in character between their parents. The results which have 
been obtained with other fruits by similar means justify the conclu- 
sion that it is possible, by making a sufficient number of crosses, to 
obtain a variety having to a large degree the fruit characters of the 
common orange and the hardiness of the trifoliate. The same method 
may also be successful in obtaining hardy varieties of the lemon, 
lime, and other subtropical fruits. 

Another important problem in citrus culture which has received 
attention during the past year is to secure a common orange of good 



266 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

quality with the loose, easily removable rind of the tangerine orange, 
and also to secure sorts resistant to blight and other diseases. 

From the crosses made in 1893 sixty-four hybrid orange trees are 
now growing in south Florida. Buds of each have been inserted on 
mature trees, and will probably fruit next year. Crosses made in 
1897 have yielded eight hundred and eighty-three hybrid trees, now 
growing in the Department greenhouses. In the spring of 1898 four 
hundred and ninety-seven more citrus crosses were made. 

PINEAPPLES. 

One of the most important problems in pineapple culture is to 
secure sorts with large fruits, of good quality and good shippers, and 
resistant to disease, especially pineapple blighi With this in view, 
six hundred and ninety-three crosses were made last year. The seeds 
obtained from these gave two hundred and fifty-nine seedlings, most 
of them of remarkable vigor. They are now growing in the Depart- 
ment greenhouses. Four hundred and sixty-five more crosses were 
made this spring. 

PEARS. 

In pear growing it is very important to obtain sorts preserving the 
great vegetative vigor and disease resistance of the Oriental with 
the high quality of fruit of the European varieties. One hundred 
and sixteen crosses have been made with this in view, resulting in 
fifty-three fruits, from which a large number of seedlings is expected. 



Similar lines of work are also under way in breeding wheats for 
resistance to rust, for greater productiveness, and for other desirable 
qualities. The remarkable results obtained abroad with cereals sug- 
gest the great improvements that may be confidently expected from 
careful breeding. 

It is not possible to present in this paper the work accomplished 
in the breeding and selection experiments with a number of other 
crops. Sufficient has been given, however, to show the nature of the 
work and the promise it gives of securing fruits and grains of high 
quality and productiveness, resistant to disease, hardier, and better 
adapted to the conditions under which they must be cultivated. 
That these expectations are well founded is shown by the remarkable 
results already obtained where careful work has been done. Many 
experiment station workers and others have entered into active coop- 
eration with the Division along these lines, and such united effort 
should result in greatly increasing the value and productiveness of 
our agricultural crops. 



MILLETS. 

By Thomas A. Williams, 
Assistant in Division of Agrostology. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The term ' ' millet " is used in a general way to designate certain cereal 
and forage grasses, the seeds of which are usually small as compared 
with other cereals, such as oats, wheat, and barley. In some parts of 
the world certain of the sorghums are included under this name, while 
in this country several grasses of quite different character are locally 
called millets. 

Millets are important both as forage plants and as a source of food 
for man. In nearly all parts of the world they take a prominent 
place among forage crops, and it is estimated that they feed about 
one-third of the inhabitants of the globe. Between 35,000,000 and 
40,000,000 acres of millets are grown annually in India, and Japan 
alone uses about 35,000,000 bushels of seed each year for human food. 
Corea, China, and other Asiatic countries also use enormous quanti- 
ties for this purpose. 

PLACE OF MILLETS ON THE FARM. 

On the whole, it is doubtful if there are many sections in this coun- 
try where millets should be made a primary crop. Their place is 
rather that of a supplementary one — a "catch crop," when the corn 
has been "hailed out;" a substitute for corn where that crop is not 
easily grown; a crop to be grown on a piece of land that might other- 
wise lie idle; a readily available crop for use in short rotations; an 
excellent thing to grow on foul land to get rid of weeds, giving prac- 
tically the same -results as fallowing, or summer cultivation, and in 
addition a crop of forage; a supplement to-the regular or permanent 
pastures and meadows. It is in such ways that the millets are most 
valuable on the average farm, and such is the place they should be 
given in American agriculture. 

GROUPS OF THE CULTIVATED VARIETIES. 

In this paper the discussion is limited principally to varieties of 
recognized merit already on the market, leaving new and untried sorts 
until such a time as experimentation will have demonstrated their 
value for general cultivation. It is not desirable to consider at length 
the relative merits of the various trade names used by seedsmen in 

867 



268 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

placing their millets on the market. As far as possible these names 
have been grouped as synonyms under the most generally accepted 
titles of the various standard varieties. 

But. little has been done in the really scientific development of varie- 
ties. In a few instances careful selection has been practiced, but as a 
rule the so-called new varieties on the market are only local variations 
of well-known sorts. During recent years a number of the experi- 
ment stations have been paying special attention to the introduction 
and testing of foreign millets, and the Department of Agriculture has 
distributed seed of a number of foreign sorts to the various State 
experiment stations and to private individuals in different parts of the 
country. Out of the many kinds thus introduced and tested some 
are giving promise of value for cultivation, and there is no doubt 
that others could be crossed with some of the standard varieties in 
such a manner as to materially increase their value. 

With one or two exceptions the millets grown in the United States 
belong to the genera Chsetochloa and Panicum, and may be arranged 
into three groups. In the first group are those belonging to the genus 
Chsetochloa (formerly Setaria), with a compact, bristly, foxtail-like 
head, closely related botanically to the common foxtail grasses of the 
fields and waste places; this group, which may be termed the foxtail 
millets, includes such varieties as Common Millet, Hungarian, and 
others originating from the various species of Chsetochloa, chiefly 
G. italica and its var. germanica. A second group is composed of 
varieties derived from the common barnyard grass (Panicum crus- 
galli) and its allies (P. colonum, P. frumentaceum, etc.), distinguished 
by the dense paniculate heads so characteristic of barnyard grass; 
although extensively cultivated in parts of the Old World, the mil- 
lets of this group, Avhich may be designated the barnyard millets, 
have only recently come into prominence in American agriculture. 
The third group comprises millets with bushy heads, the seeds being 
produced at the ends of the comparatively long branches; this group 
includes the "common" millet of the Old World and the varieties 
derived from the same species (Panicum miliaceum), regarded by 
many as the true millets, as they undoubtedly are in fact; in the 
United States they are most generally known as the broom-corn mil- 
lets, which title has been adopted in this paper. 

Foxtail Millets, 
origin and extent op cultivation. 

The foxtail millets (GJuetochloa italica and var. germanica) are by 
far the most important group of millets grown in this country — prob- 
ably in the whole world. There is a difference of opinion as to the 
nativity of this species. Some writers regard it as a native of south- 
ern Europe; but although it has been cultivated there from the 
remotest period, there seems to be no good evidence of its being a 



MILLETS. 269 

native. Writers on Chinese economic plants give this as one of the 
five plants sown each year by the Emperor in a public ceremony, in 
accordance with the command given by Chin-nong, 2700 B. G. These 
plants are all regarded by the Chinese as natives of that country. 
The species seems to occur in the wild state in Japan. De Candolle, 
the leading authority on the "Origin of cultivated plants,'.' after an 
extended discussion of all the evidence obtainable, concludes as 
follows: 

The sum of historic, philological,, and botanical data makes me think that the 
species existed before all cultivation, thousands of years ago, in China, Japan, 
and tbe Indian archipelago. Its cultivation must have early spread toward the 
West, since we know Sanskrit names, but it does not seem to have been known in 
Syria, Arabia, and Greece, and it is probably through Russia and Austria that it 
early arrived aniong the lake dwellers of the stone age in Switzerland. 

According to Hackel, the . common weedy grass known as Green 
Foxtail (ChmtocMoa viridis) is to be regarded as the probable original 
form of the cultivated foxtail millets. 

In some of their many varieties foxtail millets have long held an 
important place among the plants cultivated over large portions of 
Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. There is much doubt as to the 
exact time and manner of the introduction of these millets into this 
country. The opinion prevails that the variety known as Common 
Millet was the first to be introduced, probably near the close of the 
last century. Hungarian grass was certainly grown in this country 
as early as 1830, and was probably introduced l some time before that 
d ate. Both the German and Japanese millets are of later introduction. 

At the present time these millets are more or less extensively grown 
throughout temperate Europe, a large part of India, China, Japan, 
northern Africa, the United States, and Canada. In the United States 
their cultivation is most general in the middle West, although they 
are grown more or less throughout the country. In parts of the South 
they are replaced to some extent by sorghum,' while in the North the 
broom-corn millets are sometimes grown in their stead, and of 
recent years the barnyard millets are gaining favor in some sections. 
Among the leading millet-growing States are Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, 
Texas, Nebraska, the Dakotas, Minnesota, Illinois, and Tennessee. 

In this country the foxtail millets are grown almost exclusively 
for forage, but in other parts of the world they are used for human 
food; in early times, they were probably much more extensively 
used for this purpose than at present. Seed of this species has been 
found in such abundance in the remains of the lake dwellings of 
Switzerland as to indicate that it was in common use during the stone 
age in central and southern Europe. Long before the Christian era, 
at least as early as 2700 B. C, it fdrmed one of the chief sources of 
food in China, and is still extensively used for this purpose, not only 

'Bui. 117, Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta., pp. 23, 24 (1894). 



270 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

in China, but also in Corea, Japan, the East Indies, and Trans- 
Caucasia. Church 1 says it is grown in India chiefly as an "interme- 
diate or subordinate " crop, and is largely used as human food in 
certain parts of the country. He further says, "It is generally 
regarded as nutritious and digestible, but in some places it is con- 
sidered to be rather heating. " It is usually prepared by parching or 
boiling, and is eaten alone, or may be mixed with milk and sugar, 
forming a mixture known among the natives as "sir." At the pres- 
ent time it is widely grown for forage in foreign countries, particu- 
larly in central Europe and in parts of India. 

HABIT AND CONDITIONS OF GROWTH. 

The foxtail hiillets delight in rich, warm, loamy soils, and will not 
thrive in soils that are poor and thin. This is particularly the case 
with the coarser varieties like German Millet. Common Millet and 
Hungarian usually give better results under adverse conditions of soil 
and climate than the other varieties commonly grown in this country. 
The foxtail millets are strong, rapid growers, and draw nourishment 
largely from the surface soil. The great mass of strong, fibrous roots 
have a beneficial effect on the physical condition of the soil, particu- 
larly in the case of lands recently brought under the plow. A crop 
of millet on new "breaking" aids materially in subduing the land 
and in preparing it for the succeeding crop. In many localities, 
notably in the West, millet is an excellent crop to precede corn. In 
the South the foxtail millets are regarded as well adapted to the 
upland soils of the cotton regions, Common Millet being best for the 
light soils and German Millet for low, heavy soils. 

The foxtail millets not only endure excessive heat and sunlight 
well, but make very rapid growth if the supply of moisture is not too 
limited. They are, however, very susceptible to cold, particularly 
when the plants are young. The length of time required to reach 
maturity varies a great deal, according to the variety and the soil and 
climatic conditions, the commonly grown varieties ordinarily being 
ready to cut for hay in from fifty to eighty days from date of sowing, 
and maturing seed in from ten to fifteen or twenty days later. Under 
very favorable circumstances some of the varieties may be in condi- 
tion to cut for forage within a month or six weeks from time of 
seeding. 

VARIETIES. 

The various foxtail millets commonly found on the market in the 
United States may be grouped under the following standard varieties: 

(1) Common Millet (Chcetochloa italica). 

(2) German Millet (Chcetochloa italica). 

(3) Golden Wonder Millet {Chcetochloa italica). 

(4) Hungarian Millet (Chaitochloa italica var. germanica). 



1 Food Grains of India, p. 55. 



MILLETS. 271 

Several Seed firms are also offering "Japanese millets;" but differ- 
ent sorts are offered under practically the same name, and sometimes 
the seed sent out is apparently only that of one of the common varie- 
ties, so that it is scarcely possible to make a suitable classification at 
the present time. The two Japanese sorts which have received wid- 
est distribution are mentioned in the pages following in connection 
with certain standard sorts with which they seem most closely asso- 
ciated. 

Seed of the Corean millets has not yet been placed on the general 
market, but as some of the forms give promise of much value for cul- 
tivation in this cou«try they are given a place in this discussion. 

Common MUM,. (PI. XVI, fig. 1.) 

Synonyms: Small Millet (Texas), Calif ornian Millet (Salzer, Vilmorin), Dakota 
Millet (in part, of some seedsmen), Early Harvest Millet or Missouri Millet 
(at least in part), American Millet (in part). 

Stems slender, several to many from the same root, usually simple or unbranched, 
about 3 feet in height; leaves of medium width (one-fourth to one-half inch), 
rather soft; heads nodding, small to medium-sized (usually 3 to 6 inches in 
length), slender, composed of small subdivisions, which are compactly 
arranged toward the tapering apex, but become loose below, giving the head 
an irregular appearance at the base; beards of medium length, of ten tinged 
with purple or brown at maturity; chaff pale or yellowish; "seed" large, 
yellow, oval. 

Common Millet was one of the first varieties to be introduced and 
to come into general cultivation in the United States, but there seems 
to be no record of the exact date of its introduction. At the present 
time it is the most widely cultivated of the foxtail millets in this 
country. It is the hardiest of the commonly grown varieties, endur- 
ing drought the best and giving better returns on poor soils. By most 
feeders the hay from this variety is preferred to that from others on 
account of its finer quality, there "being less loss in feeding it. 
Although German Millet will usually out-yield Common Millet under 
"favorable conditions of soil and moisture, the latter will, one year 
with another, afford more forage of a finer quality in most localities in 
the Northern States. 

Common Millet is one of the earliest of the foxtail millets, and is the 
most constant in its characters. Although this variety seems to have 
been long known in Europe, its cultivation is by no means so general 
there as in the United States ; indeed, the variety seems to have jeached 
its perfection in this country, and is being taken back to the old coun- 
try under such names as "American Millet," "Calif ornian Millet" 
(Moha Vert de Calif ornie, Vilmorin), etc. 

As a rule, seed sold in our markets under the name of Common 
Millet is true to name. Occasionally seed of this variety is sold as 
German Millet, and much of the "Dakota Millet " is nothing but Com- 
mon Millet, although most of it is probably an early strain of German 
Millet, as stated elsewhere. 



272 



YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



By some Early Harvest or Missouri Millet (PI. XVI, fig. 2) is regarded 
as a distinct variety, mainly because of its earliness and short, com- 
pact heads. Professor Crozier inclines to this opinion and regards 
Hungarian as the probable ancestor, although the introducers claim 
the variety to be a cross between Golden Wonder and Broom-corn 
millets, which can scarcely be the case. Professor Chilcott. regards 

it. as only a variation of Com- 
mon Millet. Plants from seed 
obtained under this name from 
the introducers in 1897 are al- 
most exactly like Common Mil- 
let from the same source, and 
plainly belong to that variety. 

German Millet. (PI. XVI, fig. 3, 
and PI. XVII, fig. 3; and fig. 83. ) 

Synonyms: Southern Millet, Ameri- 
can Millet (in part), Golden 
Millet, Mammoth Millet, Bengal 
Grass, Dakota Millet (for the 
most part). 

Stems robust, usually single, un- 
branched, often reaching 4 or 5 
feet in height; leaves broad, 
rather stiff and harsh; heads 
large (about 6 to 8 inches long 
by an inch or more wide), usu- 
ally nodding, the subdivisions 
hardly as conspicuous as in 
Golden Wonder Millet and more 
closely crowded, rounded at the 
ends or tapering somewhat, 
particularly toward the base; 
beards conspicuous, usually 
with a purplish tinge; "seed" 
small, rounded, yellow or gol- 
den. 

This variety has been in gen- 
eral cultivation in the South 
seed '" since the early seventies, but 

was introduced into the United States many years earlier. Professor 
Crozier regards the East Indies as the most probable source of its intro- 
duction into the United States, and remarks that "the name Bengal 
Grass, by which it was first known in this country, suggests such an 
origin." Flint, on the contrary, makes the statement that it was first 
brought to the United States from Europe. However this may be, it 
seems that the seed used in Tennessee, where this variety first came 
into real prominence, was brought from France in the early sixties, 
and since that time this has been the leading millet sown in the South. 




Pig. 83.— German Millet: a and b, two views of the 
spikelet with its cluster of three "beards;" c. 



yearbook U. S. Dept of Agriculture, 1898. 



Plate XVI. 




Millets. 

I, Common Millet; 2. Karly Harvest Millet; :i, (iei-uian Millet; 1, (iolrlen Wonder Millet. 
B, Hungarian Millet; (i. Japanese Foxtail Millet. 



Yeaibook U. S. Dept. nf Agriculture, 1898 



Plate XV||. 





i-ig. 1.— New Siberian Millet. 



F'Q. 2.- Japanese Bahnyard Millet. 




Fig. 3.— German Millet Growing in the Grass Garden of the Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



MILLETS. 



273 



German Millet makes a heavy yield of forage under favorable con- 
ditions, but does not stand drought as well as the smaller varieties, 
such as Common Millet and Hungarian. The hay is coarser and less 
highly valued than that from the smaller millets, but when the forage 
can be fed in the green state this will be found to be an excellent 
variety to grow, on account of the heavy yield. 

German Millet is the latest of the varieties commonly grown here, 
and is exceedingly variable in its appearance and habit of growth. 
It is very seldom that one sees a field that is uniform in character. 
Many, perhaps most, of the heads may be typical of the variety, but 
usually there will be many others scarcely to be distinguished from' 
Common Millet or other standard varieties. Typical German Millet 
brought from the South soon becomes very much modified when 
grown in the North. Thus, in a northern strain of German Millet 
sold as "Dakota Millet" or "Dakota-grown German Millet" the 
"seed" is larger and more oval in shape than in the typical southern 
form; the plants are earlier and hardier, and the yield of forage is 
usually better, at least in northern localities. 

Some of the so-called Japanese millets now on the market belong to 
the German Millet type, as, for example, "Breck's Japanese Millet," 
which is scarcely distinguishable from the common southern German 

Millet. 

Golden Wonder Millet, (PI. XVI, fig. 4.) 

Synonyms: Sometimes confused with the so-called Golden (German) millets. 
Stems robust, usually single, unbranched, sometimes reaching 5 or 6 feet in 
height; leaves broad and coarse but of rather soft texture; heads large (6 to 
14 inches long and one-half to 1* inches wide), drooping, with large, closely 
flowered subdivisions, tapering at both ends, but more conspicuously above; 
beards inconspicuous; chaff yellowish, rarely purplish; "seed" small, yellow- 
ish, rounded. Plant pale green in color, the head bscoming yellow or some, 
times purplish as it approaches maturity. 
According to Professor Crozier, 1 "this variety originated in Minne- 
sota in 1884 and was first offered to the public four years later." Its 
introducers claimed it to be "an artificial cross produced by one of 
their growers between Hungarian grass and German Millet." It 
shows undoubted relationship to German Millet in its large head, 
coarse leaves, and robust, simple stems, but there is no evidence of 
Hungarian parentage in any of its prominent characters. While 
such a cross is no doubt possible, it would seem that Hungarian char- 
acters would enter more strongly into those of the offspring. 

In yield of seed Golden Wonder leads all the other varieties of fox- 
tail millets. The forage is coarse, like that from German Millet, and 
the yield heavy under favorable conditions, but Golden Wonder is 
even more susceptible to drought than German Millet, and is there- 
fore less generally grown than any other of th e Avell-established 

iBul. 117, Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta., p. 41 (1894). 
2 A98 18 



274 YEARBOOK OE THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

varieties. At the present time it is most extensively cultivated in 1 ho 
States along the upper Mississippi and lower Missouri valleys. Much 
of the seed sold under this title is untrue to name. German Millet is 
perhaps oftener sold as Golden Wonder than any other variety. 

There is an Italian variety of millet sold by Vilmoriu, of Paris, 
which is very much like Golden Wonder in size, appearance, and 
time of ripening, and also a Japanese variety sold by Gregory & Son 
which is perhaps scarcely to bo distinguished from it, although when 
grown under similar conditions the heads of the Japanese form are 
usually rather smaller and moro symmetrical, more closely flowered, 
and the "seeds" are rounder and of a deeper yellow. 

Hungarian Millet. (PI. XVI, fig. o.) 

Synonyms: Hungarian Honey, Hungarian Grass, German Millet (in the Old 
World and in small part in this country). 

Stems rather slender, clustered, branching, 3 to 4 feet high; leaves abundant, 
rather narrow, upright, typically bright green: heads erect or nodding slightly 
at maturity, small to medium sized (3 to C inches long) , compactly flowered, 
tapering quite regularly at both ends; beards prominent, usually purplish or 
brownish; chaff tinged more or less with purple; "seed" large, oval, varying 
from yellowish to purple brown, and variously mottled. In the more typical 
plants the percentage of dark teed is high. There is an opinion prevailing 
among seedsmen and others that dark-colored seed is more likely to be better 
matured than the lighter colored anil that it will develop into stronger plants. 

Hungarian seems to have been first brought into the United States 
soon after the introduction of Common Millet. According to Profes- 
sor Crazier, 1 the time of its (Hungarian) first introduction into the 
United States is unknown, but as early as 1830, and probably much 
earlier, it was in cultivation here. It did not gain much prominence 
as a forage crop, however, until about 1855-5G, or a couple of years 
after the seed was introduced from France and distributed by the 
Patent Office. It was sent out under the name of "Moha de Ilon- 
grie," which had been given to it by the French, and our own com- 
mon names of Hungarian Grass and Hungarian Millet probably came 
from that. 

This millet first came into general cultivation in the Middle West. 
In Iowa it won favor at once, and as early as 1850 was a most valuable 
forage crop, particularly on recently broken land. At the present 
time it is more widely grown in the North than in the South. By 
most farmers it is placed next to Common Millet as a hay crop, the 
quality being regarded as better than German Millet. 

Hungarian does not resist drought as well as Common Millet, but 
with favorable conditions of soil and moisture it will usually give a 
somewhat heavier yield. One reason why Hungarian has not found 
more favor with farmers generally is that it shows a greater tendency 
than other common varieties to persist in the soil when allowed to 



'Bui. 117, Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta., p. 'iQ> (189-1). 



MILLETS. 275 

mature seed before harvesting. In portions of the Missouri Valley- 
region, as in eastern Nebraska and Iowa, this millet received a great 
deal of attention from farmers during the seventies, and fine crops of 
hay and seed were obtained, but its tendency to "volunteer" brought 
it into more or less disfavor, and it is now less commonly grown than 
either Common Millet or German Millet. . It seldom becomes trouble- 
some, however, except on light, sandy soils or land recently brought 
into cultivation. On moist, heavy soils or in regions where there is a 
great deal of wet weather during the fall and winter months it is not 
likely to make much volunteer growth. 

A millet has been recently placed on the market by a Northwestern 
seed firm under the name of "New Siberian Millet" (PL XVII, fig. 1), 
which, although regarded by some as but a form of Hungarian, seems 
to possess characters which, if constant, will entitle it to rank as a 
distinct cultivated variety. At the South Dakota experiment station 
it was regarded as the best millet grown during the season of 181)7. 
The plants are larger than Common Millet, Avith a habit of growth, 
beard, and chaff much like Hungarian; heads drooping, larger than 
in either Common Millet or Hungarian, tapering at both ends, with 
rather conspicuous, closely flowered subdivisions; "seed" of about 
the same size and shape as Common Millet and Hungarian, orange 

colored. " 

Japanese Foxtail Millets. (PI. XVI, fig. 6.) 

Under the name of "Japanese Millet" seVeral different kinds of 
foxtail millets are being grown in various parts of the country. Some 
of these are apparently identical with varieties already grown in this 
country, and others are so closely allied that further study is neces- 
sary before they can bo given a place either as distinct varieties or 
as forms of better known sorts. As illustrating this point, such cases 
may be cited as " Breck's Japanese Millet," mentioned under the dis- 
cussion of German Millet, and Gregory's "Japanese Millet," noted 
under the head of Golden Wonder Millet. Several sorts imported 
from Japan by Professor Brooks seem more distinct as cultivated 
varieties, and will no doubt soon be given appropriate trade names. 

As a rule these Japanese millets are comparatively large forms, 
giving heavy yields of s-eed or forage under favorable conditions, but 
with little ability to withstand drought, succumbing quicker than 
any of the commonly grown sorts. Some of them, however, have 
given good results in certain localities, and it is not unlikely that they 
may ultimately prove to be desirable for general cultivation, or valu- 
able sorts may be developed from them by selection and crossing. 

Corean Foxtail Millets. 

Several millets recently introduced from Corea have been grown at 
some of the State experiment stations and on the experimental 
grounds of the Department of Agriculture at Washington, D. C. 
These varieties are seemingly quite different from those already 



276 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



grown in this country, and deserve further experimentation. Two 
of the varieties seem particularly hardy in the District of Columbia. 
Both have clustered, branching stems. In one (fig. 81) the head is 
slender, nearly cylindrical, erect or somewhat nodding; beards very 
long and conspicuous; chaff green or purplish; "seed" green or pur- 
plish, with quite conspicuous transverse Avrinkles, rather pointed at 
the ends, medium sized. In the other the head is larger, quite erect 
at first, but nodding slightly after a time, conspicuously bearded, 

tapering at each end, com- 
posed of narrow, rather con- 
spicuous subdivisions; chaff 
green or purple; "seed'' 
much as in the preceding, 
but less often dark color- 
ed, and possibly averag- 
ing narrower and slightly 
smaller. 

Both these varieties " vol- 
unteer" quite readily, the 
larger perhaps showing the 
greater tendency to do so. 

Barnyard Millets. 

origin and extent of culti- 
VATION. 



The term " Barnyard Mil- 
let" was first applied to 
the cultivated varieties of 
the cosmopolitan barnyard 
grass (Panicum crus-cjalli) 
by Prof. W. P. Brooks in 
189G. l In the present paper 
the application has been ex- 
tended so as to include not 
only all the varieties derived 
from Panicum crus-galli but 
also those belonging to Pani- 
cum colonum, P. frumenta- 
ceum, and other species of 
Panicum with the same type of inflorescence and habit of growth. 

The true barnyard grass is. very widely distributed and varies 
exceedingly in its botanical characters. It occurs throughout the 
United States in fields and waste places, usually as a coarse-growing 
plant, with broad leaves and widely spreading stems, producing large 
irregular "heads" of flowers and seeds. There is much variation 




Fio. 84.— Corean Foxtail Millet. 



'Eighth Ann. Kep. Mass. (Hatch) Agr. Exp. Sta., p. 31. 



MILLETS. 277 

in the habit of growth, however, some of the forms having upright 
stems which branch but little. There is also much variation in the 
color of the "heads" and in the bearded character of the chaff 
(glumes), the color varying from green to pm-ple-brown and the glumes 
strongly bearded or with the beards nearly or quite wanting (var. 
muticum). 

In many parts of the Old World barnyard grass is not only grown 
for forage but also as food for man. Thus, in India, under the name 
of "bharti," it is grown as a forage crop and is also often harvested 
as a grain, the seed being used as food by the poorer classes in the 
same way as that of "Shama" Millet (Panicum colonum) and of 
"Sanwa" Millet (P. frumentaceum), both of which are extensively 
grown for this purpose in parts of Asia. Speaking of the cultivation 
of Panicum frumentaceum in Japan, where it is known as "Hie," 
Professor Georgeson says "this is a very common crop in all parts of 
Japan, especially in the hilly districts, where there is no suitable rice 
land, or where water is not available for irrigation. It is grown 
entirely for its seed, which when thrashed out and cleaned is ground 
and used for food, being eaten mostly as a porridge." * 

VARIETIES. 

True Barnyard Millets. (PI. XVII, fig. 2; and fig. 85.) 

These are undoubtedly the most valuable varieties of this group for 
cultivation in this country. The varieties that give best results under 
cultivation are those with upright habit of growth, a close "head," 
and a tendency to produce a large quantity of leaves. Of the varieties 
at present grown in the United States, one of the recently imported 
Japanese sorts is probably the most promising. It is a coarse-growing 
form with a heavy leafage and compact beardless heads (PI. XVII, 
fig. 2). This variety has been thoroughly tested by Professor Brooks 
at the Massachusetts experiment station, and is highly recommended 
by him as a forage crop. It matures a crop of hay in about two and 
one-half months. 

There are several valuable varieties in various parts of our own 
country, the most notable being those found in prairie regions of the 
West and Northwest and the "Ankee" grass (fig. 85) of the Southwest. 
In the artesian- well region of the Dakotas there are wild forms of 
barnyard grass that seem particularly well adapted to the conditions 
that prevail in the vicinity of the flowing. wells, especially where the 
soil has been watered too freely. In many places considerable areas 
about the ponds and along the ditches are covered each season with a 
growth from 3 to 6 feet high. Similar areas may be seen elsewhere in 
the West and Northwest in irrigated regions, and they are yearly 
becoming more common. In the Southwestern part of the United 

1 Bui. 117, Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta., p. 47. 



278 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



States there is a large, thrifty form of this grass, which makes a very 
fine growth in lowlands and swampy places during the wet season. 
It is known to the Mohave Indians as "Ankee," and its seed is said 
to he extensively used by them as food. 

On the experimental grounds of the Department of Agriculture at 
Washington, 1). C, "Ankee" makes a magnificent growth, reaching 
a height of 7 feet or more and maintaining a very characteristic upright 
habit of growth. It has also made luxuriant growth on the grounds of 
the station at Knoxville, Tenn., and at the Cornell, Xew York, Massa- 
chusetts (Hatch), and Michi- 
gan stations. It is one of the 
most promising of the inland 
forms of the species, and should 
be given an extended trial, 
particularly in sections where 
high temperatures prevail. 

Professor Brooks, of the 
Massachusetts station, consid- 
ers "Ankee" inferior to Japa- 
nese Barnyard Millet for a fod- 
der crop for that locality on 
account of its lateness and 
the coarseness of the forage. 
"Ankee " grass is considerably 
later than the common forms 
of the species. Professor 
Brooks reported that plants 
from seed sown on May -A failed 
to reach maturity, and at the 
Michigan station the same was 
found to bo true of plants sown 
on May 20. This variety re- 
quires four months or more to 
mature seed. 

In addition to the above- 
mentioned inland forms, there 
are coastal forms growing in 
brackish marshes and mead- 
ows along the seacoast, possessing much value for forage. One of 
these is quite different in appearance from all other forms of barn- 
yard grass, and is probably specifically distinct. The lower leaf 
sheaths are very hairy and the "heads" are conspicuously boarded. 
The plants attain a height of from 3 to G feet. This grass may well 
be given a trial on saline soil in inland regions. 

Barnyard Millet does not endure drought well, being more suscep- 
tible than the common sorts, and it can not be profitably grown on 




Fir:. 85.— "Ankoo " Millot : a and 6, two views of the 
spikelet; c and <(, two views of the "seed." 



MILLETS. 



279 



poor soils. On the rich prairies of the West and Northwest heavy 
yields may be obtained where the supply of moisture is sufficient, as 
when under irrigation. It seems to thrive better on the alkali soil so 
common in some parts of the West than either Common or German 
Millet. In some parts of the South, particularly in the lower Missis- 
sippi Valley, it makes a fine 
yield of hay, sometimes af- 
fording two cuttings a season, 
and, although an annual, it 
continues to occupy the land 
year after year through the 
great readiness with which it 
reseeds itself. In these locali- 
ties it furnishes a large pro- 
portion of the volunteer hay 
crop and is also used for 
soiling. 

Under average conditions 
of moisture and fertility of 
the soil, Barnyard Millet is 
one of the most productive of 
the annual hay grasses. At 
the Massachusetts (Hatch) 
experiment station Professor 
Brooks has obtained a yield 
of 12 to 18 tons of fresh or 4 
to 6 tons of cured forage per 
acre. He finds that under the 
conditions prevailing for the 
past few years this millet has 
outyielded all others grown 
on the station grounds. He 
suggests that by seeding early 
in May and cutting as soon as 
the plants come into bloom a 
second crop may be obtained 
and the yield of forage per 
acre be materially increased. The yield of seed from this millet com- 
pares favorably with that of other varieties, usually ranging from 40 
to 60 bushels per acre. The seed is not as heavy as that of the broom- 
corn and foxtail millets, weighing but 35 pounds per bushel. 

Shama Millet or Jungle Rice. (Fig. 86.) 

Shama Millet (Panicum colonum) is a grass with much the appear- 
ance of Barnyard Millet, but is smaller in every way, with a simpler 
inflorescence or "head." It is common in the tropical and subtropical 




Fig. 86.— Shama Millet: a, 6, c, d, different views of 
the spikolet and glumes, or chaff; e, f, two views of 
the' 



280 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

regions of the Old World, where it is a native, and is widely intro- 
duced into the other warm regions of the globe. In the United States 
it occurs chiefly in waste places along roadsides and ditches, mostly in 
the South. It is quite abundant in parts of the Southwest and also 
in Mexico. 

In India Shama Millet is one of the most valuable forage crops, and 
the seeds are used for human food. According to Church 1 "this millet 
is a poor food; it is used in some places by a considerable number of 
laborers as a usual article of diet." Duthie 3 says a food preparation 
called "khir" is made by boiling the grain in milk, and is eaten by 
the Hindoos on fast days. He also mentions another method of pre- 
paring the seed in which it is ground and made into a paste and eaten 
with milk. The seeds of this grass are also said to be used by the 
Indians in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. In many of the 
tropical regions it is regarded as a valuable forage plant, and is often 
extensively grown for this purpose. Both Duthie and Church give it 
a prominent place among the fodder-producing plants of India, in the 
northern part of which it is in common use. 

In the Southeastern United States this grass thrives on rich, moist 
soil and, in places, affords considerable forage of excellent quality, 
but little effort has been made to cultivate it. Several attempts to 
grow it in the North have met with poor success. At the Cornell 
experiment station it made a fair showing, "resembling poor speci- 
mens of Barnyard Millet, reaching about a foot in height." 

Sanwa Millet. 

Sanwa Millet (Panicum frumentaceum) is very closely allied to the 
true barnyard grass, and, like it, is a coarse-growing plant, under 
favorable conditions yielding a large amount of herbage. Although 
extensively grown in other parts of the world, notably in southern and 
eastern Asia, but little attention has been given to it in the United 
States, and the few experiments made with it have not given encour- 
aging results, except, perhaps, in the South. Professor Church, 3 
in speaking of the cultivation and value of this grass in India, 
says "Sanwa is the quickest growing of all the millets; the har- 
vest may take place within six weeks of the sowing. "When it is 
sown in April or May, it is cut in June and July; the June sowing 
is ready in August," and, further, "Sanwa does not take a high place 
among the millets. It is either boiled as rice or boiled with milk and 
eaten with sugar, or it is parched." The stems and leaves are used 
for forage. In Japan the grass is said to make an excellent growth 
and afford large yields, though it is not grown for forage to any 
extent. 

1 Food Grains of India, p. 50. * 

2 Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind., 6(1)7. 
3 Food Grains of India, p. 49. 



MILLETS. 



281 



The various attempts to grow this millet in the United States have 
met with only limited success. At the Louisiana experiment station 
it is reported as doing " excellently," but its cultivation does not seem 
to have been undertaken to any great extent there. At the United 
States grass station, Knoxville, Tenn., the millet has made a fairly 
good showing. Plants from seed sown on May 7 reached a height of 
3 feet 'by the middle of 
July and matured seed by 
August 23. The yield 
and quality of forage was 
good. It proved a failure 
at the Kansas experi- 
ment station owing to 
the hot, dry summers. 
Further experimentation 
may prove it to be of 
some value for some sec- 
tions of the South. 

Broom-corn Millets. 

origin and extent of cul- 
tivation. 

In the United States the 
term "Broom-corn Mil- 
let " is at the present time 
generally applied to this 
Old- World grass (Pani- 
cuni miliaceum, fig. 87). 
It is the "common mil- 
let " of Europe, where it 
has been cultivated for 
centuries. A "millet," 
regarded by most author- 
ities as this species, is. 
mentioned by nearly all 
the early writers on culti- 
vated plants, such, for 
example, as Theophrastus, Hippocrates, and others, and seems to have 
been extensively used as a grain in remote times. According to Heer 
it was much used by the Swiss lake dwellers of the stone age, and 
De Candolle, on the authority of Regazzoni, says it has also been 
found in the remains of the lake dwellings of the Varese in Italy. 

The nativity of this millet is very uncertain. Although it grows 
spontaneously throughout southern Europe and many parts of Asia 
and Africa, there are apparently no really authentic cases of its hav- 
ing been found in a wild state. All the early records speak of it as 




Pia. 87.— Broom-corn Millet: a, b, and e, views of the spikelet 
and glumes, or chaff; d and e, two views of the "seed." 



282 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



being cultivated. Some writers, notably Liniueus, regard India as 
the original home of this millet; but De Candolle does not consider 
the records as at all conclusive and thinks that " its Egypto- Arabian 
origin is very probable." 

Church, in his "Food grains of India," says "it was early intro- 
duced and is largely cultivated in many parts of India." 

It is also extensively grown in China and Japan as well as through- 
out southern Europe and elsewhere in the Mediterranean regions and 
north to central Europe. Although introduced into the United States 
many years ago, it has never been extensively grown over any largo 

extent of territory, and at the 
present time is much less gener- 
ally grown than the foxtail mil- 
lets. It has not met with favor 
in the South, but in the North- 
west is valued highly because of 
its ability to mature a crop of 
seed in the short dry season so 
often prevailing in that region, 
thus serving to some extent as a 
substitute for corn. 

VARIETIES. 

The different cultivated varie- 
ties of Broom-corn Millet vary 
more or less in habit of growth 
and character of the panicle or 
"head," but the chief distinc- 
tion lies in the color assumed by 
the mature seed. Three rather 
distinct types maybe recognized, 
white, yellow, and red. These 
may intergrade more or less. 
The red sometimes becomes a 
very dark brown or almost black, 
and the "Millet noir ou gris" (black or gray millet) sold by Vilmorin, 
of Paris, France, gets its dark-gray appearance through the seed being 
marked with dark stripes on a lighter ground color. 

The general color of the growing plant varies considerably in the 
different varieties. Plants from the yellow-seeded varieties are 
usually light green in color, while those from the red-seeded sorts are 
more often tinged with red, usually in proportion as the seed is light 
or dark red. Thus, plants of a very dark-red-seeded Japanese 
variety grown the past season maintained a decided reddish-purple 
tinge throughout the entire period of growth, the color being most 
pronounced in the young plants, fading out as they became older, and 




Japanese Broom-corn Millet. 



MILLETS. 283 

deepening again in the panicle as the plants approached maturity. 
However, some of the white-seeded varieties may often become more 
or less tinged, a3 in the case of the variety sold as White French 
Millet. By far the greater number of the varieties offered in the 
market by seedsmen in this country and the varieties most widely 
grown for forage belong to the group with yellowish seed. Such 
varieties are the Manitoba, Californian Beauty, French, Turkish", and 
Broom-corn, or Hog millets. There seems to be little if any difference 
between these so-called varieties, either in appearance or value. Of 
the white-seeded sorts the most frequently grown are ' ' White French," 
"Chinese," or "Chinese White," and "Japanese White." The 
white-seeded varieties seem to bo more robust growers, as a usual 
thing, than either the yellow or the red-seeded ones, the most pro- 
ductive being the Japanese White. There are but two of the darker 
or red-seeded varieties that have come into much prominence in this 
country. They are the ' ' Red French " and ' ' Japanese Red " (fig. 88). 
The large coarse-growing varieties are valuable for soiling and may 
be used advantageously in the silo where corn and the heavier-yielding 
silage ci'ops can not be successfully grown or when for any reason 
these crops are destroyed. The forage does not appear to have the 
laxative and diuretic action upon the animals eating it produced by 
the foxtail millets, and there are no harsh, irritating beards. How- 
ever, objections have been made to it on account of the abundant 
growth of stiff hairs on the leaves and stems. The yield of forage ia, 
on the average, less than may be obtained from the other millets, but 
on account of the relatively short season l-equired for its development 
Broom-corn Millet may often produce a crop when the others would 
not. The yield of seed is large in proportion to the size of the plant, 
50 to 60 bushels per acre being frequently reported from the North- 
west. 

CULTUKE OF MILLETS. - 

PREPARATION OF THE SOIL. 

For this crop a fertile, mellow soil is preferable. Loams with but 
little clay and not too much sand give the best results. Heavy clay 
soils require considerable working in order to get them into proper 
condition. For spring sowing the land may be plowed in the same 
manner and at about the same time, or perhaps a little later, as for a 
crop of corn. 

Millets draw their nourishment largely from the surface soil; hence, 
the supply of plant food should be concentrated in the upper layers 
of the soil and should be in forms readily available to the plant. If 
the surface soil does not already contain sufficient available plant 
food, this should be supplied in the form of barnyard manure or com- 
mercial fertilizers; those containing large percentages of nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid, and potash in readily available forms are most 



284 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

valuable. Among such are muriate of potash, ground bone, cotton- 
seed meal, and tankage. The barnyard manure may be scattered on 
the land and plowed under, but the others had best be sown on the 
land after it has been plowed and worked into the soil with a harrow. 
The amount and the exact character of the fertilizer required will, 
of course, depend upon the kind and condition of the soil. In most 
instances a mixture of muriate of potash, nitrate of soda, and ground 
bone or superphosphate will be found beneficial, and on some soils 
lime may be iised to advantage. A light dressing of barnyard manure 
supplemented by a light application of some such mixture as the 
above will usually give good results in the East, while on the rich 
prairies of the West little, if any, fertilizing will be found necessary. 
In case the land is cloddy, as frequently happens when much clay is 
present, the harrow or roller should be used to reduce the surface to 
a smooth condition. This is necessary, because it is of prime impor- 
tance that the seed bed should be in condition to insure prompt ger- 
mination and an even development of the grass; it also facilitates the 
harvesting operations. 

In the West it is the common practice to delay the preparation of 
the land for millet until near the close of corn planting. This allows 
the first growth of weeds to get well started, and the thorough plow- 
ing required in preparing the land leaves it so well cleaned that the 
millet easily keeps ahead of the weeds. If the land is very foul, the 
crop may be cut early, before the second growth of Aveeds goes to seed, 
and the land plowed again. Used in this way, millet is one of the 
best crops that can be grown for the purpose of ridding the land of 
weeds. 

When millet is sown late in the season as a catch crop or as a sec- 
ond crop after rye or some other early maturing crop has been har- 
vested, it is not always expedient to go to so much trouble in preparing 
the land. The seed may be sown on the freshly plowed stubble; or, 
if the land is quite loose and mellow, as is the case in parts of the 
West, the stubble maybe "disked" or gone over with cultivator to 
kill the weeds and the seed sown and harrowed in. This "disking" 
or cultivating is the most common practice when millet is used 
as a catch crop after the main crop of corn or small grain has been 
"hailed" out, as is not infrequently the case in the middle West. 
Another quite common practice is to sow on newly broken ground, 
either without any other preparation than simply breaking up the 
sod, or, as is more often the ease, the "breaking" is torn up with a 
"disk" or heavy iron -toothed harrow. 

SEEDING. 

When millet is handled as a primary crop, seeding is generally 
done during the latter part of May or early in June in the North, and 
of course correspondingly earlier in the South; or, if the moisture 



MILLETS. 285 

conditions are favorable, it may be delayed as late as August 1 in the 
latter region, the general rule being to sow millet as soon as the corn 
is planted. The foxtail and broom-corn millets and some of the 
barnyard millets are quite sensitive to cold, and hence seeding should 
be postponed until the ground has become thoroughly warm and dan- 
ger from protracted cold is past. It should, however, take place 
before the dry period of the summer begins. A succession of crops 
for soiling or silage can easily be obtained by sowing at periods of 
two or three weeks from May 10 to late in July. 

The seed may be sown broadcast or with a grain drill. Ordinarily, 
there is but little if any choice between the two methods when the 
crop is to be cut for hay, except that the drilled seed gives an evener 
stand and a little less seed is required. For a crop of grain or for 
soiling or ensilage drilling will generally give better results. On 
some soils it is a good plan, when growing for seed, to plant in drills 
far enough apart to allow cultivation to prevent packing of the soil 
and loss of moisture, particularly when barnyard millet is planted. 

The common practice is to sow from one-half to three-fourths of a 
bushel of seed of foxtail or broom-corn millets, or one-fourth to one- 
half of a bushel of barnyard millet per acre for a crop of hay and 
somewhat less for a crop of grain. Rich, well-prepared land will 
require less seed than that which is poor and thin ; and it is not 
necessary to use quite so much seed when the crop is to be ensiled or 
fed in the fresh state as when it is intended for hay. Thin seeding 
is likely to result, in coarse-stalked plants, which are not desirable 
for hay. Some of the varieties may require a smaller quantity of 
seed than others on account of the greater tendency of the plants to 
"stool;" but as the amount of "stooling" depends so much upon soil 
and climatic conditions, it is not usually safe to allow very much 
for it. 

HARVESTING. 

Cutting foxtail millets for hay should never be delayed until the 
seed has begun to ripen, particularly if it is to be fed to horses. On 
the other hand, it is best not to cut too early, as the hay is liable to 
have a more or less laxative effect upon the animals eating it. How- 
ever, it is better cut early than late. The hay may "be safely cut any 
time during the period from complete "heading out" to late bloom. 
Professor Chilcott, of the South Dakota experiment station, who has 
had much experience in growing and feeding this crop, says: 1 "The 
best time to cut millet for hay is when a majority of the heads have 
distinctly appeared." The tough, fibrous nature of the stems and the 
stiff beards on the heads of millet that has been allowed to approach 
too close to maturity detract much from the palatability of the hay, 
and, although something is gained from the seeds in the way of 

1 Bui. 51, S. Dak. Agr. Exp. Sta., p. 18 (1897). 



286 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

nutriment, enough is lost in palatahility and increased liber to more 
than make up for it. Moreover, the earlier cut hay is a much safer 
food for all kinds of stock. On account of the succulciiey of the 
stems and leaves the curing takes place rather slowly, and the seeds 
may make a great deal of development after the plants are cut; 
hence, if cutting is delayed until after the seeds are well formed, 
they will often develop sufficiently during the process of curing to 
germinate. Cutting for soiling or for the silo can be done a little 
later than for hay, but should take place before the seed has begun 
to ripen. 

For soiling or for early hay, barnyard millets may be cut as soon as 
the grass "heads out," or even before. The best quality of forage 
will be obtained by cutting during the blooming period, and when 
the crop is to be cured for hay this is the best time for harvesting. 
For silage the crop may be cut any time between "heading out" and 
the formation of the seed, preferably when most of the plants are in 
late bloom. The quality of the forage seems to deteriorate more 
rapidly with age than in the foxtail millets; hence, it is more imper- 
ative that cutting should be done while the plants are at their best. 

On account of the greater succulency of the stems, barnyard millet 
is more difficult to cure than either the broom-corn or the foxtail 
millets, but when properly cured the quality of the hay is better than 
that of the other millets, and in some localities the yield is said to be 
greater. 

One of the best methods of preserving this crop is by the use of 
the silo. Those who have tried this method have obtained excellent 
results. A fine quality of ensilage may be made by using barnyard 
millet and a leguminous crop like soy beans or clover. 

The broom-corn millets are not difficult to cure, and the same 
methods may be employed as for any coarse grass. What has been 
said regarding the time for cutting barnyard millet for various pur- 
poses applies as well to the millets of this group. The forage dete- 
riorates rapidly upon reaching maturity, and hence cutting should 
not be delayed too long. 

The common practice is to use a horse mower or a scythe when cut- 
ting for hay or soiling. In localities where curing takes place rapidly 
and there is little or no rain during haying time, the self-rake and 
the self-binder have been used with good results. The bunches left 
by the self-rake are allowed to lie without further attention until 
cured; or possibly, in the case of a heavy iyield, they may be turned 
over once or twice to facilitate drying. When the self-binder is used 
the bundles are loosely made, and are set up "two and two" in long 
shocks extending north and south, so that the bundles may get the 
full benefit of the sunshine. It is not often that this method can be 
employed in cutting for hay, but when practicable it saves much labor 
and leaves the hay in condition to be stored easily and well. Another 



MILLETS. 287 

way of using the self-binder is to allow the millet to be dropped 
unbound to the ground, the bunches then being handled as when the 
self-rake is used. 

One of the best methods of curing the hay is to allow the grass to lie 
in the swath until partially dry, then gather into cocks and let stand 
until thoroughly cured, after the manner of curing alfalfa and clover. 
Hay cured in this way is of better quality than that allowed to lie in 
the swath exposed to the sun until dry. 

Millets may be harvested for the seed in the same manner as small 
grain of any sort. One of the best ways is to cut with a self-binder, 
place the bundles "two and two" in long, narrow shocks, with the 
long diameter north and south, let stand until dry, and thrash from 
the shocks. This method is quite generally practiced where the mil- 
lets are most extensively grown for seed. It is possible that seed of a 
better quality may be obtained by stacking the millet before thrash- 
ing; but whether or not the gain would be sufficient to pay for the 
expense of stacking is doubtful. The crop should not be allowed to 
become too ripe before cutting, for the seed falls out badly during the 
process of curing and thrashing. Probably the best time for harvest- 
ing for a crop of seed is when the seed is in a "stiff dough." 

USES AND FEEDING VALUE. 

Millet is fed principally as a hay and soiling crop. As will be seen 
from the chemical anatyses, 1 the forage ranks well with that of other 
grasses in the nutritive content, and its palatability is about that of 
the average for the coarser sorts. For digestibility, millet forage 
compares favorably with that from other coarse grasses. 

Already widely grown as a hay crop, millets deserve more general 
use for soiling. They are particularly valuablo for feeding to dairy 
cattle, young stock, and sheep. There are many sections of the 
country Avhere this crop can be made to supplement the pastures iii 
such a way as to allow a material increase in the number of stock 
that can be kept on the farm. 

The use of millet as an element in annual pastures may well receive 
greater attention from farmers in sections where there is a general 
shortage of pasturage. Such varieties as Hungarian and Common 
Millet, which "sprout from the root" well, are best to sow for pas- 
turage. Some of the Corean varieties may prove valuable for this 
purpose. There are few of the annual grasses better adapted for use 
in pastures. Sheep and calves may be pastured on this crop with 
excellent results. It would be well to mix some other crop, like field 
peas, witty the millet, or to allow the animals to run on a field of clover, 
rape, or some such crop for a portion of the time. 

On account of the heavy yield of forage and the good quality of 

1 See Appendix. 



288 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

the product, millets are excellent grasses for use in the silo. Fre- 
quently a good crop of millet can be raised under conditions which 
would not admit of growing corn for ensiling, and in such instances 
it becomes < f especial value. 

The seed of the foxtail millets is widely used as food for fowls and 
birds, but is seldom fed to stock. It has, however, been used in 
feeding young stock, such as calves, with a fair degree of success. 
It should never be fed without first being ground or crushed, as 
otherwise only a portion is masticated and digested, and the rest is 
lost. The seed is an excellent food for laying hens. 

The seed of Broom-corn Millet has won greater favor in this coun- 
try as a food for stock than that of cither the foxtail or barnyard mil- 
lets. It has been fed to swine and young cattle with very satisfac- 
tory results, and is regarded as an excellent substitute for corn for 
use in preparing animals for the market. The name "Hog Millet," 
so commonly applied in the West and Northwest, was given because 
of the fact that the seed was thought to be so well adapted for feed- 
ing hogs. As with other millets, the seed makes a good poultry 
food, and it forms a large part of the various birdseed mixtures 
offered in the market. The broom-corn millets are better adapted 
for human food than any other millets grown in this country. 

COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBILITY. 

Compared with timothy, which is usually taken as the standard 
for grasses, the foxtail millets are somewhat deficient in the two 
most important constituents, fat and crude protein, but they contain 
about the same percentage of crude cellulose and a slightly higher 
percentage of extract matter. The percentages of digestibility are 
somewhat higher, however, in the millets, so that the actual feeding 
value differs but little, although the timothy is perhaps more pala- 
table. The seed contains almost as much fat and extract matter as 
shelled corn, a little more protein, and about four times as much 
crude cellulose. 

Hungarian hay is more digestible than corn stover, but rather less 
so than good fodder. Sixty-five per cent of the total dry matter is 
digestible, and of the fresh material G3 per cent. As the hay ordi- 
narily contains from 7 to 15 per cent of water, leaving a total amount 
of from 85 to 93 per cent of dry matter, or 85 to 93 pounds in each 100 
pounds of hay, it will be seen that the animal digests from 55^ to Com- 
pounds of the total dry matter in each 100 pounds of hay. 

Barnyard-millet hay contains rather more fat and crude protein 
and less extract matter than the foxtail millets, and about the same 
amount of crude cellulose. It also has a somewhat higher percentage 
of digestibility, bearing out the opinions of Professor Brooks, Dr. 
Lindsey, and others, that it yields, all things considered, a forage 
superior to that of the foxtail and broom-corn millets. 



MILLETS. 



289 



The Broom-corn Millet agrees fairly well in composition with the 
barnyard and foxtail millets, the most important differences being 
in the composition of the seed and silage. The silage is relatively 
rich in fat, while the seed is richer in both fat and protein than most 
of the foxtail millets, and richer in protein but poorer in fat than the 
barnyard millet. Data as to its digestibility are not available, but 
the chemical analyses indicate a relatively high food value for prop- 
erly preserved forage, and this agrees with the general experience of 
stock feeders. In palatability it is considered by some to be rather 
behind both foxtail and barnyard millets, but our experience indi- 
cates that it is at least fully equal to the former in this respect, 
though somewhat behind the latter. 



FERTILIZING VALUE OF MILLETS. 

While this crop is of little importance as a fertilizer, when compared 
with the clovers, cowpeas, and other leguminous crops, a knowledge 
of the kind and quantity of fertilizing substances contained in the 
millet plant will give an idea as to the drain on the elements of plant 
food in the soil by this crop. There are many sections of the country 
in which the soil is very poorly supplied with vegetable mold, and 
the turning under of any leafy growth will prove beneficial. If the 
better leguminous crops are not at hand or can not be grown, millet or 
any other plant that will grow on the soil and produce a heavy foliage 
may well be used for the purpose. 

The following table shows the amount, in pounds, of the various 
important fertilizing ingredients found in the millets, and also the 
comparative value of a ton of the hay, straw, seed, or fresh material 
at an average market price for these ingredients: 

Fertilizing value of the millets.' 1 



Variety. 


Nitro- 
gen. 


Phos- 
phoric 
acid. 


Potash. 


Value. 


Japanese Foxtail Millet (fresh) 


Pounds. 
12.2 
9.2 
7.8 
5.2 
24.4 
13.6 
34.6 
40.2 


Pounds. 
3.8 
2.2 
3.2 
2.8 
9.2 
3.6 
13.8 
19.2 


Pounds. 

8.2 

9.8 
10.8 
12.4 
32.2 
34.6 

7.6 

9 


Dollars. 
2.05 
1.69 
1.62 
1.87 
4.95 
3.52 
5.15 
6.02 




Millet ensilage (var. unknown) 











1 Adapted from Ninth An. Eep. Mass. (Hatch) Agr. Exp. Sta. 
REPUTED INJURIOUSNESS OF MILLET FORAGE. 

In some sections of the country the foxtail millets have gained the 
reputation of being injurious to certain kinds of stock, and are there- 
fore regarded with suspicion by many farmers and stockmen. Like 
3 A98 19 



290 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

many other forage plants, these millets become very harsh and woody 
with age, and are then difficult of thorough mastication and hard to 
digest. Then, too, at this stage of growth the beards are stiff aad 
harsh, and are not only difficult to digest, but produce more or less 
irritation in the digestive tract of the animal, and sometimes unite 
with other indigestible substances, forming compact Kails in the 
stomach, ultimately causing death. This difficulty may be avoided 
by cutting the hay in proper season, as recommended elsewhere. No 
more trouble seems to have been experienced in feeding the millets 
in the fresh state than with any other succulent forage. Most of the 
injury has arisen from feeding the hay in large quantities with little 
or no other grain or forage and for extended periods. At the North 
Dakota experiment station an extended experiment was recently con- 
ducted to determine what, if any, deleterious effects would result 
to horses from a continued diet in which millet hay replaced that 
ordinarily used in the ration. The animals were grained, watered, 
and otherwise cared for as usual. At the ehd of the experiment, Dr. 
Hiuebaueh, the veterinarian of the station, concluded that "millet 
when used alone as a coarse food is injurious to horses — first, in pro- 
ducing an increased action of the kidneys; second, in causing lameness 
and swelling of the joints; third, in producing infusion of blood into 
the joints; fourth, in destroying the texture of the bone, rendering it 
softer and less tenacious, so that traction causes the ligaments and 
muscles to be torn loose." These results seem to show conclusively 
that under certain conditions millet hay becomes injurious to horses at 
least, if not to other stock also. This agrees, too, with the general 
experience of fanners and stockmen, that a long-continued diet of millet 
hay, particularly hay in poor condition, tends to weaken horses and 
unlit them for doing hard work. Again, both immature and overripe 
foxtail millet is said to produce abortion in brood mares and cows, but 
this has not been established experimentally. Millet in any stage of 
growth acts as a laxative and diuretic. At times the action is more 
pronounced than at others; thus, hay cut while the plants are quite 
young seems to be most strongly laxative, while overripe hay is most 
strongly diuretic. However, if the hay is cut at the right stage of 
growth and properly cured, the action in either case will not be suffi- 
cient to lead to serious results if other hay or coarse forage is fed 
along with the millet. One feed of millet hay per day for work horses 
and one or two for other stock is sufficient, and when fed in this 
manner the millet acts as a stimulant and alterative, and tends to 
produce and maintain a healthy condition of the animals. 



STEEL-TRACK WAGON ROADS. 

By Martin Dodge, 
Director of the Office of Road Inquiry. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The steel-track wagon road is still in the experimental stage. Much 
has been written and proposed in a theoretical way during the last six 
years or more, but nothing has been done by way of actual tests till 
very lately. In the Engineering News for May 7, 1896, the editor com- 
ments as follows: 

A good deal baa been published in the newspaper press and elsewhere during the 
past few years concerning the scheme of laying steel rails upon ordinary highways 
as a means of making a better or cheaper road than is furnished by the ordinary 
macadam construction. Just where the scheme originated is doubtful. The idea 
has probably occurred to hundreds of men, merely as an idea; but the first to pub- 
licly advocate it, so far as we are aware, was the State highway commissioner of 
Ohio, Hon. Martin Dodge, in his report for 1893. 

As early as 1891 the writer had published, unofficially, a plan for 
laying steel tracks for use on country roads. 

The three principal advantages to be sought in the new construction 
are cheapness, durability, and reduction of power required to move 
a vehicle. "» 

As to the last two elements, all are agreed that the steel track solves 
the problem. In reference to the cost and manner of construction 
there is great diversity of opinion. Many of the plans first submitted 
and published provided for a substructure of wood, in some form, to 
support the steel tracks. In 1894 Mr. F. Melber, of Pittsburg, Pa., 
and Mr. W. I. Ludlow, of Cleveland, Ohio, both submitted plans to 
the National Road Conference, which met at Asbury Park July 6 of 
that year. These plans, afterwards published by the Department of 
Agriculture in Bulletin No. 10 of the Office of Road Inquiry, show 
wooden substructures of plank, not only to support the steel track, 
but also to form the treadway for horses or other animals. This 
wooden substructure adds to the cost of construction without adding 
to the real value or utility of the road, and can therefore be omitted 
with advantage, provided we can so adapt the steel track to the roadbed 
that it will combine with the materials composing the latter in such a 
way as to form a substantial and integral part of it. This result is 
effected in the manner indicated by the cross section in fig. 89. Mr. 
Abel Bliss, of New Lenox, 111., and Mr. Melber have each put down, 
as private experimenters, a short section of 25 or 30 feet to represent 

291 



292 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

their ideas of the best form of construction. These sections are, how- 
over, too short to furnish any full and sufficient tests as to the value 
and utility of such roads as we have under consideration. 

It was not until the fall of 1807 that any public authority was given 
by any public officer or officers to undertake to test the value or 
utility of the steel-track wagon road. At that time the county com- 
missioners of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, authorized the writer, by con- 
tract, to layoOO feet of steel track on the Brecksville road, immediately 
south of the city limits of Cleveland. The form chosen for this 
tyackwas one designed and recommended by Mr. Melber, but without 
the wooden substructure provided for by him in 1804. This track 
was not completed till June, 1898, and has been somewhat disturbed 
and obstructed since by reason of grading done adjacent to the track 
by the contractor, who was charged with carrying out more extensive 
improvements on the Brecksville road. This track, when completed, 




Fio. 89.— Cross section of steel-track wagon road. 



presented a fine appearance, and will doubtless give satisfactory 
results, but sufficient time has not yet elapsed to test it thoroughly 
in every respect. 

TESTS .OF UTILITY OF STEEL-TRACK WAGON ROADS. 

All steel tracks heretofore placed upon highways have been laid 
without the aid of the Government; but the Secretary of Agriculture 
determined to undertake, through this Office, a test as to the utility 
of the steel track, made and laid so that vehicles without flanged 
wheels might have the great advantage of a smooth track, heretofore 
enjoyed only by vehicles with the flanged wheels. The writer, upon 
being appointed Director of the Office of 'Road Inquiry, immediately 
began preparations to build a sample steel-track wagon road which 
should permit of making tests as to the cost, value, and-utility of such 
a road. For this purpose he secured a suitable space on the grounds of 
the Trans- Mississippi Exposition at Omaha, where the results might be 
seen by the greatest number of people, and constructed such a road 
as he had recommended before, but which had never been fully tested. 
The road thus laid consists of two parallel lines of steel plates, 8 inches 
wide, laid at a sufficient distance apart to receive the wheels of vehi- 
cles of the standard gauge. These plates have a slightly projecting 
flange upward and on the inner edge, so as to prevent the wheels of 
ordinary vehicles, which have no flanges, from easily leaving the track. 
At the same time the flanges, being only one-half inch, are not of a 



> 

X 



h 
< 

Q. 




Eleven Tons hauled by twenty Horses over an ordinary Road. 



X 
X 




Eleven Tons hauled bv one Horse over Steel- t rack Wagon Road 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agocultme. 1898 



Plate XX. 




Fig. 1. -Horseless Carriage propelled by Electricity on Steel-track Wagon Road 




Fig. 2. -The Steel Track as a Bicycle Path 



STEEL-TRACK WAGON ROADS. 293 

height to prevent the vehicles from leaving the track for the purpose 
of passing other vehicles whenever the driver so desires. These steel 
plates are not supported by wooden cross-ties or longitudinal stringers 
of any kind, but are provided with flanges projecting both downward 
and outward. These flanges are embedded in the concrete of the 
roadbed so as to form a substantial part of it, and the steel plates are 
supported at every point by a substructure of cement or other enduring 
material. 

In addition to the road built at Omaha, upon which the traction tests 
were made, Mr. E. G. Harrison, road expert of the Office of Road 
Inquiry, was directed to lay a short section of 150 feet of steel-track 
road at the agricultural experiment station at Saint Anthony's Park, 
Minnesota. After completing this, September 24, he laid another 
section of 180 feet at the agricultural experiment station at Ames, 
Iowa. Both of these sections were made after the same pattern and 
style of the Omaha road. Reports so far received from these two sta- 
tions indicate that the two sections are coming up to the highest 
expectations. 

THE FUNCTION OF CROSS-TIES. 

The cross-ties used are not for support, but only to maintain the ( 
steel plates at a uniform distance from each other and also to prevent 
tilting and to maintain the face of the plates in a horizontal position. 
The road, when properly finished, contains no perishable material, 
such as wooden cross-ties and stringers, heretofore used and thought 
necessary for all steel-track construction, but forms a smooth, firm, 
and compact mass harder and more durable than a road can be niade 
of any other known material. 

ADVANTAGES OF STEEL-TRACK WAGON ROADS. 

The three great advantages mentioned elsewhere as being sought 
for in the steel-track wagon road are found in this new roadway, 
demonstrating — 

(1) That the steel-track wagon road can be built without greater 
cost in most cases, and probably with less cost in many cases, than 
any other hard and durable road. 

(2) That it will last many times as long as any other known mate- 
rial for road purposes and with much less repair. 

(3) That the power required to move a vehicle over the steel-track 
road is only a small fraction of the power required to move the same 
vehicle over any other kind of road. 

This last important fact can be taken advantage of either by increas- 
ing the load which a given power would be able to move over a com- 
mon road or by diminishing the power necessary to move a vehicle 
over the new road. This is shown by the accompanying illustrations. 
PI. XVIII shows a heavy load of 1 1 tons drawn by twenty horses over 
a common road. PI. XIX shows a load of equal weight drawn by one 



294 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

horse over a steel-track road. This load was twenty-two times the 
weight of the animal, and was easily moved with light harness. The 
load could be increased up to fifty times the weight of the animal and 
still be started and moved without difficulty. PL XX, fig. 1, shows 
the horseless carriage on the track, which is moved with such ease as 
to require but a small fraction of the power ordinarily used for mov- 
ing such vehicles. It also shows (PL XX, fig. 2) a bicycle rider on 
the track, indicating the suitableness of this now road for long 
bicycle rides through the country, a fact which would doubtless have 
an important bearing on the extension of rural mail delivery. 

METHODS FOR LAYING STEEL TRACKS. 

The method of laying steel tracks should be varied to conform to 
the material out of which the roadbed is constructed. In a compara- 
tively dry and sandy or gravelly soil these tracks might probably be 
laid with no other material except the natural foundation of the road- 
bed itself, and could be maintained in good repair at very little cost. 
Also the flanges at the lower extremity, which project outward, might 
be omitted, thereby diminishing the amount of metal required in the 
rail. What could be done successfully in a sandy or gravelly road- 
bed might also be done in any soil that could be kept sufficiently' dry, 
either by reason of the climatic conditions or the natural dryness of 
the soil. But in all wet and clayey soils there should be a substructure 
of broken stone under each rail 1 foot deep, also macadam between 
the rails and for a distance of 1 foot on each side. The cavity imme- 
diately under the rail should be filled with cement, so as to give a 
continuous bearing to support the rail at every point. The joints also 
should be secured by being bolted to a common cross-tie. In building 
on a grade of 3 per cent or more, the rails should be corrugated trans- 
versely. No experiment has ever yet been made with such a track 
upon such a grade, nor is there the material for the corrugated tracks. 
That will have to be produced by the use of special rolls. 

COST OP CONSTRUCTION. 

The cost of constructing the short section of steel-track road already 
built was about $1 per foot, but this is much in excess of the neces- 
sary cost when built in longer sections, requiring large quantities of 
material, and when the rolling mills are equipped with suitable rolls 
to get the shapes desired without the extra cost incurred in making 
the '.'built section." 

It is probable also that the weight of steel may be considerably 
diminished below that heretofore used without materially impairing 
the value of the road. Before making a positive statement as to what 
the most desirable weight should be, we must observe for a long time 
the effect of traffic upon rails of different weight, different shape, and 
different size. It seems probable, however, that a rail weighing 30 



STEEL-TRACK WAGON ROADS. ' 295 

pounds to the yard, one-fifth of an inch in thickness, and with the 
cavity immediately below properly filled, so as to give a continuous 
bearing, will prove to be sufficient. This would bring down the cost 
of -the steel to about $1,500 per mile, and there is every probability 
that time -and experience will prove this to be sufficient. To that 
sum must be added the cost of actually laying the track, and bring- 
ing the road surface up to it in such a manner as to preserve the sur- 
face of the roadbed even with the surface of the steel rail. Allowing 
an equal amount for that purpose, which is probably sufficient, the 
road complete could be built for $3,000 per mile. 

NEW METHODS IN CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND VEHICLES 

SUGGESTED. 

When John L. Macadam advanced his theory of road building in 
England in 1810 he called the attention of Parliament to the fact that 
it had hitherto devoted attention mainly to regulating the size of vehi- 
cles, the width of tires, the number of horses to be allowed for each 
vehicle, the amount of toll to be charged, and minor details of that 
kind, but had paid very little attention to the improvement of the 
roadbed. To-day, on the contrary, nearly all persons interested in 
the good-roads problem are exhausting their efforts upon the improve- 
ment of the roadbed only, and seeking to imitate or duplicate the stone 
roads of the older countries. It is the opinion of the writer that the 
stone age in road building has substantially passed, and that it is 
possible to introduce new means and methods by which there will be 
great gains in four different ways. 

(1) The improvement of the roadbed can be effected without 
increasing the cost of its construction ; on the contrary, the cost of 
construction can be diminished one-half or more. 

(2) The weight of the vehicle can be greatly diminished in pro- 
portion to the load it carries. The bicycle is a notable example of 
what has been done in this respect. The value of the bicycle depends 
ou the fact that it carries a burden many times its own weight. If it 
were constructed on the principle of nearly all other vehicles, so as 
to weigh as much as the burden it carries, or more, it would have no 
practical value and would not be in use. It is possible to apply the 
same principle in the construction of other vehicles, at least to the 
extent that in all cases they shall carry more than their own weight, 
and in most cases many times their own weight. 

(3) Having such vehicles as referred to, it is possible to substitute 
inanimate power for animal power for all distances upward of 5 miles, 
and by such substitution there would be a gain equal to four-fifths of 
the present cost for animal power. 

(4) There would be an increase in the speed of vehicles, and conse- 
quently a proportional saving in time. 

The roadbed as commonly constructed is of great width and solidity, 



296 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

yet the burdens passing over these roads are, as a rule, only from 1 to 
2 tons in -weight. It is unnecessary and unwise to build for light 
vehicles roads capable of sustaining burdens a hundred times the 
ordinary weight. The roadbed should be hard and smooth, and it can 
be made so by substituting steel for stone. 

In reference to the vehicle, the fault of excessive weight is the result 
of a natural evolution based upon conditions heretofore existing, but 
now rapidly passing away, and capable of complete elimination. The 
wheels were made high in order to overcome the inequalities of the 
primitive roadway and to enable the vehicle to straddle extraordinary 
obstructions in the way. This height of wheel necessitated great 
width of gauge in order to prevent overturning the carriage. Great 
height and great width called for great strength in the vehicle, and 
great strength could only be secured by making the vehicle of great 
weight when constructed of the materials heretofore used for such 
purposes; so there were constructed and used vehicles whose weight 
exceeded that of the burdens they carried, and as a consequence the 
immense sums of money paid for transportation result almost as much 
from cost of moving the vehicle as from cost of moving the freight it 
carries. 

In order to remedy this defect the first thing to do is to lower the 
center of gravity of the vehicle. No real progress was made in the 
development of the bicycle until the low wheels were used and the cen- 
ter of gravity lowered as much as possible. This example should be 
imitated in the construction of other vehicles. With the lowering of 
the center of gravity may easily and safely come a diminution in the 
width of the gauge, and with these two steps it is easy to reduce the 
weight of the vehicle, especially by substituting the lighter material 
now available, so that the vehicle may be strong enough to carry ten 
times its own weight instead of weighing ten times the burden it car- 
ries, as is often the case with vehicles in common use. As already 
stated, with a smooth track and a light vehicle, placed upon roller 
bearings, it is possible to siibstitute inanimate power for animal power 
on all distances of 5 miles and upward, with a saving equal to four- 
fifths of the present cost for animal power, and at the same time 
giving a great increase in the speed of the vehicle. 



WORK OF THE DIVISION OF FORESTRY FOR THE 

FARMER. 

r 

By GlFFOKD PlNCHOT, 

Forester. 
WORK IN GENERAL. 

No part of the work of the Division of Forestry is without a dis- 
tinct influence for good upon the farmer. For example, its study of 
forest fires, recently begun, has the closest relation to the farmers of 
Minnesota and Wisconsin, while in all mountainous regions the pro- 
tection of the forest from fire is of vital interest to agriculture. So 
with the supply of lumber, to maintain which is the object of the 
studies by the Division of methods of lumbering, also recently under- 
taken with a view to improving their effect on the future of the 
forest without sacrificing the profit of the lumberman. Practical 
•assistance given to the owners of forest lands has the same general 
object in view. A knowledge of the yearly rate of growth, in cords 
or board feet, of commercially valuable trees per acre of forest is of 
great value to every man who owns a wood lot; and this knowledge 
the Division is engaged in providing, with particular attention to 
trees which, like the Loblolly or Old Field Pine, are sure to increase 
in importance as time goes on. 

But however close the relation of the others, two branches of the 
work of the Division are related to the welfare of the farmer in a 
special manner. These two are concerned with the introduction of 
suitable trees for planting in the treeless portions of the West, and 
with the better handling of the wood lots on farms in the regions 
where trees now grow. 

TREES FOR THE PLAINS. 

Tree planting is a question of the greatest importance to the farmers 
of the treeless West. If every other proof were lacking, this would 
be abundantly shown by the vast amount of plantingthat has taken 
place since the Central West began to grow into its present agricul- 
tural importance. During several decades immense numbers of trees 
have been planted, and a vast amount of experience has been accumu- 
lated. But so far all that has been learned from failures and suc- 
cesses is not readily accessible for the information of future planters. 
Many of the trees used would better have been discarded, and very 
many plantations have failed because they were poorly or wrongly 
made. The first thing to be done is to compile and collect an account 

297 



208 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

of the results of actual experience, which of course must be obtained 
far less from books than from practical planters, and from a careful 
study of good and bad plantations already made. This done, the next 
step is to devise new methods of planting, where such are needed, 
and to find, by experimental plantations, what, trees, among all those 
of the world, are best suited for the different portions of the treeless 
West. Some such plantations have been established in previous years. 
The study of what has been done will be taken up during the coming 
year, and will be carried forward as fast as the available funds will 
permit. It lies at the foundation of the whole subject. 

PRACTICAL ASSISTANCE TO FARMERS. 

Of the 623,000,000 acres in farms in the United States, according to 
the Census of 1890, more than 200,000,000 acres are under wood. This 
enormous total, broken up into wood lots over a very large part of the 
United States, exerts a most powerful influence on the welfare of the 
farmers to whom it belongs. Yet, as a rule, the treatment which 
farmers' wood lots receive is calculated to destroy rather than increase 
their productive capacity and value. The object of the undertaking 
described in the pages following is to devise, and assist the farmer in 
applying, better methods by which the forest on his wood lot will be 
improved without appreciably increasing the cost of harvesting the 
forest crop, or simply to apply such methods where they already exist. 
The latter is not often the case, for the reason that European ways of 
dealing with forest land are seldom applicable to the handling of 
woodlands in America. Practical find paying ways of handling wood 
lots must be devised, for unless the methods applied with the assist- 
ance of the Division are successful from a money point of view they 
will not answer the general purpose for which they were intended, 
which is that of examples. It would naturally be impossible for the 
Division to cooperate with all the farmers of the United States. It can 
reach the greater number of them only through the published results 
of its work. 

Examples of better ways of handling wood lots calculated to lead 
others to imitate them must be satisfactory to the owners, in the first 
place. To benefit the owner and the forest at the same time is the real 
problem. From this point of view the difference between the ordinary 
and improved methods of handling this forest land is enormous, but, 
on the other hand, changes in method are not extreme. In other 
words, the cost of harvesting the timber crop from a wood lot in the 
usual way differs but little, if at all, from the cost of harvesting it so 
that its productive value will be improved and increased. Thus, the 
difference to the farmer in expenditure will be very small, while the 
difference in result, both to the individu.il and, from the enormous 
area of all wood lots taken together, to the nation at large, will be 
very great. 



WORK OF DIVISION OF FORESTRY FOR THE FARMER. 299 

Farmers in many cases depend largely on their wood lots for ready 
cash, received from the sale of ties, cord wood, and other produce, to 
supplement any shortcoming in the yearly, crop. The quality and 
quantity of this produce is therefore of the first importance to them. 
The Division of Forestry has undertaken to give practical advice, on 
the ground, as to how best to secui'e these advantages, and then to 
supervise the execution of its own plans, the whole entirely without 
cost to the farmer. A copy of the agreement which the Department 
of Agriculture is prepared to make with the owners of wood lots is 
given here, in order to explain more ftilly just what is intended, and 
a working plan, prepared under this agreement, is also given in full 
(see pages 301-308) to illustrate more at length the way the work is 
done. It must not be forgotten, however, that there are as many best 
ways to handle them as there are kinds of wood lots. In other words, 
a plan prepared for northern New Jersey like the one^given would not- 
fit the conditions of southern New Jersey, while it would be suitable, 
in its main features, for very considerable parts of New England, New 
York, and Pennsylvania. 

The following is the agreement referred to, giving the terms on 
which the owners of small tracts of forest may cooperate with the 
Division : 

WOOD-LOT AGREEMENT. 

Washington, D. C, September 1, 1S08. 
The Department of Agriculture of the United States and John Doe, of Doeville, 
county of Bell, State of Pennsylvania, mutually agree together as follows: 

1. The Department of Agriculture, in pursuance of investigations in forestry, 
and in order to disseminate a knowledge of improved ways of handling forest 
lands, shall, after personal study on the ground by its agent or agents, prepare a 
plan for harvesting the forest crop and reproducing the forest on the land of the 
said John Doe, situated and described as follows: 100 acres, more or less, of second- 
growth hardwood forest land, in the town of Doeville, county of Bell, State of 
Pennsylvania, on the farm known commonly as the Old Doe Place, and in the 
northwest portion of the same. 

2. The said plan shall be prepared for the purpose of promoting and increasing 
the present value and usefulness of the said land to its owner, and co perpetuate 
and improve the forest upon It. 

3. Upon the completion of the said plan and its acceptance by the said John 
Doe, the Department of Agriculture shall supervise the execution thereof, so far 
as may be necessary. 

4. The Department of Agriculture shall render all services under this agree- 
ment wholly without charge to the said John Doe, nor shall it participate in any 
degree in the receipts and expenses arising from the said land, except to defray 
the pay and expenses of its agent or agents. 

5. The Department of Agriculture shall have the right to publish and distribute 
the said plan and its results for the information of farmers and others whom it 
may concern. 

6. This agreement may be dissolved by either party upon ten days' notice given 
to the other. 

(Signed) 

(Signed) 



300 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Washington, D. C, October 3, 1S98. 
The working plan above mentioned, being now completed, is accepted, and will 
be carried out under the conditions and during the validity of the above agree- 

ment " (Signed)... 

It is an essential part of the scheme outlined above to print work- 
ing plans prepared in different parts of the country and distribute 
them to the farmers in the regions to which they apply. , These work- 
ing plans, with photographs and maps, will contain short, plain, and 
practical directions for practical work in the woods, so that the own- 
ers of similar wood lots will be able to follow the same-methods of work. 

The conditions under which the Division of Forestry undertakes to 
assist the owners of wood lots to make the most of them are very 
simple. It has nothing to do with the receipts and expenses which 
arise under its plans. The farmer must attend to the actual work of 
cutting and marketing his wood, or else furnish the necessary labor. 
The cost of doing so ho must pay, and the money it yields goes to 
him. On the other hand, all investigations, advice, and supervision 
needed to prepare and carry out a working plan are entirely at the 
charge of the Division. The assistance of the Division costs the 
farmer nothing except the desire to improve his property and the 
willingness to be assisted. 

Since the object of this whole undertaking is to convince farmers 
of the real advantage to them of better ways of handling their wood 
lots and to spread this conviction by the proof of actual examples in 
successful operation, which must be satisfactory to the men chiefly 
concerned before they can be of use to others, the whole scheme is 
arranged so that its success depends on the way it is received by the 
farmers. Just so long as the working plans are satisfactory to the 
farmers for whom they are made, just so long they stand a chance of 
being useful as examples, but no longer. Consequently the wood lot 
agreement is so worded that it can be ended at any time upon ten 
days' notice by either party. Furthermore, as the acceptance clause 
at the bottom shows, if a working plan is not satisfactory to the 
owner when it has been made it will not be put into effect. 

These conditions have been made so easy because the close relation 
of the wood lots to so many millions of our people, the vast area they 
cover, and their very great national importance as sources of fuel, 
fencing, and other material, require and justify great efforts to 
improve their condition and increase their productive power. 

Applications, which should be made to the Division of Forestry, will 
be dealt with in the order of their receipt, except that wood lots of special 
value as examples will be given the preference when the success of the 
work seems to require it. This plan was first made public in Circular 
No. 21 of the Division of Forestry, which explains the terms under 
which not only farmers, but all other owners of timber land, in large 
or small tracts, may receive the advice and assistance of the Division. 



WORK OF DIVISION OP FORESTRY FOR THE FARMER. 301 

WOBKING PLAN FOB, A WOOD LOT BELONGING TO MB. E. D. PAGE, 
AT OAKLAND, BEBGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

By Henry S. Graves, 
Superintendent of Working Plans. 

DESCRIPTION OF WOOD LOT. 

Area. — The total area included tinder the working plan is ?0.3 acres, of which 
41 acres are covered with merchantable timber, 20.3 acres with a growth of sprouts 
about seven years old, and the remaining 9 acres with scattered Red Cedar. 

Situation. — The wood lot is situated on the eastern side of the Ramapo Valley 
(see fig. 90), on a hill about 200 feet above the river. The land has a moderate 
slope, partly toward the northwest and partly toward the southeast. 

Rock and soil..— The soil, resulting from the disintegration of the underlying 
trap rock and the glacial stones and bowlders, which are scattered plentifully over 
the area, is chiefly a clayey loam, or, on low ground, a loamy clay. The tract is 
well watered, and the soil is everywhere fresh or moist. ■ 

The forest. — With the exception of one small group of trees, the forest is a 
second growth, composed chiefly of two age classes, one about fifty and the other 
about eighty years old. The prevailing species are Black, White, Rock, and Pin 
Oak (see Pis. XXI and XXII), Chestnut, Hickory, Black Birch, Ash, and Pitch 
Pine. Other species occur, and are mentioned in the description of the several 
divisions given below. The forest has a fair density, and the trees, for the most 
part, are tall and clear boled. - There have been thinnings from time to time, but 
no heavy cutting has been done for about fifty years, except on the southern end 
of the wood lot, where about 20 acres were cleared in 1891. 

There is a considerable amount of underbrush, and throughout the forest seed- 
lings of Oak, Hickory, and Ash are abundant. Bock Oak and Ash reproduce them- 
selves better than any of the other trees, but the reproduction of the other Oaks 
and of Hickory, Elm, and Sugar Maple is good. 

description of divisions. 

The wood lot has been divided into seven divisions (see fig. 91), each either dif- 
fering in character and age from its neighbors or isolated from the rest. These 
divisions are described in detail, as follows: 

Division No. 1. 
Area: 20.3 acres. 

Situation: Moderate northwestern slope. 
Soil: Fresh loamy clay, covered with numerous stones. 

Forest: A dense growth of sprouts, mixed with scattered seedlings, of Chestnut, 
Oak, Hickory, Ash, Butternut, etc., about seven years old. 

Division No, 2. 

Area: 6.2 acres. 

Situation: Moderate northwestern slope. 

Soil: For the most part covered with bowlders and stones. Northern end drained 
by brook; has rich alluvial soil. 

Forest: At the northern end eighty-year to one-hundred year old Rock and White 
Oak, Hickory, and Sugar Maple, reaching a maximum height of 85 to 90 feet, 
and a diameter, in the case of Maple, of 2 feet. The trees are straight and 
clear boled, and yield in many cases two or three saw logs. The remainder 
of the compartment is stocked with thirty-year to fifty-year old Oak, Chest- 
nut, Maple, Ash, Birch, Hickory, Elm, Ironwood, Beech, Basswood, P«p- 
peridge, and Hemlock. 



302 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 




Fio. 90.— Northern part of Now Jersey, showing the location of the forest work at Oakland. 




Fig. 91.— Wood lot at Oakland, N. J., showing the divisions. 



WORK OF DIVISION OK FORESTRY FOR THE FARMER. 303 

Density: In young timber, poor: in old timber, good. Average of the whole 
division, 0.7. The density of a fnlly-etoeked forest is 1.0. 

Reproduction: The entire division is covered with a moderately thick under- 
growth, of which about one-third is composed of young Maples, Oaks, and 
Hickories, and the rest of shrubs. N 

Growth: Very good. 

Division No. 3. 

Area: 9 acres. • 

Situation: Top of ridge, the eastern portion sloping toward the south. 

Soil: Clayey loam. 

Surface cover: Clumps and scattered individuals of Red Cedar fifteen to twenty 
years old and about 10 to 12 feet high, with a few specimens of broadspread- 
ing Oak and Chestnut growing near the old fence. Ground covered with a 
firm sod. 

Division No. 4- 

Area: 12 acres. 

Situation: Moderate southeastern slope. 

Soil: Fresh clayey loam; northern portion swampy. 

Forext: Oak (White and Black), 50 per cent; Hickory, 20 percent; Pitch Pine, 7 per 
cent; other species (Black Birch, Ash, Red Maple, Cedar, Butternut, Hemlock, 
Elm, Yellow Poplar, Aspen, Pepperidge, Beech, Ironwood, Mulberry, Bass- 
wood), 33 per cent. The greater proportion of the timber is sixty to eighty 
years old; the largest trees, eighty to ninety years; the Pine partly about 
sixty and partly about thirty-five years. Average height, 60 feet. Average 
diameter of all trees over 8 inches, 10.6 inches. Pitch Pine occurs on a ridge 
on the south side, and there the forest is open, with dense underbrush. Many 
trees are dying. In the swamp on the north side are numerous Pin Oaks 
and River Birches. In general, the trees arestraight and clear boled. 

Density: For the whole division, 0.7. On the northern edge are several large 
openings where the underbrush is dense. 

Reproduction: Fair, but hindered in places by a dense growth of Green Osier, 
Dogwood, Ironwood, Spicebush, etc. 

Growth: Very good. 

Division No. 5. 

Area: 15.9 acres. 

Situation: Northwestern slope, mostly gradual, but at lower end 10" to 15°. 

Soil: Well drained, fresh clayey loam, covered with numerous stones and bowlders. 

Forest: Forty-year to fifty-year old Black, Rock, and White Oak, Chestnut, Hick- 
ory, Black Birch, Ash, and Butternut, chiefly of sprout origin, with scattered 
large trees seventy to ninety years old, the latter grown froin the seed. About 
10 per cent of the forest crop is composed of Red Maple, Hemlock, Red Cedar, 
Pepperidge, Pitch Pine, Buttonball, Beech, Aspen, Elm, Ironwood, Bass- 
wood, and Black Cherry. Average height, 60 to 65 feet. Average diameter 
of all trees over 8 inches, 11.5 inches. 

Density: For the whole division, about 0.6. At the southwestern corner there 
is a dense growth of Red Cedar and small trees. 

Reproduction: Very good. A large quantity of Rock Oak, Hickory, and Ash 
seedlings, and scattered small specimens of other species. Underbrush scanty, 
probably on account of the grazing of cattle. 

Growth: Good. 

Division No. G. 

Area: 3.4 acres. 

Situation: Gradual southwestern slope. 

Soil: A fresh, or in portions moist, clayey loam. A smail stream at the eastern 
end. 



304 



YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 



Forest: Oak (chiefly White), 50 per cent; Hickory, 9 per cent; Ash, 8 per cent; 
Elm, 8 per cent; Red Maple, 8 per cent; other species (Black Birch. Chestnut, 
Butternut, Cedar, Yellow Poplar) , 17 per cent. Average age, about fifty years. 
Average height, 40 feet. Average diameter of all trees over 4 inches, 7 inches. 
About half the trees are of seedling origin and half sprouts. 

Density: On about half the area, 0.8, with trees straight and clear boled: on the 
remainder, not over 0.4, with several large blanks, and with scrubby trees. 

Reproduction: In the less dense portions there are many Oak seedlings. In open- 
ings the ground is covered with grass, and seedlings are few. 

Growth: Good. 

Division No. 7. 

Area: 8.5 acres. 

Situation: Slope of 5- to 10° toward the northwest. 

Soil: Fresh clayey loam covered with rocks. 

Forest: Thirty-year to fifty-year old Chestnut, chiefly of sprout origin, mixed with 
Oak, Black Birch, Hickory, Black Cherry, Elm, Butternut, Red Maple, and 
Aspen. Average diameter (over 8 inches), 11.3 inches; greatest diameter for 
Chestnut, 31 inches. 

Density: In places rather open, and with one large blank in center of division. 

Reproduction: Excellent for Rock Oak, and fair for White Oak. 

Grcncth: Good. 

ESTIMATE OF GROWING STOCK. 

All timber on the wood lot larger than 4 inches in diameter was measured with 
calipers. In the absence of American tables for estimating standing timber, 
Behm's "Massentafeln" were used. They give the contents of European hard- 
wood trees of different species, heights, and diameters. Due allowance was made 
for the differences in species and in the character of the forest. The following 
tables give the contents of the standing timber over 4 inches in diameter, together 
with the annual rate of increment: 

Estimated contents and annual groioth of standing timber. 
OAK AND CHESTNUT. 



Num- 


Area. 


Oak. 


Chestnut. 


ber of 
divi- 
sion. 


Board 

feet. 


Ties. 


Fire- 
wood. 


Total 
cubic 
feet. 


Annual 
growth. 


Board 
feet. 


Ties. 


Fire- 
wood. 


Total 
cubic 
feet. 


Annual 
growth. 


li 


Acres. 

20.3 

. 6.2 
9 

12 

15.9 
3.4 
3.5 






Cords. 




Percl. 


Cu. ft. 






Cords. 




Perct. 


Cu. ft. 


2 

3 2 


4,9X5 


4 


72 


7,2T5 


2.2 


160 


312 


■"- 


2.9 


340 


3 


10 


4. 

5 

6 


6,492 
2,195 


94 
9 


218 
102 
30 
9.4 


21,401 
10,317 

2,728 
879 


2.2 
2.2 
2.2 
2.2 


471 

227 
60 
19 


80 

4,236 


33 

281 


7.5 
151 

.8 
39.5 


863 

17, 415 

70 

3,mx) 


3 
3 
3 
3 


25 

523 

2 


7 





6 


425 


62 


119 


Total.. 


70.3 


13,640 


113 


431.4 


42,630 




937 


5,083 


379 


201.7 


22,708 




. 679 



1 Containod so ven-year old sprouts. 



a Contained scattered Bed Cedar. 



Yearbook U. S. Dcpt. ot Agnculluie, 1898. 



Plate XXI. 




Fig. 1.— A Group of thrifty White Oaks, Oakland, N. J. 



I- ' ■■■ ■ \ ■ j, ■ j— — r-a ■'.■.- wok*-- ''" -W "' * ,--.!-'± -■■ 






- 

• 


rV*^ ■■**.- •^ 



Fiq. 2. -White and Black Oaks and Hickory, Oakland, N. J. Black Oak on the 

RIGHT WILL BE REMOVED.! 



Yearbook U. S. Dept of Agriculture, 



Plate XXII. 




'" 



Fig. 1.— Black Oak, Oakland, N. J. 




Fig. 2. -Black Oak Sprouts, about Fifty Years old, Oakland. N. J. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agiiculture, 1898. 



Plate XXIII. 










Fig. 1 .— A Group of Oaks, Oakland, N. J. (Improvement Cutting needed 





s 'Isyyi** 


* ** ~'^lff 


.'■': 




**%SJw 




ill L 

- ; 






jfcj HKS^ ^S*1BSS^ 


^jQHI 




,J jSi" 


IraHH 










• ■ 





Fig. 2.— Scattered Red Cedar on an old Pasture. Oakland, N. J. 



"WORK OF DIVISION OF FORESTRY FOR THE FARMER. 305 

Estimated contents and annual growth of standing timber — Continued. 

HICKORY AND PINE. 





Area. 


Hickory. 


Pine. 


Number of divi- 
sion. 


Board 
feet. 


Fire- 
wood. 


Total 
cubic 
feet. 


Annual 
growth. 


Fire- 
wood. 


Total 
cubic 
feet. 


Annual 
growth. 


1' 


Acres. 
20.3 

6.3 

9 

12 
15.9 

3.4 

3.5 


Cords. 




Per ct. 


Cu./t. 


Cords. 




Per ct. 


Cu. ft. 


2 


900 


50.4 


1,843 


1.9 


35 










3* 










4 


392 
270 
140 


70.6 
24.6 
3.7 
2.3 


6,465 

2,476 

505 

210 


1.9 
1.9 
1.9 
1.9 


127 
47 
10 
46 


22.6 


2,013 


1.9 


33 


5. 


6. 










7.. 




















Total 


70.3 


1,702 


151.0 


11,529 




205 


22.6 


2,013 




3$ 



OTHER TREES. 



Number of divi- 
sion. 


Area. 


Maple. 


Yellow 
Pop- 
lar. 


Ash. 


Bass- 
wood. 


Fire- 
wood. 


Total 
cvibic 
feet. 


Annual 
growth. 


1' 


Acres. 
20.3" 
• 0.2 
9 

12 
15.9 
3.4 
3.5 


Board 

feet. 


Board 
feet. 


Board 
feet. 


Board 
feet. 


Cords. 




Per 
cent. 


Cubic 
feet. - 


2 !... 


972 


408 


" 




53 


4,944 


1.9 


90 


3 2 










4 




114 


97 


194 


67 
35 
12 

8.5 


6,038 

2,390 

1,059 

763- 


1.9 
1.9 
1.9 
1.9 


115 


5 




45 


6 


| 160 


20. 


7 






15 




i " 






Total 


70.3 


972 


682 


97 


194 


175.5 


15,194 




285. 









1 Containod seven year-old sprouts. 



2 Contained scattered Red Cedar. 



SUMMARY. 

[Average stand per acre for all divisions except 1 and 3.] 

Per acre. 

Oak board feet.. 333 

Chestnut -do.... 124 

Hickory do 41 

Ties 12 

Firewood cords.. 24 



GROWTH. 

The rate of growth was determined by the measurement of the annual rings on -.. 
sixteen stumps, carefully selected from different parts of the wood lot. If the, 
number of rings is known in 1 inch next the bark, at a place where the rings am, 
of average width, and the diameter is also known, the current annual rate of 
growth per cent can be calculated. For this purpose the following formula ia ; 
employed: 

400 

G = — 

nd 

O = the annual growth per cent. 

n = number of years in the last inch on an average radius. 
d = the diameter of the stump. 
3 A98 20 



306 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

By this method the average annual growth was found to he: For Oak, 2.2 per 
cent; Chestnut, per cent; Hickory, 1.9 per cent; Pine. 1.9 per cent; other trees, 
1.9 pur cent. These averages show the actual growth of the wood, and are used to 
determine how much can be cut without injury to the forest. They do not repre- 
sent the interest on the capital value o: the land, for as the timber becomes of mer- 
chantable size its increase in value is greater than the growth in volume. If the 
above averages are applied to the total number of cubic feet on the wood lot. a3 is 
done in the above table, which gives the estimate of the growing stock, it will be 
found that the wood lot is producing annually — 

Cubic feet. 

Of o»k mi 

Of Chestnut _ _ 079 

Of Hickory. 265 

Of other material. ;)2o 

Total _. _ 2.204 

The annual growth is, then, for the 41 acres on which the timber is of merchant- 
able size, 2,204 divided by 41, or 53.7 cubic feet of solid wood, or six-tenths of 
a cord per acre. On the whole 41 acres the annual increase is 24.6, or. in round 
numbers, 25 cords. 

MAKICET. 

The wood lot is situated about li miles from the railroad station and is connected 
with it by a good road. There is a constant market at and in the vicinity of Oak- 
land for'cord wood, logs, ties, and hoop poles. Provided a sufficient amount of 
material is taken out at one time, there would be no difficulty in selling the tim- 
ber on the stump. The following average stumpage prices are quoted by operators 

at Oakland: 

• 

Oak logs per thousand board feet. .. §6. 00 

Hickory logs do 0. 00 

Chestnut logs do 4.00 

Ties. each.. .25 

Hoop poles per hundred . . 1 . 00 

Cord wood _ per cord.. 1.00 

It is customary to allow about 25 per cent for lapwood (brandies), which will 
bring not over 50 cents per cord. 

OBJECT OF MANAGEMENT. 

The object to be reached in the management of the forest at Oakland is to make 
it yield a fair rate of interest on the capital invested through the use of methods 
of cutting by which its preservation, welfare, and increasing productiveness shall 
be secured. 

PRESENT METHODS OF CUTTING. 

At present woodlands in this neighborhood are cut in one of two ways: (1) The 
land is cleared; (2) trees are selected here and there for special purposes. 

Under the first system not only the mature timber is cut, but with it a large 
number of young thrifty trees which make but little showing in the present 
product, yet in a comparatively short time would be large enough for logs and 
ties. The second growth consists largely of sprouts, and twenty-five to thirty 
years must elapse before the land will yield a crop of cord wood, or upward of 
sixty to eighty years for logs and ties. , 

In the present instance the owner of the woodland does not desire to convert the 
standing timber into money at once at a sacrifice of the producing power of the 
forest. He prefers to hold a certain amount invested in standing timber in order. 



WORK OF DIVISION OP FORESTRY FOR THE FARMER. 307 

to utilize to its full extent the productive capacity of the land. The returns will 
be obtained at shorter intervals and -will in the long run amount to much more 
than if the land is cleared under the ordinary system. 

The second method is similar to that recommended in this working plan, except 
that under the proposed system the thinnings will be made with special reference 
to improving the timber which is left on the ground and to seeding the openings 
to valuable species. 

METHODS OF CUTTING RECOMMENDED. 
/ 

Two kinds of cuttings will be used in harvesting the timber at Oakland. First, 
the old timber will be cut as soon as it is of merchantable size, but the trees will 
be selected so that the openings left by their removal shall be seeded to valuable 
species. This is called a reproduction cutting. Second, the whole wood lot will 
be thinned annually or periodically for the purpose of harvesting the increase and 
improving the timber which remains. This is called an improvement cutting. 

Reproduction cuttings. — It has already been stated that there are large num- 
bers of small seedlings in the forest. The reproduction cuttings take advantage 
of this young growth, and when the merchantable timber is removed an opportu- 
nity is given for the seedlings to develop. Where the young growth is scanty the • 
cuttings are located with reference to seed trees, so that young growth of valuable 
kinds may follow. (See PI. XXI, fig. 2. ) 

Improvement cuttings. — There are in the forest many crooked and scrubby 
trees of valuable kinds and several species of little value, as well as the straight, 
thrifty Oaks, Hickory, Chestnut, and Ash. It is tlie purpose of the improvement 
cuttings to weed out the undesirable trees, so that the ground will eventually pro- 
duce only thrifty specimens of the most useful species. (See PI. XXIII, fig. 1.) 
These trees in almost all cases can be cut at a profit. In practically all remain- 
ing cases they can be got rid of without loss. This working plan does not con- 
template any expenditure which will not be met, or more than met, by the return. 

The trees which should be removed in this way are: 

(1) Old, scrubby tree3 which have broad crowns and are crowding young, 
thrifty growth. 

(2) Defective and dying trees which will soon be past their usefulness. 

(3) Less desirable species, as Red Maple, Pepperidge, Beech, etc., which are 
crowding more valuable trees. 

(4) Dead trees; if not possible to sell this material, it is probable that some one 
could be found to cut it for the wood. 

details op cutting plan. 

The working plan is made to cover a period of ten years. Those portions in 
which no cutting will be done during this time are left out of account in the 
schedule below. It may be said, however, that the timber on Division No. 1 will 
be large enough for cord wood in about twenty years, and it is estimated that at 
that lime there will be between 25 and 30 cords per acre. The scattered Red 
Cedar on Division No. 3 will be large enough for posts in about thirty years. 
(See PI. XXin, fig. 2.) At that time the ground will probably be covered with 
young growth of other species, which is already beginning to come up in the 
open portions. 

It has been shown that the annual increase on the 41 acres covered with large 
timber is 34.<5 cords, or the growth for ten years 246 cords. That amount may, 
therefore, be cut during this period without trenching on the producing capital 
of the forest. 

The owner of the forest desires to sell the timber, so far as possible, on the stump. 
Since a better contract can be made when a considerable amount of timber is 



308 



YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



removed at one time, it is proposed to cut the majority of trees suitable for saw 
lumber in one year. This timber is to be removed in reproduction cuttings, and 
the total amount of it, including tops, is 135 cords. It is estimated that the sum 
total of the openings made by the removal of this timber would be 4 acres. If 
this system of cutting were extended indefinitely, and 4 acres were reproduced 
every ten years, the whole tract of 41 acres would have been cut over in about 
one hundred years. At that time the seedlings now established would be one 
hundred years old. In other words, the rotation of the timber would be one hun- 
dred years. The Chestnut and Ash would in many cases be ready for the ax in 
less than one hundred years, but they would be counterbalanced by other species 
which it would be advisable to leave longer than this period. 

It is proposed to cut 115 cords in tbe next ten years by improvement thinnings. 
The amount to be removed from each division is given in the schedule fol- 
lowing. The various amounts have been determined according to the needs of 
the forest. It would be most profitable to cut this material in one year, but for 
the good of the forest it will be better to thin twice during this period. In the 
latter case about one-half should be cut at the same time as the reproduction 
cutting and the remainder in about five years. 

Schedule, or special icorlcing plan, for ten years. 





Reproduction cutting. 


Im- 
prove- 
ment 
cut- 
ting, 
total 
cords. 




Number 
of division. 


Oak. 


Chest- 
nut. 


Hickory. 


Other 
trees. 


Ties. 


Total 
cords, 
includ- 
ing 
logs 
and 
ties. 


Remarks. 


1 


Boardft. 


Boardft. 


Boardft. 


Boardft. 










2 


5,000 


300 


900 


050 


4 


30 


20 




3 


Cut cedar posts for 
local uses. 


4 


5,000 
2,000 




300 
275 
140 


200 
190 
160 


14 
147 


30 
60 


45 
30 
10 
10 


5 


4,200 




6 




7 




400 


40 


15 














Total. 


1,200 


4,000 


1,015 


1,500 


205 


135 


115 





RULES FOR CUTTING. 

The following rules should be observed in cutting the timber: 

(1) No trees shall be cut which are not marked. 

(2) Whenever possible, trees standing over young growth must be felled toward 
or away from their longest and heaviest branches. In this way the space struck 
by the crown of the falling trees will be as narrow as possible, and but little young 
growth will be broken by the sideways sweep of the long branches. 

(3) Care must be exercised not to break or otherwise injure young growth. 

(4) All trees must be worked up at once after cutting. If the trees are left on 
the ground for some time, the injury to the young growth is greater than if they 
are removed quickly, for saplings which are bent will recover if they are released 
quickly, and many seedlings will be saved which would be broken or smothered. 

(5) The brush from the tops must be cut and scattered about. The danger from 
fire is lessened in this way, because the branches and twigs decay more rapidly 
when in contact with the ground; and an opportunity is given seedlings to ger- 
minate and develop, which under the piles of brush would be impossible. 



UTILIZING SURPLUS FRUITS. 

By G. B. Brackett, 
Pomologist. 

BEST DISPOSITION OP FRUIT AN IMPORTANT QUESTION. 

How best to dispose of a crop of fruit and prevent waste is a very 
important matter for the consideration of all practical fruit growers; 
and it means a great deal more than appears at first thought. When 
applied to our nation's fruit industry, it pi"esents for consideration 
the product of large areas, upon which large amounts of money and 
labor have been expended. Upon the economic and profitable dispo- 
sition of the product depends the financial success. 

It is well known to every culturist that a crop of fruit can not be 
grown that will be first class in its entirety. There always will be 
more or less of inferior product in all crops, which should never 
be placed on the market to compete with the higher grade fruit. 
Such a use causes a glut in the market, which depresses the price of 
both grades, and leaves no margin of profit on either; hence, the 
necessity of providing for the disposition of inferior grades in some 
other way to the best advantage possible. 

Again, markets may at times become glutted to such an extent as 
to afford no profitable sale for oven first-class products in their natu- 
ral state, thereby resulting in more or less loss, unless they are 
prepared artificially in some other commercial form. 

The proper solution of this question has great weight in its relation 
to the early ripening products, and especially those of a quickly 
perishing character and which require immediate consumption or 
preservation to prevent loss. 

It always should be borne in mind by the producer that each bushel 
of apples, pears, peaches, etc., of the tree fruits, and each quart of 
blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, etc., of the class known as 
small fruit, represents a specific cost and outlay of money; hence, 
every measure of any kind of fruit product allowed to go to waste 
is a loss of just so much invested capital. 

Considering these matters in all their relations to the fruit industry 

from an economical standpoint, it is readily seen how important it is 

that provision for the utilization of the entire crop in some form or 

other should be at hand and ready for immediate use on all fruit 

plantations, more especially on those remotely situated or otherwise 

inconvenient to markets. 

309 



3L0 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 
PROCESSES FOR SATING THE CROP. 

The several processes which arc now in use and regarded as effi- 
cient to preserve a crop and put it in commercial form are: 

(1) Sun drying or evaporation with artificial heat. 

(2) Canning. 

(3) Extracting of the jiiice. 

If a plantation is too remote from a market or a preserving factory 
to justify carriage of the fruit, it will be necessary to work the entire 
crop at the plantation into concentrated commercial form through the 
use of one or all of the processes above mentioned. 

In some localities all the product of an apple orchard, excepting the 
first-class fruit (which will generally find a ready sale), may be profit- 
ably worked into cider for beverage uses and into vinegar. 

The product of peach, pear, and plum orchards, in case the first 
grade does not find ready sale, in its natural state, can be saved from 
waste through the processes of evaporation and canning. 

The product of small fruit plantations, being quickly perishable, 
requires immediate disposition, either in its natural state or presei'- 
vation by evaporation and canning to prevent losses. In seasons of 
great f ruitf ulness there generally occurs a glutted market, and despite 
the best efforts of agents and commission houses some large shipments 
are lost in part or in whole which might be saved by evaporation and 
canning. • 

EVAPORATION. 

It is not the intention to go into details in this paper, but to treat 
the subject in a general way. Evaporation is the most economical 
and profitable process known for the preservation of fruits, and has 
almost wholly superseded the old process pf sun drying. It is suitable 
for all kinds of orchard products and some classes of small fruits, and 
when properly conducted gives to the fruit the best conditions of a 
healthful food. Compared with sun-dried, the fruit preserved by 
evaporation will keep better, is more nutritious and digestible, less 
acid, and commands a better price in market. Evaporated fruit, by 
its cheapness, is within the reach of all the people, and thus is 
regarded as the most economical form for general use. The importance 
and economy of any process which will safely preserve the products 
of our orchards can hardly be estimated, but the one which will give 
the best results with the least waste is the one that should receive the 
greatest attention. The changes that take place and the product 
resulting from those changes are the same in all slow processes of 
drying, whether in the sun or by some of the imperfect evaporators 
that have been in use. In order to secure the best results of evapora- 
tion it is necessary to run the temperature as high as possible without 
injury to the fruit and to keep the air in rapid circulation throughout 
the chamber. It is under these conditions that the slight chemical 



UTILIZING SURPLUS FRUITS. 311 

changes in perfectly evaporated fruit take place, the albumen, instead 
of being slowly dried, will be coagulated, and greatly assist in the 
preservation of the fruit with all the richness and flavor it possessed 
in its natural state. 

Treatment of the fruit. — Apples are generally peeled, cored, 
and dried by the use of machines adapted to the purpose. They are 
put upon trays, submitted or not, according to choice, to the fumes of 
burning sulphur for a very few minutes for the purpose of bleaching, 
and are then passed to the evaporator, where the temperature is suffi- 
ciently high to produce the desired results. 

There are some who object to the bleaching process, and perhaps 
with justification, at least if the treatment is excessive, so that if the 
consumer consulted the sense of taste rather than the gratification of 
sight there would be less demand for the bleached product. 

Pears and peaches are usually cut in halves and evaporated with or 
without being peeled, and may or may not be submitted to the bleach- 
ing process, according to circumstances. Plums or prunes are treated 
somewhat differently from most other fruits, and especially is this 
true in regard to the ripeness of the fruit. For evaporating, if should 
be allowed to remain on the tree until ripe enough to fall to the 
ground of its own weight, and some even allow it to remain on the 
ground some time after it has fallen. It is then gathered and passed 
over graders, which separate it into several grades or sizes and at the 
same time remove leaves and all other foreign matter, after which it 
is placed in bins to remain a short time for. further ripening. It is 
now ready for treatment and curing. There are two methods prac- 
ticed in curing prunes, about which there is a diversity of opinion. 
One is what is known as the dipping process, which consists in 
immersing the fruit for a few minutes in a solution of concentrated 
lye in the proportion of 1 pound of lye to 12 gallons of water heated 
to the boiling point and maintained at that point during the dipping. 
The fruit, having been placed in wire baskets, is dipped in the solu- 
tion, then taken out and rinsed in pure water to remove all traces of 
lye and other impurities, placed upon trays, and put into the evapo- 
rator. The advocates of this process claim that the fruit dries more 
quickly, thus causing a saving in expense. 

The other method is without dipping in the hot solution. The fruit 
is taken from the bins, each grade being kept separate, thoroughly 
rinsed to take away impurities, then spread uniformly on trays, and 
at once put into the evaporator. Those who advocate this method 
claim that the cured product is superior in all respects to the dipped 
fruit and commands a higher price in the market, more than enough 
to offset the extra expense of drying. 

The time of exposure of the fruit in the evaporator must be deter- 
mined by observation and experience and the degree of heat. From 
twenty to twenty-four hours is the average time required for drying. 



312 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

If exposed too long it not only lessens the weight of the product, but 
injures the quality; if not long enough, the result will bo fermenta- 
tion and mold. 

Gradiixj. — After the trays are removed from the evaporator the 
fruit is put into bins, where it is stirred occasionally and allowed to 
remain until it has passed through the sweating process. In the case 
of prunes, they are passed over a grader, which separates them into 
the different grades, as 20's to 30's, 30's to 40's, and so on, according 
to size, the grades indicating the number of dried prunes to the 
pound. Evaporated apples are graded according to quality and are 
sold on the market under three different brands, the best as " Fancy, * 
second as "Choice," and third as "Prime." None but the best qual- 
ity of white-fleshed varieties should be used for the highest grade, 
"Fancy." 

Chops. — After using the main crop of apples for the three grades 
above mentioned, there still remains a lower grade that can not be 
worked into the above-mentioned class, but which can be profitably 
utilized by chopping the whole fruit without peeling or coring into 
coarse pieces and converting it by evaporation into what is known as 
"Chops." This has a considerable commercial value for export 
purposes. 

Cores and skins. — In the preparation of apples for evaporation the 
saving of the cores and skins is an additional source of profit accru- 
ing from the commercial disposition of the orchard products. This 
may be accomplished by evaporation under the same treatment given 
to the solid parts of the fruit. When properly cured they become an 
article of commercial value in the home and foreign markets, and are 
used in the manufacture of jellies and wines. 

Evaporators. — Many different kinds of evaporators are now 
offered for sale, and upon the right selection of one of the many suc- 
cess greatly depends. Careful investigation of the various machines 
should be made before purchasing, with a view to finding the one that 
will produce the best results at the least cost, and of such capacity as 
shall meet the wants of the purchaser. Great improvements have 
been made in evaporators since their first introduction; hence, the 
necessity of a thorough study of the latest and most improved. There 
are two principles or methods involved in the process of evaporation 
as now practiced ; one is by the use of heated air made to circulate as 
rapidly as possible throughout the box or room in which the trays of 
fruit are placed, and the other is by means of steam pipes passing 
back and forth through the chamber of the evaporator. This latter 
method is of comparatively recent introduction, and is found to be 
the most economical and satisfactory where the business is carried on 
extensively. The heat is more evenly distributed to all parts of the 
room and the temperature is uniform, avoiding all danger of scorching 



UTILIZING SURPLUS FRUITS. 313 

the fruit, which is liable to occur in the use of hot air, where some 
of the trays are iu close proximity to the fire. The use of steam will 
no doubt in time supersede all other methods. But whichever method 
is used, if the heat is not sufficient or the circulation of air imperfect, 
the product will not be of the best quality of evaporated fruit, but 
will instead be more like the sun-dried article, dark colored, tough, 
Avith less of the natural flavor, and the juices may have undergone a 
slow process of fermentation. 

CANNING. 

The canning process is so simple and generally so well understood 
in its application to fruits and vegetables that it seems hardly neces- 
sary to go into extended details on the stibject. The fundamental 
principle involved is that of sterilizing or destroying the microbes of 
fermentation by the application of heat. Fruits properly preserved 
in this manner retain much of the natural flavor and richness and 
are both healthful and nutritious. Almost every household in the 
rural districts may have at hand ready for use all the necessary can- 
ning material for x>utting up a sufficient supply of fruit for home- 
consumption. With a little experience and study of the methods, 
every housewife may become a proficient canner, and thus be able to- 
save much of the fruit that otherwise would be lost. Tin cans are 
much less expensive and surer of success than any other. They may 
be sealed with Avax prepared for the purpose, but cans sealed in this- 
way will only do for home use, as they will not stand transportation. 
The safe and only method for sealing cans for commercial purpose* 
is by soldering the caps, by which more thorough sterilization may be 
effected. As heat is the all-important factor in destroying ferment 
germs, it is essential that these principles be understood in order to 
instire successful work. The fruit after being prepared substantially 
the same as for evaporation, and after the addition of a sufficient, 
amount of sugar to sweeten to taste, should be submitted to a boiling 
heat until thoroughly scalded through, and put into the cans at once, 
filling them as full as possible and sealing immediately, making them 
absolutely air-tight. 

In canning, a lower degree than 212° F. is generally unreliable, and 
as this degree applied only for a sufficient length of time does not, as 
a rule, unduly cook ordinary fruit, it may be adopted as a safe 
standard. 

All classes of fruit may be preserved by this process, but it is 
especially satisfactory for such fruits as peaches, pears, and all kinds 
of small fruits. 

It is therefore a valuable aid in the absence of a convenient market 
in saving the surplus of a crop or any portion of it which may become 
overripe. 



314 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

EXTRACTING THE JUICE. 

This might properly be termed the cleariiig-up process as generally 
followed. All culls and tailings of the crop are dumped in the stock 
to be worked up for cider and vinegar, as it is not often necessary to 
work up by this process any of the first and second grades to save them 
from waste. A market can generally be found near by for all firm, 
first-class fruit, and canneries and evaporators are common at every 
town throughout the rural districts, which offer a market for all 
second-grade fruit; hence, it is the third grade, composed of dam- 
aged and refuse fruit, that this process saves to the grower. 

Cidek. — Cider, for a beverage, to be healthful and palatable, should 
be made from clean, sound fruit, and of varieties that contain the 
essential constituents for making a first-class article. 

All worm-infested, half-rotten, and immature fruit should be thrown 
out to be worked with the stock for vinegar, and the manufacturer 
should bear in mind that his goods should be a wholesome as well as 
a palatable beverage. Neatness and care in this line are as important 
to the consumer as in any other manufactured pure food. 

The process consists in grinding or grating the fruit sufficiently fine 
to yield up its juice readily under proper pressure. 

There are various kinds of machinery manufactured for use in cider 
making, but one that will extract the juice most thoroughly is the one 
that will be most profitable. 

In selecting machinery the efficiency of a press is as important (if 
not more important) as that of a grater, for, no matter how thoroughly 
the pulp may be reduced, if the press power be insufficient more or 
less waste will occur in extracting the juice. 

Fermentation. — It is a well-known fact that fermentation is due to 
the growth of certain fungous yeast plants in the fermenting fluid, 
and it is from this knowledge that an explanation is afforded for many 
of the difficulties that arise in the process and which point out the 
means best adapted to meet them successfully. The condition most 
favorable to the rapid growth of these plants, such as juices rich in 
saccharine matter and a warm temperature, produce a quick, active 
fermentation, whereas the watery juices deficient in glucose cause 
them to grow so weakly that a slow fermentation sets in and creates 
great difficulty at first to increase its activity and afterwards to 
arrest it. 

The fermentation of cider, as described by Downing, is conducted 
as follows : The newly filled casks, with their bungs out, are placed 
either in a cool cellar or in the open air, and as the scum works out 
the barrel is kept filled with some of the same must reserved for this 
purpose. In a few days the rising Avill commonly cease, which indi- 
cates that the first fermentation is over. The bung is now closed, 
and in two or three days driven in firmly, leaving a small vent-hole 



UTILIZING SURPLUS FRUITS. 315 

open, which should also be stopped a few days later. The clear cider 
is now racked off by siphon into a clean cask, and if in a few days it 
is found to remain quiet, a gill of finely powdered charcoal is added 
to each barrel, when it is closed and left until spring. In March it is 
again racked off, and if the cider is not quite bright, three-quarters of 
an ounce of isinglass, previously dissolved, is added to each barrel. 
In a few days it will be fit for bottling, and this n*ay be done at any 
time up to May. 

ORCHARD Brandy. — Another product of the orchard may readily 
be obtained from the refuse of apples, when it is thought desirable to 
do so, just as it is from that of grapes after wine making. The pomace 
from the press is added to the lees in the first racking, with a suf- 
ficiency of water, and refermented. As soon as the active fermen- 
tation is over and the lees settle to the bottom, the spirits may at once 
be distilled from the liquor, or it may be distilled with better results 
from the cider after the first fermentation of the must. In either 
case the distillation should be effected by means of the water bath, 
or the brandy will have a rancid taste. The brandy will vary in 
flavor and strength according to the richness of the must and the care 
with which it has been made. 

Vinegar. — The manufacture of vinegar does not in its first stages 
exact the same care in treatment as that of cider. The process of 
grinding and pressing is the same. The juice is placed in vats or 
casks and exposed to the action of the air, which causes it to undergo 
vinous and then acetic fermentation. After remaining in this condi- 
tion for a sufficient length of time it should be drawn off into clean 
casks, care being taken to prevent the sediment from entering with 
the juice. In these new vessels it must still be exposed to the action 
of the air until acidified, when it should be again drawn off into clean 
casks, the same care being observed regarding the sediment. In this 
second set of new vessels it must still be exposed to the action of the 
air until thoroughly acidified, when it should be again drawn off and 
closed up tight to prevent putrefactive fermentation. 

Vinegar, pure and wholesome, is generally made from apples and 
grape juice, although an equally fine article may be made from refuse 
pears, cherries, and other fruits. 

Fruit Juices, Unpermented Wine, and^ruit Sirups. — These 
may be put up and preserved by the same process as described for 
canning fruits, but glass jars or bottles are preferable to tin for this 
purpose. For the best results, such fruit juices should be carefully 
expressed, strained, and kept quiet until well settled, and only the 
decanted pure juice canned or bottled. All such preserved fruit 
juices make delicious, wholesome, and nourishing nonalcoholic sum- 
mer drinks. They have an appetizing value in cookery. The demand 
for such goods is constantly increasing. 



316 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Jellies. — This is one of the most tasty and attractive forms in which 
fruit is put upon the market. Jelly is made from pure fruit juice and 
sugar in equal proportions. Apples, quinces, apricots, plums, grapes, 
strawberries, etc., may be used in its manufacture. Fruits for jellies 
should not bo overripe, and should contain a certain amount of pectic 
acid, a gelatinous substance soluble in fruit juice, but which, when 
combined with sugar, exposed to heat for a certain time and then 
cooled, causes the juice to coagulate, thus forming jelly. 

There are many jelly manufactories in the United States at present, 
and the annual output of the jelly trade has been estimated at 
20,000,000 pounds. The business is a profitable one, and the demand 
for the .product is annually increasing, its low price enabling all to 
indulge in it. The larger part of the jelly now made is from the 
apple. Much apple jelly flavored with other fruit flavorings is sold 
for the jelly of fruits less disposed to form jelly. 

UTILIZING THE FALLEN PRODUCT. 

Through the attacks of insects, which become numerous in some 
orchards, and through violent windstorms and severe droughts, a por- 
tion of the product will prematurely fall and be wasted unless means 
are used to save it. 

This fallen fruit is unfit for any purpose except for swine food, and 
it is therefore advisable to turn hogs into the orchard to forage upon 
it, thus converting it into a food for an animal having a commercial 
value, and at the same time causing the destruction of the infesting 
insect larvae and preventing the future increase and spread of such 
damaging agents. 

Thus, it will be seen that there is no necessity for any waste occur- 
ring in any portion of the product of an orchard under economical 
management, as all parts of the fruit may be profitably saved by the 
several methods presented. 

What has been said has been more especially in regard to saving 
the product of the smaller or family orchard, but the principles 
involved are the same whether applied to large or small establish- 
ments, and the means may be provided according to the necessity of 
the larger or smaller operation. 



CONSTRUCTION OF GOOD COUNTRY ROADS. 

By Maurice O. Eldridge, 
Assistant in Office of Road Inquiry. 

INTRODUCTION. 

As "the road is a type of civilized society," it becomes the duty of 
every enlightened nation to solve the great questions of road con- 
struction and maintenance to its own satisfaction and good. Rome's 
greatness marked an era in road construction which was never before 
surpassed, and which has been equaled only in the present century 
and in the most civilized countries. 

The condition of the public roads in the United States is probably 
worse than in any other civilized country in the world. This condi- 
tion is due largely not only to the undeveloped condition of the coun- 
try and to the allowing of local circumstances to determine location, 
etc., but to the lack of knowledge on the part of many road officials 
as to the primary principles of road construction, resulting in the 
injudicious use of millions of dollars of the public money annually. 

Quoting an eminent authority, "The increased cost of haulage 
actually done is by no means the only loss resulting from bad roads. 
The loss of perishable products for want of access to market, the 
failure to reach markets when prices are good, and the failure to cul- 
tivate products which would be marketable if markets were always 
accessible, add many millions to the tax of bad roads," not to speak 
of the detriment to social communication, education, and religion. 
In fact the movement for good roads deeply concerns every commer- 
cial, financial, and social interest in the land. "We are handicapped 
in all the markets of the world by an enormous waste of labor in the 
primary transportation of our products and manufactures while our 
home markets are restricted by difficulties in rural distribution which 
not infrequently clog all the channels of transportation, trade, and 
finance." 

PRESENT WORK TO BE CONDUCTED WITH A VIEW TO FUTURE 

IMPROVEMENT. 

All the important roads in the United States can be and probably 
will be macadamized or otherwise improved in the not distant future. 
This expectation should govern the present management of roads 
everywhere; no labor or expense should be expended upon them 

317 



318 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

other than that which loads to their ultimate improvement as hard 
roads. 

Many roads of this country were originally laid out without any 
attention to general topography, and in most cases followed the set- 
tlers' path from cabin to cabin, the pig's trail from his favorite nut- 
producing trees to his wallow in the mud and water of the swamps, 
or the boundary line of farms regardless of grades or direction. Most 
of them remain to-day where they were originally located, and where 
untold labor, expense, and energy have been wasted in trying to haul 
over thorn and in endeavoring to improve their deplorable condition. 
It is a great error to continue to follow these primitive paths with pub- 
lic highways. The proper thing to do is to call in a good road engineer 
and have the location so changed as to throw the roads around the 
ends or along the sides of the steep hills and ridges instead of contin- 
uing to go over them, or in raising the roads up on dry, solid ground, 
instead of splashing through the mud and water of the bogs and creeks 
in the lowlands. 

LOCATION. 

If a road goes over a hill when it might go around, the labor and 
expense put upon it are absolutely wasted, and the sooner its direction 
is changed the better. If a road is not rounded up and surface drained, 
it should be, not only for present use as an earth road but as a prelim- 
inary to macadamizing. If it is not underdrained in all wet spots, 
this -should be the first work done. Nothing indeed will pay better 
for present use than putting in tile or stone drains. 

In laying out a road, straightness should always be sacrificed to 
obtain a comparatively level surface. Although' this is one of the 
most important principles connected with road building, it is one of 
the most frequently violated. There is no objection to an absolutely 
straight road, but graceful and natural curves conforming to "the lay 
of the land add beauty to the landscape besides enhancing the value 
of property. 



Good roads should wind around hills instead of running over them ; 
and in many cases this would not increase their length, as it is no 
further around some hills than over them. Moreover, as a general 
rule, the horizontal length of a road maybe advantageously increased, 
to avoid an ascent, by at least twenty times the perpendicular height 
thus saved; for instance, to escape a hill 100 feet high it would bo 
better for the road to make such a circuit as would increase its length 
2,000 feet. The reasons for this are manifold, the principal one being 
that a horse can pull only four-fifths as much on a grade of 2 feet in 
100, and gradually less as the grade increases until with a grade of 10 
feet in 100 he can draw but one-fourth as much as he (ran on a level 
road. 



CONSTRUCTION OF GOOD COUNTKY ROADS. 319 

As a chain is no stronger than its weakest link, just so tlio great- 
est load which can be hauled over a road is the load which can be 
hauled up the steepest hill on that road. The cos,t of haulage is, 
therefore, necessarily increased in proportion to the grade, as it costs 
one and one-half times as much to haul over a road having a o per cent 
grade and three times as much over one having a 10 per cent grade 
as on a level road.. As a perfectly level road can seldom bo had, it is 
well to know the steepest allowable grade. If the hill be one of great 
length, it is best to have the lowest part steepest, upon which the 
horse is capable of exerting his full strength, and to make the slope 
more gentle toward the summit to correspond with the continually 
decreasing strength of the fatigued animal. 

It has been estimated that a horse can pull better where the road 
is slightly undulating; say, where it has a level stretch, then a slight 
grade not steeper than 1 foot in 125 feet, and following this a decline 
of the same steepness, ete. In this way three different sets of muscles 
are brought into action, and while the one is being used the others 
are being rested. It is hardly necessary to recommend the construc- 
tion of roads according to this principle at present, as we are a long 
way from even comparatively level ones. That the principle is a 
true one, however, is proved by the fact that a bicyclist finds it easier 
and more restful to ride over slightly undulating roads than over 
absolutely level ones. 

All things being considered, the horizontal grade of a road should 
never be greater than 3 feet to the 100, nor less than 1 foot in 125 feet. 

DEAINAGE. 

Inasmuch as all things are governed by nature's law, and nothing 
by chance, we ean only expect to secure eeonomy bj r a strict observ- 
ance and application of those principles which are in perfect harmony 
with that law. Water will not flow up hill, neither will it flow off 
into ditches when there are no ditches made for it to flow into; on the 
contrary, water flows in that direction where the least resistance to 
the laws of gravity exists; if that is down the middle of the road, then 
you will find after each heavy rain the " tell-tale " gull y. Water, 
being the greatest enemy of the road, it should flow freely off the 
surface. This is accomplished by preparing the bed so that there 
maybe a fall from the center to the sides of 6 inches, never exceeding 
9 inches, on a road 30 feet wide; for a road 18 to 20 feet wide, from 3 
to 4 inches is enough. A ditch should be constructed on either side 
of the road to carry away easily and quickly all water from the road 
and vicinity. These ditches should have a continuous fall through- 
out their entire length, and their size should depend upon the amount 
of water they are expected to carry. Water should never be allowed 
to flow across a roadway; culverts, tile drains, or, if nothing better 
can be had, a hollow log should be provided for that purpose. 



320 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Iii order to have good roads, it is just as necessary that water should 
not be allowed to attack the substructure from below as that it should 
not be permitted to percolate through it from above. Especially is 
the former provision essential in cold climates, whore- if water is 
allowed to remain in the substructure the whole roadway is liable to 
be broken up by frosts or destroyed by the wheels of vehicles. Where 
roads run over low, wet lands or over certain kinds of clayey soils, 
surface drainage is not all that is necessary. 

Underdrains are easily and cheaply made and, when properly con- 
structed with the best tools and materials available, will last for ages. 
They should be about 4 feet deep and carefully graded at the bottom 
so as to have a fall throughout their entire length of at least G inches 
for each 100 feet in length. Tile drains should be used if possible, 
but if they can not be secured, large flat stones can be carefully 
placed so as to form an open channel at the bottom. Slim fagots of 
wood, or brush bound together in bundles and laid lengthwise at the 
bottom will answer fairly well. The ditch should then be filled with 
field stones, small stones, or gravel, or, if none of these can be had, 
with soil. The drains should be protected by straw, sod, or brush, so 
as to prevent the soil from washing in and clogging them. 

THE SURFACING OF ROADS. 

A great difference in roads lies in the nature of their surface. On 
a well-made gravel road one horse can draw twice as much as he can 
on a well-made earth road, while on a hard and smooth stone road he 
can pull four times as much. Consequently, where wo have good 
gravel roads, instead of earth ones, it is possible to make one horse 
do the work of two, while on stone roads one horse will do the work 
of four. On a level steel road one horse can do the work of twenty 
or more horses over a level common road. 

After a road has been properly located, graded, and drained, the 
important qualities of hardness and smoothness should by all means 
be secured. The various surfaces for good country roads will be con- 
sidered in the following order: Earth, gravel, and stone. 

EARTH ROADS. 

For earth roads, as commonly built, there is little to be said. They 
should be tolerated only in a new country or where there is absolutely 
nothing but earth of which to make them. Yet, with earth alone a 
passable road can be made and maintained, if sufficient care is taken 
to have it thoroughly rolled and drained and the surface kept in a 
proper condition. 

Whenever the subgrade soil is found unsuitable, it should be 
removed and replaced with good material rolled to. a bearing. On 
the prepared subgrade the earth should be spread, harrowed if neces- 
sai*y, and then rolled to a bearing. 



Yearbook U. S Dept. of Agriculture, 16 



Plate XXIV. 




Fig. 1.— An Ideal Gravel Road in Soldiers' Home Grounds, 
Washington, D. C. 




Fig. 2.— United States Object-lesson Road at Geneva, N. Y. (Placing the 
Macadam Foundation.) 



Yearbook U. S Dept. of Agriculture, 1898. 



Plate XXV. 




Fig. 1.— Surfacing a Macadam Road in Massachusetts. 




Fig. 2.-State Road in Massachusetts. (Laying the Telford Foundation.. 



CONSTRUCTION OF GOOD COUNTRY ROADS. 321 

With narrow roads, enough material may be excavated to raise the 
roadway above the subgrade in forming the side ditches by means of 
road machines. If material can not be secured as indicated, the 
required earth should be obtained by widening the excavations, 01- 
from cuttings on the line of the new roadway, or from borrow pits 
close by. When the earth is brought up to the final height it is again 
harrowed, then trimmed by means of road levelers or road machines, 
and ultimately rolled to a hard and smooth surface. 

No filling should be brought up in layer3 exceeding 9 inches in 
thickness. During the rolling sprinkling should be attended to 
whenever the character of the soil requires such aid for its proper- 
consolidation. The cross section of the roadway must be maintained 
during the last rolling stage by the addition of earth as needed. 
On clay soils a layer of sand, gravel, or ashes spread on the roadway 
will prevent the sticking of clay to the roller. The finishing touches- 
to the road surface should be given by the heaviest roller at hand. 
Before the earth road is open to traffic the side ditches should be- 
cleaned and left with the drain tiling in good working order. 

GRAVEL, ROADS. 

Where good packing gravel is easily obtained, a satisfactory road 
can be made by covering the prepared surface for a greater or less, 
depth with this material. (See PI. XXIV, fig. 1.) Blue gravel or- 
hardpan and clean bank gravel, when properly mixed and placed,, 
give a surface almost like concrete in hardness. 

The most excellent gravel for road building stands perpendicular- 
in the bank, compact and firm, and can not be dislodged except by 
use of the pick, and when it is dislodged falls in great, solid chunks. 
Such material contains just enough cementing, properties to enable it 
to readily pack and consolidate, and when properly placed on the 
prepared roadbed makes a surface which possesses most all the quali- 
ties of a good stone road. Rounded or water- worn gravel should never- 
be used for the surfacing of roads, as such gravel remains loose and 
shifting, like materials in a shaken sieve. For the wearing surface 
gravel should be comparatively clean, hard, angular, and tough. 
Such gravel is easily consolidated, and will not readily pulverize into 
dust and mud. 

The foundations for stone and gravel roads are too often neglected. 
It is well to remember that without a durable foundation there is no 
durable road. The cross section of the foundation should conform to 
that of the finished road, and should be so thoroughly rolled that 
wagons passing over it make no perceptible impression. 

A layer of gravel not loss than 4 inches nor more than 6 inches in 

thickness should then be spread on,' sprinkled thoroughly, and rolled 

until very compact and firm. Next, spread another layer of the best 

gravel available over the surface to a depth of not exceeding 4 inches. 

3 a98 21 



322 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

All inequalities, together with stone and gravels exceeding three- 
fourths of an inch in diameter, should then be raked out. It is 
again sprinkled and rolled until the desired hardness and smooth- 
ness are obtained. The roller is doubtless the most important piece 
of machinery connected with the building and maintaining of roads, 
and it is well to remember that it can not be used too often, especially 
in the spring, when the frosts and rains are so destructive. 

STONE ROADS. 

The advantages to be derived from good stone roads are so manifold 
that all other material should be discarded where tough road stone is 
available for their construction and maintenance. But it is greater 
eeonomy to use earth or gravel than to go to the expense of macadamiz- 
ing roads with too soft, too brittle, or rotten material. Many use this 
because it is more easily prepared. A road should never be surfaced 
with anything short of trap rock or serpentine. Inferior material may 
often be used with impunity for the first layer or foundation, but even 
this should be selected with great care. 

The evils resulting from improper construction of stone roads are 
even greater than those from the use of improper material. John L. 
Macadam never intended that a heterogeneous conglomeration of stone 
and mud should be called a macadam road. Neither did he intend 
that the name should be applied to roads constructed of large and 
small stones mixed together and spread upon the surface. The sur- 
face of a road built in this manner is constantly disturbed by the 
larger stones, which work to the surface and which are knocked hither 
and thither by the Avheels of vehicles and the feet of animals. Such 
methods of construction can not be too severely condemned. 

PROPER CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS. 

Broken-stone roads may be conveniently divided into two classes — 
macadam and telfordT The principal difference between these two 
constructions is as to the propriety or necessity of a paved foundation 
beneath the coating of broken siono. Macadam denied the advantage 
of this, while Telford supported and practiced ft. This point will not 
be argued here, but it is suggested that good judgment should be used 
in the selection of one or the other of these systems. The macadam 
system is the best under some conditions, while the telford is more 
advantageous under others. The latter system seems to have the 
advantage in swampy, wet places, or where the soil is in strata vary- 
ing in hardness, or where the foundation is liable to get soft in spots. 
Under most other circumstances experienced road builders prefer the 
macadam construction. 

The earth foundation for either system is identical. It should have 
the same slopes from center to sides as the finished road, with suffi- 
cient shouldering to hold the stone in place at the sides. All vegetable 



CONSTRUCTION OF GOOD COUNTRY ROADS. 323 

matter should be removed and the earth made perfectly smooth and 
of uniform quality. It should then be thoroughly rolled until hard 
and dry. 

MACADAM. 

The first course or foundation of the macadam road can be made of 
the coarsest stones from the crusher, provided that they are of uniform 
size, and that each stone shall weigh not over 6 ounces, and will pass 
through a 2^-inch ring. (See PI. XXIV, fig. 2.) Where the road is 
to be 8 inches thick this foundation should be 4 inches after rolling. 
If the road is to be of greater thickness than 8 inches, the foundation 
should be composed of two courses, separately rolled. 

After having thoroughly rolled this foundation apply enough ground 
stone or coarse sand to fill the interstices. This should be wetted 
and thoroughly rolled until a hard and uniform surface is obtained. 
Upon this foundation the surface material should be placed, wetted, 
and thoroughly rolled. The stones of which this surface material is 
composed should be, if possible, crushed to a size of 1 inch in diame- 
ter, but if that is not possible they should never be larger in diameter 
than 1^ inches. 1 Ground-stone screenings should then be spread upon 
the surface, wetted, and rolled as before, until a hard, smooth surface 
is obtained. (See PI. XXV, fig. 1.) 

TELFORD. 

The telford foundation is composed of stones of various sizes, not 
exceeding 10 inches in length and 6 inches in breadth on the broadest 
side, nor 3 inehes in thickness on the narrow side. These stones are 
placed lengthwise across the road, breaking joints as near as possible; 
the interstices are filled with stone chips, all projecting points are 
broken off, and the whole structure is wedged, consolidated, and 
made as Ann as possible. (See PI. XXV, fig. 2.) 

In case the finished road is to be 10 inches in thickness, this founda- 
tion should not exceed 6 inches in depth. If large stones are used, 
so as to necessitate a greater thickness than 6 inches, there should 
always be an allowance made for a 4-inch broken-stone surface. 

This foundation should be covered with coarse sand or stone screen- 
ings, or if neither of these can be obtained, fine loam may be used, so 
that all voids may be filled and the whole brought to a hard and uni- 
form surface by thoroughly rolling. A layer of broken stone is then 
added and treated as in the macadam system. Where the funds 
will permit and the traffic requires it, a regular two-course macadam 
surface may be placed upon the telford foundation with good result. 

1 Macadam declared that a stone of over 1 inch in diameter was detrimental in 
a road, as it had a tendency to tip when the wheels came over it, and thus move 
the adjacent material. This rule does not apply to the foundation material, 
however, as he allowed 6-ounce stones therefor. 



324 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

ROAD MAINTENANCE. 

Without proper care the most expensive road may go to ruin in two 
or three years, and the initial expense of constructing it be nearly 
lost. It is of greatest importance, therefore, that all good roads should 
have daily care. They not only wear out, hut wash out and freeze 
out. Water is the greatest road destroyer. 

It is necessary to the proper maintenance of a road that it should 
"crown" or be higher in the middle than at the sides. If it is flat 
in the center it soon becomes concave, and its middle becomes a pool 
or a mud hole if on a level or a water course if on an incline. 

A hollow, rut, or puddle should never be allowed to remain, but 
should be evenly filled and tamped with the same material of which 
the surface was originally constructed. A rake should be used freely, 
especially in removing stones, lumps,- or ridges. Ruts maybe avoided 
by using wide tires on all wagons which carry heavy loads. If this 
is not always possible, the horses should be hitched so that they will 
walk directly in front of the wheels. This can be accomplished by 
making the double, or whiffle, tree of such length that the ends may 
be in line with the wagon wheels. A horse will not walk in a rut 
unless compelled to do so, and, consequently, if all horses were hitched 
in this way ruts would eventually disappear from stone roads. 

If stones are cracked on a road with a hammer a smooth surface is 
out of the question. Use stone chips for repairing stone roads, and 
remember that all foreign material and rubbish will ruin the best 
road, and that dust and mud will double the cost of maintenance. 

Ordinarily the chief work done by country people on highways is 
repairing the damage resulting from neglect. Why this negligence ? 
The adage, "A stitch in time saves nine," can never bo applied more 
appropriately to anything than to the maintenance or repair of all 
kinds of roads. 

CONCLUSION. 

The above comprises the general principles of road construction and 
maintenance, in conformity with which the art of road making depends 
essentially for its success. The proper conception and fulfillment of 
these principles will result in rapidity, safety, and economy of trans- 
portation. 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN OF THE UNITED STATES. 

By Max West, Ph. D., 
Of the Division of Statistics. 

INTRODUCTION. 

There are within the limits of the United States, exclusive of Alaska 
and the new island possessions, nearly 573,995,000 acres of vacant 
Government land, besides 145,122,000 acres in Indian reservations, 
forest reserves, national parks, reservoir sites, and military reserva- 
tions, or for some other reason reserved from settlement. The vast 
area of Alaska, which is very nearly all public land, together with 
lesser areas in Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and other new dependencies, will 
bring up the total extent of the national domain, exclusive of reserva- 
tions, to nearly 1,000,000,000 acres. The table on page 326 shows the 
distribution of the public land by political divisions, -and also com- 
pares the amount of public land in each State and Territory with the 
amount appropriated. The latter includes lands owned by the States 
and by public and private corporations, as well as all lands either 
actually owned by individuals, or " entered," though not yet patented, 
under the land laws of the United States. Since there are in the 
Western United States some 262,000,000 acres still unsurveyed, the 
figures given should be taken as being only approximately rather than 
absolutely correct; and besides the areas shown there are probably 
a few small isolated tracts of public land remaining undisposed of in 
Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. The figures refer to the conditions exist- 
ing on June 30, 1898, as shown by the report of the Commissioner of 
the General Land Office, except that corrections and additions have 
been made for forest reserves set aside since that time, and for the 
public lands of Hawaii. The table shows that more than 30 per cent 
of the area of the United States proper is still vacant public land, 
while about 7f per cent is reserved. 

Future additions to the reservations for permanent forests and 
reservoir sites will no doubt diminish the area open to settlers, but 
these additions are likely to be counterbalanced in whole or in part by 
the opening of Indian and military reservations to settlement. The 
1,000,000 acres granted to each of the arid States by the so-called 
" Carey act " will still further reduce the amount of land to be obtained 
by settlers directly from the National Government, but doubtless 
without reducing the total amount of public land available for settle- 
ment. At the present rate of disposal to individuals, the vacant lands 
in the United States proper would last for nearly a century. 

325 



326 



YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 



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THE PUBLIC DOMAIN OP THE UNITED STATES. 327 

In the case of land giants in aid of railroad construction, lands 
within the limits of the grants are considered "unappropriated and 
unreserved" until selected by the grantee, though it is not certain 
that the usage of the various land offices is uniform in this respect. 
It follows from this mode of classification that to ascertain the amount 
of land still available for entry a deduction should be made from the 
amount given as "unappropriated and unreserved" to represent that 
portion of railroad grants not yet selected by the railroad companies. 
While no exact figures are available for this purpose, the General 
Land Office estimates the total amount of land granted to aid in rail- 
road construction at 156,893,468 acres, and as the amount patented 
up to July 1, 1808, was but 88,947,862 acres, the remainder is a little 
less than 68,000,(XX) acres. It is, however, very unlikely that patents 
will actually issue to the grantees for half that quantity of land, for 
some portions of the grants had been appropriated by settlers before 
the grants were made, and still larger areas are so mountainous and 
barren as to be scarcely worth selecting and patenting. A deduction 
of 25,000,000 acres from the area unappropriated and unreserved 
would probably be sufficient to cover future patents on account of 
railroad land grants. These grants consist of the alternate sections 
lying within wide strips of territory crossing the western part of the 
United States, and in some cases indemnity lands have been granted 
beyond the limits of the original grants. The Northern Paeifie Rail- 
road grant extends in a band 40 miles wide across Minnesota and 
80 miles wide across North Dakota, Montana, the northern end of 
Idaho, and Washington; the Union Pacific and Central Pacific Rail- 
road grants are in a strip 40 miles wide extending from the Missouri 
River across Nebraska, southern Wyoming, northwestern Utah, 
Nevada, and California, to San Francisco, with branches in Colorado 
and Kansas and northward through California and Oregon ; the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific and Southern Pacific Railroad grants extend from the 
Rio Grande in New Mexico across Arizona and California to San Jose, 
with a branch to the southeastern corner of California. There are 
also many smaller grants in the more easterly public-land States, 
besides several wagon-road grants in Oregon and elsewhere. 

PUBLIC LANDS FIT FOR PRODUCTIVE USF.S. 

Par more important than the exact area of the public domain legally 
open to settlement is the question how much of this public land is 
actually fit for cultivation or for other productive uses. Having 
regard to present conditions, it must be admitted that all the best 
parts of the public domain have been appropriated, and that compar- 
atively very little good agricultural land remains open to settlement; 
the mineral value of that which remains may be very great, but even 
of the mineral deposits it may be said that the most accessible and 



328 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

most easily worked among them have probably been appropriated. 
Looking into the future, the question becomes much more difficult, 
for no one can tell even approximately how much of the land now 
lying waste may be ultimately reclaimed to productive uses. The one 
thing needed, as far as concerns the greater part of the 573,995,000 
acres of vacant public land in the United States proper, including 
nearly all west of the ninety-eighth or one hundredth meridian, is an 
adequate supply of water; and this applies to much of the mineral 
land, as well as to that which it is desired to reclaim for agricultural 
purposes. Vast tracts of arid land in the Western United States con- 
tain in an unusual degree all the elements of fertility except water, and 
with the aid of irrigation could be made to yield more abundantly than 
even the best land of the humid regions. It has been said that "sage- 
brush is unerring evidence of kindly soil and abundant sunshine." 
Estimates of the amo\mt of this land which can be irrigated with 
the water at command vary greatly, but there is none for the arid 
region as a whole more authoritative than those of Maj. J. W. Powell, 
formerly Director of the United States Geological Survey, and Mr. F. 
H. Newell, chief hydrographer of that Survey. Major Powell esti- 
mated that at least 150,000 square miles, or 96,000,000 acres, could be 
economically reclaimed by irrigation within the present generation; 
or, as he said before a Congressional committee in 1890, that about 
100,000,000 acres could be reclaimed by the utilization of perennial 
streams alone. 1 Mr. Newell places the irrigable amount at 74,000,000 
acres, 2 or about 7.6 per cent of the total area of the sixteen Western 
public-land States and Territories. This is a very conservative esti- 
mate, in which financial as well as engineering considerations are' taken 
into account, and it looks not to the remote future, but only to what 
is likely to be profitable and therefore practicable within a generation. 
Future improvements in irrigation engineering and methods and dis- 
coveries of new underground water supplies, together with the increas- 
ing demand for agricultural products resulting from an increasing 
population, may in the course of time make it profitable to irrigate a 
much larger area; but any attempt to state the ultimate extent of 
irrigation would be only conjecture. The amount of land irrigated in 
1889, the latest year for which'consus figures are available, was in most 
of the arid States so small in proportion to the estimated irrigable 
area as to be almost negligible in a rough calculation, so that it will 
not be far from the truth to take Mr. NewelFs conservative figures as 
representing the probable future increase of the irrigated area. But 
it must be remembered that some part of the lands to be reclaimed 
will probably be lands now in private ownership. Although the area 

1 First Annual Report of the United States Irrigation Survey, 1888-89, pp. VII, 
14; Second Annual Report of same, 1889-90, p. 204. 

8 The Public Lands and their Water Supply. (Extract from the Sixteenth 
Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey, 1894-95, p. 494.) 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN OF THE UNITED STATES. 329 

now irrigated is very small as compared with the total irrigable area, 
the canals and ditches already constructed take most of the water 
which is easily obtainable, and the future development of the West 
depends mainly iipon the construction of storage reservoirs and large 
canals, or other difficult and expensive undertakings which are beyond 
the power of individuals or small groups of individuals. Much will 
therefore depend upon tho policy adopted for attracting capital to the 
irrigation industry. It is evident that the work of reclamation must be 
undertaken either by public agencies or by large corporations. 

PUBLIC RESERVATIONS. 

As shown by the table following, the land reserved from settlement 
consists mainly of Indian reservations and forest reserves; but there 
are also numerous military reservations and reservoir sites, seven 
national parks, some unconfirmed Spanish and Mexican private land 
grants in New Mexico and Colorado, and probably some unpatented 
portions of grants in aid of railroads, which are included in the area 
reserved. The figures given under the head of "Forest reserves" 
include some small areas which do not really belong to tho reserves, 
though included within their boundaries. The "reservoir sites" do 
not include all sites selected by the United States Geological Survey, 
but only lands actually withdrawn from settlement. The area of the 
military reservations in the public-land States and Territories, as shown 
by the records of the General Land Office, is 780,838 acres; but accord- 
ing to a recent compilation made in the Judge- Advocate-General's 
Office, which includes national cemeteries and military parks and reser- 
vations purchased by tho Government as well as those reserved from the 
public domain, the total area for those States and Territoriesis more than 
835,000 acres. The General Land Office figures are here given for the 
public-land States, however, as the areas of some of the smaller reser- 
vations are unobtainable from any source, and tho figures are thus 
made comparable with those given in former General Land Office reports 
and in the Sixteenth Annual Report of the United States Geological 
Survey. The comparison shows that the area devoted to military reser- 
vations in the Western States has been diminished by one-half within 
three or four years. Illinois, which the General Land Office report 
still treats as a public-land State and cfedits with 750 acres, is here 
included among "other States." Tho table does not include grounds- 
occupied by public buildings in the District of Columbia and elsewhere ; 
nor does it include the Afognak Forest and Fish-Culture Reserve, the 
military reservation at Fort St. Michaels, or any of the other reserva- 
tions in Alaska. It is impossible to make the total agree with the total 
"area reserved" as given in the General Land Office report, because 
in several Commonwealths the sum of the areas of the Indian, forest, 
and military reservations alone is greater than the area given by tho 
General Land Office as reserved. 



330 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

Classification of lands reserved from settlement in the United States proper. 



States and Terri- 
tories. 


Indian 
reserva- 
tions. 

Acres. 


Forest 
reserves. 


National 
parks. 


Reser- 
voir 
sites. 


Military 
reserva- 
tions. 


Other 

reserved 

land. 


Total. 




Acres. 


Acres. 


-lcres. 


Acres. 

'1,950 

101,412 

15 

86,907 


Acres. 

84,290 


Acres. 

86,240 
19,752,609 




4,496,000 


"180 

"912 

* 1,130, 240 


3,960 




993 
6,050,210 

2,067,068 
4,267 


1,920 


California J 400,556 

Colorado | 1,031,230 


8,571,794 
3,103,360 


3,463 

SI, 875 


16,249,170 
6,225,533 




15, 573 
1,925 


19,840 




l,364,W.O 
"19, 575, 040 

28,279 


4,008,980 1 • 38, 1110 


1,561 


5,415,346 


Indian Territory __ 


19,575,040 


1 ■ 


22,649 
1,515 

2,728 
7 


936,947 

1,173,319 

79,074 

3,417,796 


987,875 






i 




1,474,834 




5,944 
1,5.15, BOB 


1 " 




87,746 










4,983,409 






















1,000 

257,311 

56,719 


_ 1.000 




9,382,400 
124,053 
951,135 
1,607,485 
3,782,347 
6,949,715 
1,484,039 
9,835,781 


5,040,000 


"118,400 


33,201 




14,831,345 

180,772 














5.029,271 
3,746,504 


5,983,409 




2,758,080 




25,179 


159,240 


8,356,488 






3,782,347 










28,880 
1,945 

11,185 
8,957 

18.633 
1.046 

. 8,458 
»43, 266 


230,565 


7,207,160 




4,653,440 
1.166.080 






6,139,424 






• 


107,860 
386.798 


11,120,906 


Utah 


3,972,480 943.360 




139,712 


5,451,307 


Washington 


3,874,324 

393,177 

1,810,000 

* 188, 853 


7,902,720 


'207,360 


12,003,037 






394,223 




3,241,760 


5 1,897, 000 




1,259,425 


8,216,643 


Other States 




232,119 












Total 


83,530,701 


45,885,554 


3,392,792 


240,951 


829,354 


24,874,390 


158,759,742 



1 Including a reservation partly in Mississippi. 
'' Casa Grande Ruin. 
a Hot Springs Reservation. 

* Sequoia, Yosemite, and General Grant National parka. 
4 Part of the Yellowstone National Park. 

* Area according to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 19,822,888 acres. 

* Mount Ranier National Park, created by act of March 2, 1899. 
8 New York, North Carolina, and Iowa. 

Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, 
Maryland, Massachusetts, Now Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Penn- 
sylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennesseo, Texas.and Virginia. 



THE CHARACTER OP THE PUBLIC LANDS. 

The table on page 331 gives approximately the areas of forest and 
woodland, grazing lands, and desert composing the public domain in 
fifteen Western States and Territories. It is based upon the estimates 
of Mr. F. II. Newell, 1 *which show that of 609,000,000 acres of land 
vacant in these States and Territories in 1894 there were about 
106,000,000 acres of forest and woodland, 374,000,000 acres of grazing 
land, and 69,000,000 acres of desert, or land too barren even forgrazing. 



'Sixteenth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey (1894-95), 
p. 494. 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN OF THE UNITED STATES. 



331 



Making allowance for the forest reserves which have been set aside 
since that time, and also for some areas which have been opened for 
settlement, and estimating the probable division of lands entered by 
settlers between timber and grazing land, the land now unappro- 
priated and unreserved is found to consist of about 124,300,000 acres 
of forest and woodland and 365,400,000 acres of grazing land, with 
nearly or quite as much desert land as before. 

Character of the vacant public lands in fifteen Western States and Territories. 



States and Territories. 



Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Idaho 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

Now Mexico .. 
North Dakota. 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

South Dakota - 

Utah 

Washington. .. 
Wyoming 

Total... . 



Woodland 
and forest. 



Acres. 

6,900,000 

900,000 

10,500,000 

24,600,000 

19,800,000 



800,000 

8, COO, 000 

200,000 



19,200,000 



17,000,000 
7,100,000 
8,700,000 



124,300,000 



Grazing 
land. 



Acres. 
29,800,000 
22,500,000 
29,200,000 
19,600,000 
51,800,000 
10,500,000 
40,600,000 
46,000,000 
20,400,000 

7,000,000 
16,700,000 
12,800,000 
16,900,000 

6,300,000 
35,300,000 



365,400,000 



Desert. 



Acres. 
15,000,000 
19,000,000 



30,000,000 



10,000,000 
5,000,000 



09, 000, COO 



Total. 



Acres. 
51,700,000 
42,400,000 
39,700,000 
44,200,000 
71,600,000 
10,500,000 
61,400,000 
54,600,000 
20,600,000 
7, 000, COD 
35,900,000 
12,800,000 
43,900,000 
13,400,000 
49,000,000 



558,700,000 



In the present paper the public domain is briefly described by 
States and Territories (arranged in the order of the extent of public 
lands in each, except that Kansas is treated with the other Western 
States), with special reference to the amount of public land which 
can probably be made available for agricultural purposes. In dis- 
cussing the possibilities of the arid region, Mr. Newell's estimates of 
the available water supply are adopted, but in some cases other esti- 
mates are given also for the sake of comparison. It will be observed 
that estimates made by local engineers are usually, though not in 
every case, considerably larger than those of Mr. Newell. The other 
data given are also taken almost wholly from official sources, including 
State and national publications. It should be borne in mind that the 
vacant public lands are not wholly unused at the present time, for 
grazing is permitted upon them without restraint, and thus they fur- 
nish sustenance to a vast number of sheep, cattle, and horses; but 
the area of good grazing land belonging to the public domain is in 
some localities being rapidly diminished by overstocking and too 
close grazing. 

MONTANA. 

About three-fourths of the total area of Montana, or 71,567,000 
acres, is still vacant public land, mainly unsurveyed. Including res- 
ervations of all kinds, about 87 per cent of the State belongs to the 



332 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

public domain. Little has been appropriated, except along the rivers, 
and even of the land so situated there is some still vacant. The 
greater part of the public land consists of mountain ranges, partly 
covered with forests, and arid plains, useful in their present condi- 
tion only for grazing; but some vacant agricultural land is reported in 
nearly every section of the State except in the westernmost counties. 
More than 1,000,000 acres of "good farm land" are reported by the 
General Land Office in Carbon, Gallatin, and Park counties alone. 
Mr. Newell estimates that with the water supply now available a total 
area of about 11,000,000 acres can be irrigated. This is a little less 
than the amount already disposed of by the Government, but as much 
of the latter will probably remain unwatered, the area ultimately irri- 
gated will doubtless include large tracts of what is now public land. 
The amount of irrigable land might be considerably increased by the 
construction of large canals to take water from the Missouri and Yel- 
lowstone rivers, but these flow so far below the surface of the plains 
to be watered that the expense would be very great. Much will 
depend upon the possibility of storing the spring floods; butaccording 
to the most hopeful view of the case, about one-fifth of the State is 
reclaimable from its arid condition. The opportunity for irrigation 
seems especially favorable in the southeastern part of the State, in 
the Yellowstone basin, the Yellowstone and Big Horn rivers carrying 
an amount of water in excess of any probable demand. The greater 
part of the State, however, lies within the Missouri basin, where per- 
haps 1,000,000 acres maybe irrigated by an economical use of the 
water supply. This central portion of the State is"nearly all between 
2,000 and 7,000 feet above the sea, the greater part having an altitude 
of about 3,000 or 4,000 feet. In the western end of the State are vast 
areas of forest and woodland, partly on the mountains. 

The climate of Montana is mild for the high latitude, and one of 
its features is an early spi'ing. The agricultural products which are 
grown most extensively are hay, oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, and 
vegetables. Apples and other hardy fruits are also raised success- 
fully. The principal industries of the State thus far, however, are 
mining and stock raising. The mountains in the western part of the 
State are rich in both precious and base metals, while coal is found 
also in several places farther east. Transportation facilities are pro- 
vided by the Northern Pacific and Great Northern railroads, which 
traverse the State from east to west, with a few branch lines in the 
western half, and by a branch of the Union Pacific system from Idaho. 
The Northern Pacific Railroad land grant extends in a broad curve 
from the eastern boundary to the northwestern corner of the State. 

NEVADA. 

The vacant public land of Nevada amounts to about 61,358,000 
acres,-or very nearly seven-eighths of the total area — a larger proportion 
than in any other State. There are in addition nearly 6,000,000 acres 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN OF THE UNITED STATES. 333 

reserved from settlement. Of the 3,000,000 acres or less no longer in 
the hands of the National Government, by far the greater part is 
included in a 2,000, 000-acre grant to the State for the support of 
common schools, and in minor grants for A'arious other purposes. 
The amount taken up by individuals is therefore a very small pro- 
portion of the State's surface, and it is scattered in small tracts along 
the borders of streams, the only considerable areas being in the western 
corner of the State, near Lake Tahoe. The vacant public land is 
described in tine General Land Office report as mountainous, arid, 
grazing land, with little or no timber; but it appears to include also the 
greater part of numerous small valleys lying between the mountain 
ranges. 

Nevada forms most of the western and central part of the Great 
Basin, and with the exception of small areas in the northeast and 
southeast, contributes no water to the ocean. The streams either 
flow into saline lakes or are dissipated by evaporation and by sinking 
mto the ground before forming any considerable bodies of water. 

The surface of the State is a diversified plateau, and, exclusive of 
mountain peaks, ranges in altitude from 800 feet in the southeast to 
7,000 feet in the northeast. The variations in altitude, together with 
the great length of the State from north to south, make the climate 
suitable for the production both of semitropical fruits and of the 
grains and fruits of the temperate zone. As yet, however, Nevada's 
agricultural possibilities have scarcely begun to be developed. 

Nevada is often referred to as the most arid State in the Union, yet 
the water supply Avill undoubtedly be found sufficient to reclaim a 
large extent of land near the streams and springs, but now forming part 
of the desert. The United States Geological Survey's estimate of the 
amount of irrigable land in Nevada is only 2,000,000 acres. In 1889 
the State board of reclamation and internal improvements estimated 
the amount at 12,000,000 acres. According to the estimate of the 
Nevada commission of the National Irrigation Congress, of which the 
State surveyor-general was chairman, Nevada has about 0,000,000 
acres of arable land capable of irrigation, this estimate being made 
on the basis of 1 acre-foot of water to an acre, permitting the applica- 
tion of water amounting to 12 inches in depth each year. The pos- 
sible sources of this water supply are given as follows: 

Sources of icater supply for irrigation. 

Acre-f eot. 

Truckee, Carson, and Walker rivers - 1, 000, 000 

Humboldt River 1,000,000 

Salmon, Bruneau, and Owyhee rivers 400, 000 

Quinn River 175,000 

Rio Virgin - - 100,000 

Small streams and springs 2,411,000 

Total surface waters 5,086,000 

Subsurface supply, say '. 914,000 

Total , 6,000,000 



334 YEAEBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The utilization of the amount of water indicated involves extensive 
storage of spring floods in reservoirs, as well as the use of underground 
waters where possible. There are many natural reservoir sites along 
the principal streams, consisting of the beds of ancient lakes or other 
depressions, a number of which have been reserved by the National 
Government for reservoir purposes. In some cases the amount of 
water which can be retained in reservoir sites already known is greater 
than is needed for the arable land within reach. Artesian waters have 
been obtained in some parts of the State, but not in large quantities. 
Springs are numerous, but in some eases contain too much mineral 
matter to be available for irrigation. In the Humboldt Basin the 
amount of land which has already been alienated, including that 
granted to the Central Pacific Railroad, is greater than can probably 
be irrigated ; but in the remainder of the State the area estimated to 
be irrigable, even excluding underground supplies, is greater than the 
amount which has been patented. Agriculture without irrigation can 
not be carried on except in a few of the lower valleys. 

Thus far the principal industries of Nevada have been stock raising, 
carried on largely on the public lands, and mining. The silver mines 
which made the State famous still contain quantities of fairly good 
ore, and it has recently begun to be questioned whether Nevada is 
not as much a gold as a silver State. Several less precious metals 
are also found, as well as a variety of other mineral substances, 
including coal, granite, sulphur, gypsum, alum, niter, borax, soda, 
salt, chalk, soapstone, and mineral soap. But the mining interests, 
as well as the agricultural, suffer at present from lack of adequate 
transportation facilities. , 

KEW MEXICO. 

New Mexico has about 54,550,000 acres of public land open to set- 
tlement, 8,356,000 acres which are reserved for various purposes, and 
15,290,000 which have been appropriated. Most of the land in private 
ownership consists of large private land grants from the Spanish and 
Mexican governments, but recognized by patents from the General 
Land Office. Vast tracts of land remain undisposed of in the eastern 
and southern parts of the Territory, and to a less extent in the north- 
western corner, just east of the Navajo Indian Reservation. This 
land consists of both mountains and arid plains, some portions of 
which are too arid even for grazing. There is some timber scattered 
through the Territory, and minerals exist in the mountains in great 
variety and in unknown quantities. 

For its water supply New Mexico is dependent upon the Rio Grande 
and the Pecos with their tributaries, the Canadian River in the 
northeast, and a few smaller streams which rise near the western 
boundary and ci'oss it on their way to the Colorado. The Rio Grande 
and its tributaries are so far below the level of the surrounding coun- 
try as to be unavailable- for irrigation except to a limited extent 
where the canyons widen out into narrow valleys. There are many 



THli PUBLIC DOMAIN OP THE UNITED STATES. 385 

good reservoir sites, and it is estimated that about 4,000,000 acres can 
be irrigated with the aid of sufficient capital. Wells have been fairly 
successful in variotis parts of the Territory. 

Alfalfa, wheat, oats, barley, Kafir corn, and sugar beets are among 
the important crops of New Mexico. The climate seems to be espe- 
cially well adapted also to "fruit raising. Throughout most of the Ter- 
ritory, however, the raising of sheep and cattle will doubtless continue 
to be the chief industry. The Territory is traversed by a number of 
railroads, and along the Rio Grande Valley especially the transpor- 
tation facilities are good. 

ARIZONA. 

Arizona contains 51,734,000 acres of Government land open to set- 
tlement, besides several large reservations for the use of Indians and 
for other purposes. Only about 5,685,000 acres have passed out of 
the hands of the Government. . The vacant public lands are variously 
described as mountainous, broken, arid, grazing, and timber lands. 
It. is estimated that nearly one-half the total area of the Territory 
is excellent grazing land, and the climate is favorable for stock rais- 
ing, which thus far has been a more important industry than the 
raising of crops. The cultivation of the soil by the aid of irrigation 
is coming to be of more and more importance, however, especially in 
the valleys of the Gila and Salt rivers, which are supposed to have been 
used in the same way by some prehistoric people. New canals in 
course of construction in these valleys are expected to water consider- 
able areas of what is now public land. It is thought that a single 
large dam can be constructed which will hold back enough water to 
irrigate all the vacant land in the Salt River Valley, the soil of which 
has been found on analysis to be richer than that of the Nile. The 
Colorado River, which flows through the northern part of the Terri- 
tory and forms its western boundary, is confined in such deep canyons 
that it is impossible to divert its waters, except in the extreme south- 
west, where it is hoped that a sufficiently long canal will bring them 
out upon the plains. Mr. Newell estimates the amount of land in 
Arizona reelaiinable in the near future without too great expense at 
2,000,000 acres, but the irrigation engineer of the Arizona Experiment 
Station has estimated that more than 6,000,000 acres can be irrigated 
in the Gila and Salt River valleys alone, and that by utilizing all the 
reservoir sites in the Territory at least one-fourth of its entire area 
could be reclaimed. 

The northern and eastern part of the Territory is a high plateau, 
bordered and marked off from the lower lands of the south and west 
by abrupt precipices, and covered for the most part by an immense 
forest, mainly of yellow pine. Although Arizona as a whole is one of 
the most arid sections of the country, there are some places on the 
plateau and in the valleys among the mountains where agriculture 
is carried on without irrigation. The diversity of climate is so great 
that the products include both the grains of the temperate zone and 



336 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

semitropical fruits — oranges, lemons, figs, raisins, dates, almonds, 
olives, and bananas being raised successfully and ripening a month 
or six weeks earlier than in any other part of the United States. 
Successful experiments have been made in raising sugar beets and 
canaigre, and in the Salt River Valley strawberries are said to ripen 
every month in the year. The most important staple crop continues 
to be alfalfa, which supplies the elements most lacking in the soil. 
There are mines of copper, gold, and silver, and a variety of other 
mineral deposits. 

Arizona is traversed by the Southern Pacific Railroad near the Mexi- 
can boundary and by the Atlantic and Pacific farther north, and these 
two trunk lines are connected and supplemented by local railways. 

UTAH. 

In Utah there are 43,870,000 acres of unappropriated public land, 
more than three-fourths of which is still unsurveyed. Two large 
Indian reservations, together with smaller amounts of land reserved 
for other purposes, swell the total of Government land in the State to 
49,321,000 acres, the amount appropriated being only 3,259,000 acres. 
The public lands which are open to settlement are partly mountain- 
ous, and practically all the remainder is so arid as to require irriga- 
tion to fit it for agricultural uses. There are only a few places in 
the State where "dry farming" has been at all successful. 

The western half of Utah forms the eastern part of the Great Basin, 
and includes an arid region southwest of Great Salt Lake known as 
the Great American Desert, while the portion of the State lying east 
of the Wasatch Mountains drains into the Colorado River and its 
tributaries. More than half the area of the State is from 4,000 to 
6,000 feet above sea level, and nearly all the remainder lies- still 
higher, many mountains exceeding an altitude of 10,000 feet. The 
rugged contour of the country leaves many excellent reservoir sites 
which can be utilized without great expense. Besides the works 
already constructed, seven or eight reservoirs definitely projected are 
designed to reclaim more than 100,000 acres of land now lying waste, 
and there are several other reservoir sites selected as such by the 
United States Geological Survey. The water supply of Utah, accord- 
ing to Mr. Newell's estimate, would be sufficient, with a good system 
of storage, to irrigate 4,000,000 acres; the estimate of the Utah com- 
mission of the National Irrigation Congress was 3,654,000 acres, divided 
as follows : 

Sources of water supply for irrigation. 

Acres. 

Salt Lake drainage system 2,155,520 

Colorado drainage system proper 1,117,180 

Sevier Valley drainage system 283,500 

Southwestern drainage system 97,800 

Total 3,654,000 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN OF THE UNITED STATES. 33? 

About 1,350,000 acres of this irrigable land are on the Indian reser- 
vations, where agriculture is already carried on by means of irriga- 
tion; and altogether something over 1,000,000 acres of the irrigable- 
land in the State are already under ditch, 1 this being about one-third 
of the amount of land in private ownership. The lands ceded to the- 
State on its admission to the Union include about 1,304,000 acres of 
the irrigable land, so that after a million acres have been reclaimed 
under the Carey act there will be little, if any, irrigable land to be 
obtained by settlers directly from the National Government. 

Among the more important agricultural products of Utah are 
alfalfa, wheat and other cereals, sugar beets, garden produce, and 
fruits, including especially apples, pears, peaches, plums, and grapes- 
Stock raising and mining are among the leading industries. 

The Union Pacific and Central Pacific railways meet in the north- 
ern part of tho State, reaching thence north and south by means of 
the Oregon Short Line, while the Rio Grande Western extends from 
Ogden and Salt Lake southeastward, with short branches in various 
other directions. 

IDAHO. 

The public land still open to settlement in Idaho amounts to» 
44,207,000 acres, or nearly 84 per cent of the entire area of the State- 
It consists mainly of forest-covered mountains in the northern and cen- 
tral portions of the State, and farther south, of lava plains on which> 
the sagebrush grows luxuriantly; but some vacant agricultural land 
is reported among the mountains in the northernmost counties, where- 
dry farming is successfully carried on. 

Idaho lies to the west and south of the Bitter Root Mountains, the 
Snake River traversing its broad southern end and forming part of 
its western boundary, where it is joined by the Boise, the Payette, the* 
Weiser, the Salmon, and the Clearwater. There is thus, on the whole,. 
a large and well-distributed water supply, but the largest rivers, the 
Snake, Salmon, and Clearwater, are for the most part considerably 
below the level of the surrounding country. In the Snake Valley is» 
one of the largest tracts of irrigable land in the West, but its recla- 
mation as a whole will require large and expensive works. 

The Payette River receives much of its water from heavily timbered 
areas, where the snow is late in melting, and hence it has a large and 
fairly constant volume, more than sufficient to irrigate all the agricul- 
tural land in the valley through which it flows. It is proposed to- 
divert some of the surplus into the valley of the Weiser, and to use- 
it both along the Weiser itself and south of its mouth along the Snake- 
The Boise River also is thought to be large enough, with economical 
use, to reclaim its entire valley. In the southeastern corner of the 
State water can be taken from the Bear River to water a large tract 



1 Brough, " Irrigation in Utah," p. 106. 
3 A 98 22 



338 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

of land near Chesterfield and Bancroft at a moderate cost per acre. 
In othfer localities much land may be reclaimed by the development 
of natural reservoir sites. Artesian wells have brought water to the 
surface, or nearly to the surface, in various parts of the State, and in 
some places it has been found possible to bring the underground flow 
out on the laiwi by means of trenches. The amount of irrigable land 
in the State is estimated by Mr. Newell at 7,000,000 acres; 1 the State 
engineer makes a more conservative estimate of 4,000,000 ©r 5,000,000 
acres. In 1896 it was estimated that existing canals would irrigate 
1,250,000 aci-es, only one-fourth of which was then actually under 
cultivation. 

The leading industries of Idaho are mining and stock raising. The 
principal crops thus far have been hay, cereals, and vegetables; but 
the soil and climate have been found to be well adapted to tile cultiva- 
tion of sugar beets, prunes* apples, peaches, pears, grapes, and cherries. 
The Snake River Valley has excellent transportation facilities in the 
Oregon Short Line Railroad, while the northern part ©f the State is 
crossed by the Great Northern and Northern Pacific roads. 

WYOMING. 

Wyoming contains about 49,035,000 acres of public land open to 
settlement, besides 8,216,643 acres reserved for various purposes. Of 
the latter amount, 2,897,000 acres are in the Yellowstone National 
Park, almost an equal amount is in the Wind River Indian Reserva- 
tion, and 3,241,760 acres are devoted to forestry. 

The vacant public land is valuable chiefly for grazing and timber, 
and in many places for coal, oil, and other mineral products; but 
there are vast areas which need only irrigation to transform them into 
very productive farms. The water supply is fairly abundant and 
well distributed, and is estimated to-be sufficient to reclaim 9,000,000 
acres. The principal streams available for this purpose are the North 
Platte River and its tributaries in the southeast, the Green in the 
southwest, the head waters of the Cheyenne in the northeast, and the 
Big Horn and Powder rivers,, which rise in the central part of the State 
and flow northward into Montana. There are still some places where 
land can be reclaimed without great expense by small" ditches; but 
as these places are more than 6,000 feet above the sea level, hay is 
almost the only important crop that can be depended upon to mature 
there. The better lands can be reclaimed only by means of res- 
ervoirs and large canals, requiring considerable capital; but in the 
Big Horn basin and elsewhere there are large tracts of public land 
so situated that the expense of reclamation would be by no means 

1 In the Sixteenth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey the 
estimate is only 1 ,500,000 acres, the difference being made tip by additions to North 
Dakota and South Dakota. The figures quoted in this paper are from Mr. 
Newell's paper as published separately. 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN OF THE UNITED STATES. 339 

excessive. The best agricultural land in the State is said to be that 
lying along the Platte River and along the northern border east of the 
Big Horn Mountains. In nearly all eases the ditches thus far con- 
structed water only the bottom lands near the rivers, leaving the upper 
bench lands, where the soil is even better, to be reclaimed by more 
extensive works in the future. 

The tillable lands of Wyoming lie from .'3, 500 to 7,000 feet or move 
above sea level, higher on the whole than the agricultural land of any 
other State. There are high mountain ranges in the north and west 
and a few peaks near the southern boundary. The climate has been 
found to be well adapted to the cultivation of cereals and grasses, 
while the raising of hardy fruits is also becoming an important 
industry. There is a lack of railroad facilities in the central and 
northwestern part of Wyoming, but the Union Pacific Railroad trav- 
erses the southern part of the State, while the eastern part is served 
by the Northwestern and Burlington systems and by local lines, and 
the Oregon Short Line enters the southwestern corner. 

CALIFOKXIA. 

In California the vacant public land aggregates 42,443, 000 acres, or 
a little more than the amount which has been appropriated. There 
are also seven forest reserves, besides the General Grant, Sequoia, and 
Yosemite national parks, and several small Indian reservations. 

Topographically, California consists of the Sierra Nevada and Coast 
ranges of mountains, with a broad, level valley between them and 
narrow exterior strips of comparatively low land. Through the cen- 
tral valley flow the Sacramento River in a southerly and the San. 
Joaquin in a northwesterly direction to Suisun Bay and the Golden 
Gate. Tributary to these rivers are a number of streams which rise 
in the Sierra Ncvadas, while the Klamath in the extreme north and 
many shorter streams flow directly into the Pacific Ocean. There are 
also many small streams which contribute their waters to interior 
lakes or are used up in irrigation near their source in the mountains. 
There is thus an abundant water supply, and California as a whole 
can scarcely be called an arid State. The annual rainfall is not very 
deficient in quantity, but during August, September, and October 
there is drought; from this it results that while grains can be raised 
successfully without irrigation in many of the valleys, artificial water- 
ing is essential to orchard crops except in the most humid sections. 
Dry farming has been carried on to some extent in every county in 
the State, and there is a considerable area along the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin rivers which is too wet, and where the problem is one 
of drainage instead of irrigation. The great mass of vacant public 
land, however, is in the arid southeastern part of the State, east of 
the forest reservations in the mountains. San Bernardino County, 
containing a large part of the Mohave Desert, has 7,500,000 acres of 



340 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

public land, and Inyo County, in which Death Valley is situated, has 
5,700,000 acres, including some land on which crops might be raised. 
In the northern part of the State the largest amounts of public land 
are in Siskiyou and Lassen counties. In the former there are 2, 300,000 
acre.s of mountainous, grazing, timber, mineral, and farming land; 
nearly five-sixths of the latter county is still public land, much of 
which is irrigable from Honey Lake, Eagle Lake, and other sources, 
while the remainder consists of nonirrigable grazing land and moun- 
tains, partly timbered. Small amounts of agricultural land are still 
vacant in a number of other counties. 

It is estimated that altogether 17,000,000 acres of California lands 
are capable of irrigation, but it is doubtful how much of the land now 
vacant will be reclaimed in that manner; a large part of the avail- 
able water supply may be used to irrigate lands which have been 
already cultivated without irrigation. There are, however, projects 
for reclaiming part of the desert in the extreme southeast, especially 
near Salton Sink, which, like Death Valley, lies below sea level, and 
which in 1891 and 1893 was covered by natural overflows from the 
Colorado. Artesian wells are extensively employed in southern Cali- 
fornia and in the San Joaquin Valley, and many of the natural reser- 
voir sites have been utilized. 

' Calif ornia, as a whole, is fairly well supplied with railroads, and 
both the Santa Fe and the Southern Pacific systems have lines cross- 
ing the large tract of public land in the southeast; but there are some 
counties in the north and east of the Sierra Nevadas where the devel- 
opment of the fruit industry has been hindered by lack of transpor- 
tation facilities. 

COLORADO. 

In Colorado there are still 39,708,000 acres of public land, exclu- 
sive of reservations, or nearly twice as much as the amount in private 
ownership. The public land is mainly in the mountainous western 
half of the State, where almost none has been appropriated except 
along the borders of streams; but there is a greater or less amount 
of it in every county. More or less vacant agricultural land is 
reported from every part of the State, as well as large areas of grazing 
and mineral lands, the latter including extensive coal deposits. ■ The 
vacant land ranges for the most part from 5,000 to 10,000 feet above 
sea level, but there is a little as low as 4,000 or 4,500 feet, mainly in 
the east. 

The rainfall in Colorado is light, but more than 60 per cent of the 
total usually occurs during the crop-growing season, so that in good 
years dry farming is fairly successful in the eastern part of the State. 
The irrigable area is estimated by Mr. Newell at 8,000,000 acres, of 
which 890,735 acres were already irrigated in 1889; but State Engineer 
Cramer computed in 1894 that there were 54,152,000 acre-feet of water 
available yearly, and that over half the mesa and valley lands, or 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN OF THE UNITED STATES. 341 

more than 20,000,000 acres, could probably be irrigated, while less 
than 2,000,000 acres were then under cultivation. Considerably more 
than half of the surface-water supply is on the western slope of the 
mountains, where most of the public land is situated, but the valleys 
of the Grand, Yampa, and White rivers and their tributaries are 
narrow for the most part, and the plateaus are too far above the water 
to be irrigated without great expense. On the plains east of the 
mountains the only large rivers are the South Platte and the Arkan- 
sas, and the amount of water obtainable at present is not sufficient 
for the land already under ditch ; but by storage of the spring floods 
and by more careful use of water, with the aid of artesian and other 
wells, it is expected to extend the irrigated area very materially, and 
it may be made to include some of the lands now vacant. The Rio 
Grande, which rises among the mountains in the southern part of the 
State, already serves to irrigate extensive areas. 

Tho principal agricultural products of Colorado, besides hay, are 
the common cereals, which are raised both with and without irriga- 
tion, and the various fruits of the temperate zone. The western slope 
is becoming famous for its peach orchards and vineyards. Tobacco 
has been successfully raised in several counties, and sugar beets can 
probably be raised on both sides of the mountains, where irrigation 
is possible. Numerous railway lines afford excellent transportation 
facilities throughout the State, except in the northwestern corner. 

OREGON. 

The vacant public land in Oregon amounts to 35,897,000 acres, or 
more than half the area of the State, besides Indian, forest, and 
military reservations, which bring the total up to 41,365,000 acres. 
Nearly all the land owned by individuals is included in a narrow strip 
along the coast and a somewhat wider strip between the Cascade and 
Coast ranges, and in a few counties along fhe northern boundary. 

West of the Cascade Mountains the rainfall is so abundant that 
agriculttire is carried on for the most part without irrigation, the Wil- 
lamette Valley especially being considered an excellent farming coun- 
try; and there is still a little vacant agricultural land left in this 
humid portion of the State, in Clackamas and Marion counties in the 
north, and farther south in Douglas and Coos counties, besides 
much timber and grazing land among the mountains. East of the 
Cascade Range is a vast plateau, varying in elevation from about 
2,000 to 5,000 feet above sea level, and similar in general character to 
the plains of Idaho, while south of this is that part of the Great Basin 
which extends into Oregon. It is in this eastern part of the State 
that much the greater part of the public lands are situated, and rough 
estimates show that they include fully 4,000,000 acres of agricultural 
land, besides large areas of grazing land and timber. Wheat and 
other cereals are grown here also without irrigation, but not without 



342 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

risk of failure from lack of rain ; and irrigation is practiced to a con- 
siderable extent, though mainly as yet by means of short ditches. 
There are numerous small rivers tributary to the Snake and the 
Columbia, and while most of the water now runs to waste in the early 
spring, it is estimated that by constructing reservoirs and using arte- 
sian-well waters about 3,000,000 acres in eastern Oregon can be irri- 
gated. Where irrigation is practiced the cereal crops are usually 
supplemented by the raising of fruits, vegetables, and forage crops. 
Besides agriculture and stock raising, mining is carried on to some 
extent in eastern Oregon as well as in the mountains farther west. . 

There are several railroads in the Willamette Valley, and the Wil- 
lamette River is navigable throughout more than half its course. 
Other railroads run along the northern border and across the north- 
eastern corner of the State, but through most of eastern Oregon there 
are no better means of communication than wagon roads. 

WASHINGTON. 

In Washington there are now only 13,442,000 acres of vacant public 
land, an amount considerably less than that which has been appro- 
priated. Indian and forest reservations, etc., make the total public 
land about 24,573,000 acres. The largest areas of unappropriated 
land are in the northern, northeastern, and central portions of the 
State. 

Washington is similar to Oregon topographically, being divided by 
the Cascade Mountains into a coast region with abundant rainfall 
and a region of semiarid lava plains. The Columbia River flows in an 
irregular course through the eastern division of the State, and after 
being joined by the Yakima on the west and the Snake on the east, 
forms most of the southern boundary. The Columbia flows from about 
1,000 to 2,000 feet below the surface of the surrounding plains, so that 
its waters can not be used to irrigate them ; but the Yakima and its 
tributaries are used to some extent already, and there are excellent 
reservoir sites near their sources in which sufficient water can be 
stored to irrigate a large part of the valley, which includes much public 
land. Some streams elsewhere in the State can also be utilized, and 
artesian wells are successful near the eastern border, in Spokane and 
Whitman counties, and also near the foot of the Cascade Mountains. 
Altogether it is thought that 3,000,000 acres east of the mountains are 
irrigable. Agriculture is not wholly dependent upon irrigation, how- 
ever, even east of the Cascade Range. Wheat is raised extensively 
without artificial watering, especially on the eastern half of the plains, 
and the irrigated areas are devoted largely to fruits, vegetables, and 
alfalfa. The vacant public lands include some tracts in the wheat 
belt, as well as much grazing land and vast mountain areas valuable 
chiefly for timber and minerals. 

Washington is well favored in the matter of transportation, being 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN OF THE UNITED STATES. 343 

crossed by two transcontinental railways, and having a number of 
local roads in the eastern part. Okanogan County, which contains 
the greatest area of public land, lacks transportation facilities except 
along its southern boundary, but Stevens, Douglas, and Kittitas coun- 
ties, which are next in order, have each two railroads. 

KORTH "DAKOTA. 

The amount of vacant public land in North Dakota, 20,574,000 
acres, is nearly equal to the amount which has been appropriated. 
There are also more than three million acres in Indian reservations. 
Most of the western half of the State still belongs to the public 
domain, but in the eastern half the amount of public land diminishes 
rapidly, and in the valleys of the James and Red rivers, where dry 
farming is most successful, there is hardly any left. In the western 
part of the State, where irrigation is most needed, there are only 
limited areas in which water can be easily secured. The Missouri 
River is so far below the surface- of the arable land and has so slight 
a fall that its waters can be diverted only with difficulty and at 
great expense. Some of the Missouri's lesser tributaries, however, 
especially the short streams flowing from the north, may be made 
available for irrigation 4>y the construction of storage reservoirs. 
East of the Missouri River the main dependence is upon artesian 
wells, which are already in use throughout a large territory for 
various purposes, and which promise to be of great importance in 
agriculture. In. time much of the public land along the Missouri 
south of Bismarck will probably be watered in this manner. 

The vacant public land is at present of value chiefly for grazing, 
but it is very fertile for the most part, and wherever irrigation is 
practicable can be made to produce abundant crops of wheat and 
other cereals, hardy fruits, etc. , as well as forage crops. There is a 
little timber in the Turtle Mountain region in the extreme north, 
and deposits of lignite coal are found throughout nearly all the 
western half of the State. 

The public lands in the western part of the State are crossed by 
the two northern transcontinental railways running nearly east and 
west, and diagonally by the Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. 
Marie Railway. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

There are 12,784,000 acres of vacant public land in South Dakota, 
besides the greater part of the Black Hills Forest Reserve and a num- 
ber of large and small Indian reservations, making the total amount 
of public land a little less than half the area of the State. There is 
comparatively little public land left east of the Missouri River, though 
there are few counties which have none at all; and there is little land 
open to settlement immediately west of the Missouri, except in Stan- 
ley County, because the river is bordered most of the way by Indian 



344 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

reservations. In the southeastern corner of the State are several small 
tracts of swampy grazing land, amounting in the case of Chai'les Mix 
County to some thousands of acres. Most of the appropriated land 
in the western part of the State is along the Cheyenne River and the 
streams which flow into its southern fork from the Black Hills, and 
the largest areas of vacant land are' in the northwestern corner, in the 
Bad Lands of the southwest, and between the Cheyenne and White 
rivers. It is thought that by water storage and the use of artesian 
wells at least 1,000,000 acres of South Dakota lands can be irrigated. 
There is an extensive and remarkable artesian-well area east of the 
Missouri, and recent investigations make it seem probable that this 
area extends also into the public lands of the western and north- 
western portions of the State, in which case the estimate of the irri- 
gable area will need to be considerably increased. 

South Dakota is an important cattle raising and wheat and corn 
growing State, and does well in the production of flax. A large 
part of the State lies in the sugar-beet belt, and fruit raising also 
promises to be a very profitable industry. South Dakota is well sup- 
plied with railroads in the east and in the Black Hills region, but the 
portion of the State containing most of the vacant land is not easily 
accessible. 

NEBRASKA. 

Rather more than one-fifth of Nebraska, or 10,548,000 acres, is still 
vacant public land. Nearly all of this is in the north central and 
northwestern parts of the State, and consists mainly of a sandy soil, 
at present valuable only for grazing. There is a little vacant farming 
land reported in Custer County, near the center of the State, and 
there is some timber on public land in Dawes and Sioux counties, in 
the extreme northwest. Mr. Newell estimates that 1,500,000 acres of 
the semiarid western part of the State can be reclaimed for agricul- 
tural purposes by irrigation; the secretary of the State board of 
irrigation estimates that altogether 6,000,000 acres can be irrigated. 
The canals already built and under construction are estimated to 
cover more than a million acres. 

The principal rivers of Nebraska are the Platte and its tributary the 
Loup, which drain the central part of the State, the Niobrara, which 
flows along the northern boundary, and the Republican in the south. 
The flow of the Loup and Niobrara is fairly constant throughout the 
year. There are also many springs and creeks from which water is 
easily obtainable. There are many artesian wells in Nebraska, but 
they ai'e most successful in the northeastern part of the State, where 
there is now little public land. By the use of windmills or other 
machinery, however, underground water may be obtained for irriga- 
tion on a small scale in central and western Nebraska. The alkali in 
the soil is sometimes troublesome, especially where too much water 
is used, but in such cases sugar beets can often be grown with much 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN OP THE UNITED STATES. 345 

benefit to the soil. There are several railways crossing Nebraska, 
and one of them traverses the region in which is most of the public 
land. 

OKLAHOMA. 

The settlement of Oklahoma has progressed so rapidly that more 
than half the available land has been taken up, leaving only 7,007,000 
acres of vacant public land. Nearly all the eastern half of the Terri- 
tory has been appropriated, but Beaver County, comprising the strip 
of territory formerly known as "No Man's Land," together with some 
of the other western counties, is still mainly public land. There are 
also tracts of vacant land scattered through the central part of the 
Territory, including some agricultural and grazing land in Custer, 
Canadian, Woods, and Kingfisher counties. There is also timber in 
some of the western counties, and there is said to be some good farm- 
ing land left in Greer County, in the southwest. In the western third 
of the Territory cattle raising is now the leading industry, the rain- 
fall being often insufficient for farming; but, although the waters of 
the Cimarron, the Black Bear, and the Salt Fork of the Arkansas are 
unfit for irrigation, while the North Fork of the Canadian River is 
considered doubtful, it is estimated that 1,000,000 acres can be irri- 
gated from wells and small streams. Artesian water has been found 
in Woods County, in the northern part of the Territory. Good crops 
of wheat and other cereals, cotton, etc., are raised in eastern and cen- 
tral Oklahoma, and wherever irrigation has begun to be employed 
the climate has been found very favorable to fruit raising. Cotton is 
successfully grown in the southern part. For a new country Okla- 
homa is well supplied with railroads, for there are a number crossing 
the eastern half of the Territory and one running diagonally across 
Woodward and Woods counties, while several more lines are more or 
less definitely projected. 

KANSAS. 

In Kansas there are only about 1,060,000 acres of vacant public 
land, this being but 2 per cent of the total land area, and a much 
smaller .amount than in any other State so far west. It is nearly all 
in the western end of the State, the eastern half having only a few 
thousand acres of public land all told, and of poor quality. The 
vacant land is for the most part broken or rough grazing land, though 
some agricultural land is reported. 

The principal streams of western Kansas are the Arkansas and 
Cimarron rivers in the south, the headwaters and tributaries of the 
Republican and Solomon in the north, and between these, the Smoky 
Hill River and its tributary the Saline. Especially in the extreme 
west, where irrigation is most necessary, the streams are either very 
small or often dry during the summer, and hence are of little value 
to agriculture without a system of storage. It is evident that water 
must be obtained very largely from underground by means of pumps, 



346 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

which are already in use in many places, being driven either by wind 
or by gasoline or steam engines. The underground water is usually 
found near the surface and seems to be extremely abundant; and in 
the southwestern part of the State, especially in Meade and Hamilton 
counties, thero are many successful artesian wells. It is probable that 
this underground supply will ultimately be used throughout western 
Kansas to irrigate a small area on each farm. Mr. Robert Hay, chief 
geologist of the "United States artesian and underflow investigation, 
estimated that the underflow in this part of the State was sufficient 
to irrigate from 5 to 20 acres in each quarter section; while Mr. W. G. 
RusselL an assistant hydrographer for the United States Geological 
Survey in charge of the Kansas measuring stations, relies upon the 
rivers to water about 28 acres to a section. The president of the 
State Board of Irrigation Survey and Experiment estimates that 
altogether about one-sixth of western Kansas is irrigable; Professor 
Ha worth, of the Kansas State University, calculates that from all 
sources more than half the total area of the State can be irrigated. 1 
Mr. Newell's estimate allows nothing for Kansas, so that whatever 
area is found to be irrigable must be added to his total of 74,000,000 
acres. 

minnksota'. 

There are still 5,720,000 acres of vacant public land in Minnesota, 
besides about 400,000 aeres of Indian land opened to settlement since 
June, 1898. The vacant land is mainly in the extreme north, in the 
rather inaccessible region north and east of the Red Lake Indian Res- 
ervation; about one-half the whole amount is in the two counties 
of Beltrami and Itasca, large areas of which are still uusurveyed. 
Much of the public laud in this part of the State is covered with 
timber, including pine, spruce, poplar, and hard woods, and a part is 
swampy; but there is also some which lacks only transportation 
facilities to make it valuable for farming. There are also unworked 
mineral deposits in Itasca, Saint Louis, Lake, and Cook counties; 
they are chiefly of iron, but there is a gold-bearing formation in the 
northern part of Itasca County, and nickel in the extreme northeast 
of the State. West of Duluth, in the country around Leech Lake and 
Millelacs, there are many thousand acres of timber, brush, and swamp; 
but the only public land in the southern half of the State is in small 
isolated tracts. 

ARKANSAS. 

Scattered through nearly every part of Arkansas are tracts of public 
land aggregating 3,696,000 acres, or more than one-tenth of the areaof 
the State. Throughout eastern Arkansas the vacant land is timbered 

1 Seventh Biennial Report of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture, 1889-90, 
p. 133; Ninth Biennial Report, 1893-94, p. 333; Report of the Board of Irrigation 
Survey and Experiment, 1895-96, pp. 186, 190. 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN 01? THE UNITED STATES. 347 

and partly swampy, with a little grazing land in Arkansas, Lonoke, 
and Prairie counties; in the southwest it is swampy for the most part, 
with a few thousand acres of timber in Ouachita County; while in the 
central and northwestern parts of the State it consists mainly of hills 
and low mountains, which are partly covered with timber, and among 
which there is some well- watered agricultural land. 



The vacant Government land in Florida, not including the swamp 
lands granted to the State, amounts to 1,757,000 acres, or nearly 5 per 
cent of the entire land area. About one-third of this amount is in 
the northwestern extremity of the State, lying between Alabama and 
the Gulf of Mexico, the largest amounts being in Walton and Wash- 
ington counties; the remainder is scattered about on the peninsula, 
and, except at the southern end, mainly in small tracts. The public 
domain in Florida consists mainly of low-lying pine land, with some 
swamps and marshes not yet selected by the State government. 
Extensive deposits of phosphates are found on the western half of 
the peninsula, and at the southern end there is a little rocky land of 
no apparent value. 

LOUISIANA. 

There are 755,000 acres of public land in Louisiana, besides nearly 
1,475,000 acres reserved from settlement. Most of the vacant land is 
covered with pine, but there is some swampy land, especially in the 
extreme southeast, and there are several thousand acres of open 
prairie in the south and southwest. Along the Mississippi there is 
still some farming land to be had, with rich alluvial, soil, but subject 
to occasional damage by floods. In the northwestern part of the State 
the land still available is sandy, with more or less clay. . 

ALABAMA. 

The vaeant public land in Alabama amounts to about 522,000 acres. 
It is mainly in the hilly or mountainous region which makes up the 
northern part of the State, and part of the remainder is sandy or bar- 
ren; but there are also many thousand acres of unappropriated pine 
timber scattered through the southern half of the State, besides a 
little hard wood, and some marshy lands on either side of Mobile Bay 
which ought not to be very difficult to drain. Some agricultural land 
is reported in Clarke County, lying between two navigable rivers and 
less than 100 miles from Mobile; also a small tract of hilly farming 
land in Barbour County. 

MICHIGAN. 

The vacant public land in Michigan amounts to about 505,000 
acres, scattered through the Upper Peninsula and the northern end 
of the Lower Peninsula. In the Upper Peninsula it is in large part 
sandy soil, partly covered with timber, mainly beech, birch, and hard 



348 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

maple, with some pine, spruce, and hemlock. There is no unappro- 
priated timber on the Lower Peninsula except a small amount in 
Kalkaska County; much of the remainder is a fair quality of agri- 
cultural land with light soil. The largest areas of public land in 
this part of the State are in Oscoda, Gladwin, Iosco, Montmorency, 
Crawford, and Presque Isle counties. 

MISSOURI. 

The public land in Missouri amounts to 445,000 acres, situated 
wholly in the southern half of the State, and mainly in the extreme 
south and southwest. It is nearly all rough or hilly land, covered 
with timber for the most part, but near the center of the southern 
half of the State, especially in Dallas, Laclede, and Pulaski counties, 
there is some open grazing land. There are said to be also some 
tracts suitable for fruit growing, and others probably containing min- 
eral deposits of various kinds. 

WISCONSIN. . 

Wisconsin contains only about 413,000 acres of public land, besides 
several small Indian reservations. The greater part of the vacant 
land is in the forest region comprising the eleven or twelve northern- 
most counties. The timber is partly pine and partly hard wood, and 
varies from dense forest to scattering woodland; there are also con- 
siderable areas of swainpy land. There are several thousand acres 
of public land as far south as Adams, Juneau, and Monroe counties, 
but most of this is covered by a scattering growth of small oak trees, 
antl the soil of the remainder is of poor quality. 

MISSISSIPPI. 

The public land in Mississippi amounts to only 383,950 acres. It is 
scattered throughout the State, except in the extreme north, but is 
mainly in the southeast corner and in Wilkinson and Franklin coun- 
ties in the southwest. It is officially described as agricultural and 
timber land. 

- ALASKA. 

Almost the entire area of Alaska is still public land, the only portions 
filed upon up to the close of the last fiscal year being less than 3,000 
aci'es of mineral land, one town site, and a few small tracts used 
for manufacturing or commercial purposes. The inhabitants are now 
occupied mainly in mining, fishing, and fur hunting, but in the coast 
region of southeastern Alaska agriculture is expected to become of 
more and more importance. The temperature along the coast is very 
moderate for that latitude, with no violent fluctuations; the soil is 
fertile, though sometimes requiring to be drained; the rainfall is 
abundant, and there is a vast quantity of accessible timber. Grasses, 
vegetables, berries, wheat, and some other crops are already grown to 
a slight extent, and stock raising is practiced on a small scale 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN OF THE UNITED STATES. 349 

HAWAII. 

The Government lands in the Hawaiian Islands, including those 
formerly classed as Crown lands, amounted in August, 1898, to about 
1,772,040 acres, of an estimated value of $5,581,000. The lands at 
present under lease yield a revenue of something over $100,000 a year. 
It is estimated that there are about 70,000 acres of public land suit- 
able for coffee growing, which is said to be the coming industry of 
Hawaii, about 25,000 acres of cane lands, and nearly 1,000 acres of rice 
lands, besides 451,000 acres now used only for grazing and 681,000 acres 
of forest. Most of the remainder is either barren or mountainous, 
with the exception of 145 acres of valuable city lots iu Honolulu and 
Hilo. About two-thirds of the Government land is on the island of 
Hawaii, the remainder being scattered about on the other islands of 
the group. 

PUERTO RICO AND PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

There are public lands in Puerto Rico from which some reveuue has 
been derived in the past, but no exact information concerning their 
extent or character is available. 

A very large part of the Philippine Islands is either uninhabited or 
inhabited only by wild tribes. 

THE LAND LAWS. 

The vacant public lands of the United States are open to settlement 
under various acts of Congress, the main provisions of which, 
together with some of the most important regulations made there- 
under, are here briefly summarized: 

HOMESTEADS. 

Any citizen of the United States or any person who has declared 
his intention of becoming such, who is the head of a family, or has 
attained his majority, or has served in the Army or Navy in time of 
war, and is not already the proprietor of more than 160 acres of land 
in any State or Territory, is entitled to enter a quarter section (160 
acres) or any less amount of unappropriated public land, and may 
acquire title thereto by establishing and maintaining residence 
thereon and improving and cultivating the land for a period of five 
years. In grazing districts stock raising and dairy farming are 
accepted in lieu of cultivation of the soil. Each homestead entry- 
man is required to make affidavit that the application is made hon- 
estly and in good faith for the purpose of actual settlement and culti- 
vation, and not for the benefit of any other person or corporation 
or for the purpose of speculation. Persons who served as soldiers or 
sailors of the United States in the civil war are entitled to have their 
period of service deducted from the homestead period of five years, 
and those who were discharged from service on account of wounds or 
disabilities may have the whole period of enlistment deducted; but 



350 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

at least one year's residence is required in all cases. Homestead 
settlers not wishing to complete the five-year term of residence may 
obtain title to the land by paying for it in cash after a residence of 
not less than six months. In other cases, with the exception of cer- 
tain lands formerly reserved for the use of Indians, the only payments 
required are certain fees and the cost of publishing notice of final 
proof. The fees for 160 acres of land in States lying east of the one 
hundred and fourth meridian amount to $14 at the time of making 
application and $4 at the time of making final proof; in the States 
and Territories lying farther west the corresponding payments are 
$16 and $6, respectively. When "double minimum" lands are 
entered the payments are somewhat higher. In the case of certain 
lands in Oklahoma, homestead settlers are required to pay from SI to 
$2.50 an acre in addition to the usual fees; on the Chippewa lands, 
in Minnesota, they are required to pay $1.25 an acre; and on what 
was formerly the Great Sioux Indian Reservation, in Dakota, they 
are now required to pay 50 cents an acre, besides the fees. 

DESERT LANDS. 

A resident citizen of any of the arid-land States or Territories may 
obtain title to 320 acres or less of desert land therein by paying $1.25 
an acre, by expending at least $1 an acre each year for three years in 
reclaiming the land by irrigation, in the purchase of water rights, and 
in permanent improvements, and by cultivating one-eighth of the 
land. One-fifth of the purchase money must be paid at the time of 
filing the application and the remainder at the time of making final 
proof, at any time within four years; the applicant must also pay for 
the publication of notice of final proof. The application must be 
accompanied by a map or plan of the land, showing the mode of irri- 
gation proposed and the source of the water to be used, and at the 
expiration of the third year another map or plan must be filed, show- 
ing the character and extent of the improvements. Proof must also be 
given each year that at least $1 an acre has been expended in reclaim- 
ing the land. Any number of persons entering separate tracts may 
associate together in the construction of canals or ditches for irriga- 
tion, and may file joint maps. 

The legal definition of desert land is "all lands exclusive of timber 
lands and mineral lands which will not, without irrigation, produce 
some agricultural crop." It thus includes lands naturally suitable for 
grazing, as well as deserts in the usual sense of the word. The desert- 
land law applies only to public lands in the States of California, 
Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Utah, Colorado, Wyo- 
ming, North Dakota, and South Dakota, and the Territories of Arizona 
and New Mexico. No patent will be issued under this law to any per- 
son or association that already holds more than 320 acres of arid or 
desert land. 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN OF THE UNITED STATES. 351 

CHANTS OF DESERT LAND TO THE STATES. 

The so-called "Carey act," which is really section 4 of the sundry 
civil act of 1894, as amended by the corresponding act of 1896, pro- 
vides for the donation to each of the arid-land States of 1,000,000 acres 
of desert land, conditioned upon the reclamation of the land so granted 
by irrigation. Each State applying for land under this section is 
required to tile a map of the land showing the proposed mode of irri- 
gation and the source of the water. As fast as the lands are irrigated 
patents will issue either to the States or to their assigns; but no State 
is permitted to dispose of more than 160 acres to any one person, and 
any excess of the proceeds above the cost of reclamation is to be applied 
to the reclamation of other desert lands. 

TIMBER AND STONE LANDS. 

Public lands valuable chiefly for timber or stone and unfit for cul- 
tivation may be sold to citizens of the United States or poisons who 
have declared their intention to become such, in quantities not exceed- 
ing 160 acres to each person or association, at $2.50 an acre. 

ISOLATED TRACTS. 

Isolated tracts of less than a quarter section of public land, which 
have been subject to homestead entry for three years after the sur- 
rounding lands have been appropriated, may be advertised for sale by 
order of the Commissioner of the General Land Office. Any person 
wishing to purchase an isolated tract must file in the district land 
office an affidavit describing the land and pay for the advertisement. 
Thirty days' notice is required after the land is ordered into the mar- 
ket, after which it is sold at public sale to the highest bidder, bill not 
for less than §1.25 an acre. The amount which any person may pur- 
chase in this manner is limited to 160 acres. 

PRIVATE ENTRY, PUBLIC SALE, ETC. 

. Public lands of the United States situated in the State of Missouri 
are still subject to private entry, and hence may in general be pur- 
chased at the rate of $1.25 an acre; but the alternate reserved seel ions 
within the limits of railroad grants, with certain exceptions, are held 
at the "double minimum" price of $2.50 an acre. Certain lands in 
other States, including the Osage Indian trust and diminished-reserve 
land« in Kansas, are also subject to private entry under special laws. 

No public lands are now sold at auction except isolated fractional 
tracts, abandoned military and other reservations, and mineral and 
other lands authorized to be sold at auction by special acts of Congress. 

No person is permitted to acquire title to more than 320 acres of 
public land, agricultural in character, under all the land laws. 

The preemption and timber-culture laws have been repealed, except 
as to claims instituted before March 3, 1891. 



352 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

INDIAN LANDS. 

The President is authorized to allot lands in Indian reservations to 
the Indians in severalty, in amounts of one quarter section to each 
head of a family, one-eighth of a section to each single person over 
18 years of age and each orphan under 18, and one-sixteenth of a 
section to each other single person under 18 years. When the lands 
are valuable for grazing only, double allotments are provided for. 
The United States holds the land in trust for the benefit of the 
allottees for twenty-five years, during which it can not be alienated; 
at the expiration of that time the land is conveyed in fee to the 
original allottees or their heirs. The Indian Territory, the reserva- 
tions of the Seneca Indians in New York, and a certain strip of terri- 
tory in Nebraska adjoining the Sioux Nation on the south, are 
excepted from these provisions. 

Any portion of a reservation ceded by the Indians to the United 
States, adapted to agriculture with or without irrigation, is to be dis- 
posed of only under the provisions of the homestead law. 

MINEItAL LANDS. 

Mineral lands are excepted from the provisions of the law relating 
to other public lands, but all valuable mineral deposits in the public 
lands are open to exploration and purchase by citizens of the United 
States and those who have declared their intention to become such, 
and by associations of such persons, under the mining laws and the 
local customs or rules of miners. Mining claims in general are of two 
classes, lode claims and placers. In the case of mining claims on 
veins or lodes of rock bearing valuable deposits, the maximum sur- 
face area permitted by law is a space of 1,500 by 600 feet. Labor 
must be performed or improvements made to the extent of at least 
$100 during each calendar year after that in which the claim is located 
until entry is made and the patent certificate issued. A patent may 
be obtained after the performance of labor or completion of improve- 
ments to the amount of $500 on payment of $5 for each acre or frac- 
tion thereof, the applicant paying also for publishing the notice of 
application. Mill sites on nonmineral land, not exceeding 5 acres in 
extent, may also be obtained at the rate of $5 an acre, and may be 
applied for and patented with the lode claim proper. 

Placer-mineral claims are subject to entry and patent upon the 
same conditions as to labor and improvements, but the price is enly 
$2.50 an acre. Placer claims on surveyed land must conform to the 
legal subdivisions of the public lands (including for this purpose 10- 
acre tracts), and the maximum size is 1G0 acres for an association or 
20 acres for each individual. Lands chiefly valuable for petroleum 
or other mineral oils may be acquired under the provisions of law 
relating to placei'-mineral claims, and lands chiefly valuable for 
building stone may be acquired either by placer entry or under the 
law relating to timber and stsne lands. 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN OP THE UNITED STATES. 355 

Mineral lands in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Missouri, Kan- 
sas, and Alabama are excepted from the provisions of the general 
mineral land law, and are either offered at public sale or disposed of 
in the same manner as agricultural lands. 

Coal lands are sold for $10 an acre, or $20 an acre if situated within 
15 miles of a completed railroad. The maximum amount which may 
be purchased by an individual is 160 acres; but associations of four 
or more persons which have expended $5,000 or more in improving; 
and working a mine may enter as much as 640 acres. 

Saline or salt-spring lands, except in certain States and Territories 
which have never received grants of saline lands by act of Congress,. 
may be sold at public auction for not less than $1.25 an acre, and if 
not sold when so offered they become subject to private sale at the* 
same minimum price. 

TOWN SITES. 

Title to public lands comprised in town sites may in general be> 
acquired in either of the three ways described below: 

(1) The President is authorized to reserve from the public land* 
town sites at any natural or prospective centers of population. The- 
town lots are offered for sale at auction, and those not sold in that 
manner are held subject to private entry; but in no case may a lot be> 
disposed of for less than its appraised value. 

(2) When any persons have founded or desire to found a city or town 
on the public domain they, may file with the county recorder a plat for 
not more than 640 acres, together with a statement of the extent and! 
character of the improvements, transcripts of which are transmitted 
to the General Land Office and to the district land office. The lots* 
may then be offered at public sale by order of the President, subject 
to a minimum price of $10 a lot, and those not so disposed of are there- 
after subject to private entry at the same minimum price or at sucb 
reasonable increase or diminution as the Secretary of the Interior 
may order in view of the increase or decrease in the value of prop- 
erty. Before the day fixed for the public sale actual settlers are- 
entitled to purchase the lots which they have improved at the mini- 
mum price. If no transcript map and statement are filed in the Gen- 
eral Land Office within twelve months from the establishment of av 
town or city on the public domain, the Secretary of the Interior may 
cause the survey and plat to be made, in which case the minimum 
price of lots is $15. The usual minimum is also increased in the case 
of lots containing more than 4,200 square feet. 

(3) Whenever any portion of the public lands is settled upon and! 
occupied as a town site, the corporate authorities, or if the town is- 
not incorporated, the judge of the county court, may enter the lands 
so occupied at the proper land office, at tlie minimum price, in trust, 
for the benefit of the several occupants, in which case the sale of lot» 

3 A98 23 



354 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

and the disposition of the proceeds are conducted as prescribed by the 
State or Territorial legislature. 

In Oklahoma town sites are entered by boards of trustees appointed 
by the Secretary of the Interior, and must contain reservations of from 
10 to 20 acres for parks, schools, and other public purposes. 

ALASKA. 

The homestead land laws of the United States, with some additional 
limitations, were extended to Alaska by the act of May 14, 1898. No 
homestead in that district may exceed 80 acres in extent or extend 
more than 80 rods along the shore of any navigable water; and along 
such shores every alternate space of 80 rods is to be reserved from 
entry. Any citizen of the United States or any association of such 
citizens occupying public lands in Alaska for the purposes of trade, 
manufacture, or other productive industry, which is needed for such 
purposes, may purchase not exceeding 80 acres of such land, not in- 
cluding mineral or coal lands, at $2.50 an acTe, upon submitting proof 
that the area embraces improvements made by the claimant. Alter- 
nate spaces of 80 rods in width abutting on navigable waters are to be 
reserved, but the use of such reserved lands may be granted to citizens 
or associations for landings and wharves. Suitable tracts of land are 
also to bo reserved as landing places for the natives. The Annette 
and Pribilof islands and the islands used for the propagation of foxes 
are excepted from the provisions of the act. 

The Secretary of the Interior may sell timber from public lands, to 
be used in Alaska only, at an appraised value, but such sales must be 
limited to the actual necessities of consumption in Alaska from year 
to year. Actual settlers, miners, etc., are permitted to use limited 
amounts of timber for firewood, buildings, and certain other purposes 
free of charge. 

The laws of the United States relating to mining claims are in force 
in Alaska, and town sites may be entered for the benefit of the occu- 
pants by trustees appointed by the Secretary of the Interior. 

HAWAII. 

The land laws of the United States have no application in Hawaii, 
and no provisions have yet been made for the disposition of public 
lands there; but it is provided in the joint resolution of annexation 
that all revenue or proceeds from such lands, exclusive of those occu- 
pied for civil, military, or naval purposes or assigned to the use of the 
local government, shall be used solely for the benefit of inhabitants of 
the Hawaiian Islands for educational and other public purposes. 



IMPROVEMENT OF PLANTS BY SELECTION. 

By Herbert J. Webber, 
Special Agent of Division of Vegetable Physiology and Pathology. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Selection is one of the most important factors in plant breeding, the 
natural capacity of all plants to vary furnishing the basis on which 
the breeder has to work. The prime factor of selection, or, as Darwin 
calls it, the "law of the. preservation of the favorable individual 
differences and variations and the destruction of those which are 
injurious," consists in the skillful selection and propagation of plants 
showing desirable variations. Selection is frequently understood as 
meaning simply the use of large, vigorous seed, and a consequent 
slight increase in production. While such selection is no doubt 
beneficial, a factor of far more importance is that the seed be taken 
from vigorous, productive plants. The inherent potentiality of the 
mother plant, if it may be so expressed, is a more important consider- 
ation than the size of the seed, which is so materially influenced by the 
general productiveness of the plant. 

The object of selection is to effect a complete transmission of the 
desired qualities and to augment them if possible, and the main factor 
with which the breeder has to contend is the varying degree of the 
power of inheritance possessed by individual plants. 

Plant breeding includes two processes, largely distinct in their 
nature: (1) The methods of securing variation, and (2) the fixation 
of desirable variations by methodical selection. The first process has 
been discussed in previous Yearbooks, the variations arising naturally 
and supposed to be induced directly or indirectly by environment 
having been the subject of a paper by the writer in the Yearbook of 
1896, pages 89-106, while the variations induced by crossing different 
varieties, species, or genera were treated of by the writer in conjunc- 
tion with Mr. W. T. Swingle in the Yearbook of 1897, pages 383-420. 
In the present paper will be discussed the second process — the fixation 
of desirable variations by methodical selection and the gradual im- 
provement of plants resulting from the cumulative effect of selecting 
through many generations those showing the very slight modifications 
which normally occur in all plants. 

UNITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL. 

The unity of the individual taken as a whole is a factor of prime 
importance in selection and should be clearly recognized by every one 
striving to secure improved pedigree plants. If the object in selecting 

355 



356 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

any fruit is to decrease seed production it is of prime importance 
that the seeds he selected from plants which have been found, through 
examinations of a number of fruits from different parts of such plants, 
to have a general tendency toward reduced seed production. The 
plants from such seeds are very liable to inherit the tendency to 
seedlessness in a greater or less degree, but seeds taken from selected 
individual fruits that produce but few seeds, cases of which can be 
found on almost any tree, are no more apt to produce seedless fruits 
than are seeds taken from unselected fruits. Henri de Vilmorin, whose 
extensive experience enables him to speak authoritatively on such 
points, says that "the unity of character of any single plant is the 
main factor in the work of pedigree or grade breeding." His experi- 
ments with chrysanthemums forcibly illustrate this point: "I tried 
an experiment with seeds of Chrysanthemum carinatum gathered on 
double, single, and semidouble heads, all growing on one plant, and 
found no difference whatever in the proportion of single and double- 
flowered plants." Had the seeds been selected from plants on which 
all the flowers were double or semidouble a very large and probably 
even an increased proportion of double flowers would have been 
obtained 

Livingston, who has had such marked success in establishing 
improved sorts of the tomato, in explaining the origin of the Paragon 
tomato very graphically describes his independent discovery of this 
principle of the unity of the individual : 

In passing over my fields of growing tomatoes, which were still of all sizes, 
sorte, and shapes, my attention was attracted to a tomato plant having distinct 
characteristics and bearing heavy foliage. It was unlike any other in the field or 
thnt I had ever seen. It showed itself very prolific. Its fruit was uniformly 
smooth, but too small to be of general market value. As I examined it closely, 
observing how alike every tomato was on the stalk, wishing they were larger, and 
meJitating over its possibilities long, it came to me like an inspiration, Why not 
select special tomato plants instead of specimen tomatoes? 

In selecting Indian corn for seed it is the common practice to collect 
the best ears at the time of husking, the main object being to secure 
ears of good size and shape, and having large, well-formed kernels 
and a proper proportion of cob to kernel. This method of selection, 
while good so far as it goes, does not take the vigor of the plant into 
account, and hence does not accomplish all that is intended. The 
largest ears may grow on comparatively unproductive or weak stalks, 
and therefore to obtain the best results seed corn should be selected 
in the field, and attention given to the habit, productiveness, general 
vigor, etc., of the plant, as well as to the characters of the ear, kernel, 
and cob, and uniformity in ripening. The same remarks apply to the 
selection of seed wheat, but the difficulty in selecting wheat from 
plants fulfilling all the requirements would probably be too great for 
this method of selection to be feasible as a common practice. 

Individuals may be very unequally endowed with the power of 



IMPROVEMENT OF PLANTS BY SELECTION. 357 

transmitting their own characteristics to their progeny, and where 
several individuals are selected in breeding for the same feature it 
is best to keep the seed from each plant separate. The principal aim 
is to secure the complete transmission of the qualities desired, and in 
case the progeny of any plant selected shows a decided tendency to 
revert to the original unselected type it is best to make future selec- 
tions from the progeny of some other plant which has more uniformly 
impressed its qualities on its offspring. 

The instability of "bud sports" further illustrates the importance 
of attention to the unity of the individual when depending on selec- 
tion to improve or fix a sort. Frequently a certain branch differs 
greatly in form of fruit or leaf from all other branches on the same 
tree. Such variations, termed "bud sports," are seldom reproduced 
true through the seed from fruit grown on the branch showing the 
variation. If such variations are desirable, they may of course be 
perpetuated by budding or grafting in the case of plants commonly 
propagated by such methods. The different branches on any plant 
almost invariably possess certain characteristic differences, and in 
selecting an individual from which to obtain seed with a view to 
improve any feature, it is important that this feature should be com- 
mon to all branches of the tree and not limited to any particular one. 

METHODS OF SELECTION. 

The variations which form the basis for selection and the formation 
of new and improved races of plants are the direct or indirect results 
of changed environment or of hybridization and cross fertilization. 
Ray Lankestcr says: 

For the present I see no evidence of a production of new races on the face of the 
earth excepting by the method adopted by these men (breeders, nurserymen, etc.), 
viz, by the selection of congenital variations being produced as the result of (but 
without any direct adaptational relation to) a disturbance of the material of the 
reproductive particles of both sexes, that disturbance being increased if not deter- 
mined by change of environment of the parental organisms or the coupling of 
remote strains. 

Probably the most common way of obtaining initial variations is to 
select them from seedlings as they appear, but their advent can be 
greatly hastened by artificially changing the conditions under which 
the plants grow or by crossing different races or species. As soon as 
the desired variation makes its appearance its improvement and 
fixation by selection should begin. 

In all cases where selection is the means adopted for transmit- 
ting a desired feature, large numbers of individuals should be grown 
in order to provide a greater scope for selection and thus increase 
the probabilities of securing the variation desired. The testing 
grounds and seed farms of large seed establishments are fruitful 
sources for variation. In such places a largo number of individuals 
of the same race are grown together, and in the necessarily careful 



358 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

elimination of all variations from the type of the race (roguing) in 
order to insure the production of seed true to the type, attention is 
forcibly called to all variations, and if any of these promise to be 
desirable improvements the intelligent seedsman almost invariably 
marks the plants showing such variations and preserves the seed for 
further trial and selection. 

Another factor of great importance in selecting to improve races is 
the selection of individuals for breeding which exhibit in the most 
marked degree the feature to be improved. Galton has shown that 
the rate of racial changes which accompany different degrees of sever- 
ity in selection can bo determined with almost mathematical preci- 
sion, and emphasizes the great necessity of using highly selected 
parents. As the result of carefully conducted work, he says: "One 
generation of the 99-degrce ' selection is seen to be more effective than 
two generations of the 90-degree selection, and to have about equal 
effect with the 80-degree selection carried on to perpetuity. Two 
generations of the 99-degree selection are more effective than four of 
the 95-degree and than a perpetuity of the 90-degree." Thus, in 
selecting wheat or any other plant to increase the productiveness, 
it is of the greatest importance that very many individuals grown 
under the same conditions should be examined and the seed taken 
only from those producing the largest yield. 

IMPROVEMENT OF SEA ISLAND COTTON BY SELECTION. 

The methods of selection pursued by certain growers of sea island 
cotton through many years are the most careful and painstaking 
known to the writer, and a description of these methods is given as 
an illustration of the actual procedure in continuous selection. 

According to tradition and the reports of growers, sea island cot- 
ton when first introduced into this country from the West Indies 
was a perennial, unsuited to the duration of the seasons of the lati- 
tude of the sea islands off South Carolina and Georgia, where it sel- 
dom matured fruit. However, through the selection of seed from 
early-maturing individual plants and through better methods of cul- 
ture there has been developed an improved race, which now seems to 
be thoroughly adapted to the conditions of growth in the region 
referred to. Furthermore, under the continuous and rigorous selec- 
tion to which the plants have been subjected the fiber has been 
gradually improved (PI. XXVI), and now that produced along the 
coast and on the islands lying off South Carobna and Georgia is con- 
sidered superior to that grown in any other part of the world. The 
custom of carefully selecting the seed has grown with the industry 
and may be said to be inseparable from it, and it is only by such care- 
ful selection that the staple can be kept up to its present superior 

1 The degrees or "percentiles"' here used indicate the variation above the mean 
average of any quality, which is considered as 50 degrees. 



Yearbook U S. Dept o' Agriculture 1898. 



Plate XXVI. 




Improvement of Sea Island Cotton by Selection: 00, Ordinary Sea Island 
Cotton -original Type from which Selection was made; SS. Selected 
Sea Island Cotton. ^Natural size.! 



THE HEUOTYPE PRINTING CO., BOSTON 



IMPROVEMENT OF PLANTS BY SELECTION. 



359 



excellence. Several different strains have been developed and are 
maintained by different growers selecting with different ideals in 
view. The method described below is that which has been employed 
for many years by Mr. W. A. Clark, of Columbia, S. C, on his James 
Island plantation, and to him the writer is greatly indebted for the 
details. This method and similar ones employed by numerous other 
growers are applicable, with slight variations, to most of our common 
crops, such as corn, wheat, etc. 

FIRST- YEAR SELECTION. 

(1) The first selection is made in the general field, where there are 
a great number of individuals growing and consequently abundant 
opportunity for choice. Each plant in the field is somewhat hastily 
examined, special attention being given to the vigor and productive- 
ness of the plant, the strength, silkiness, and general quality of the 
staple, etc., and a number of those which appear to be distinctly 
superior to the general crop are marked. 

(2) The selected plants are then compared, and several of the best 
selected for more careful comparison, field notes on these being 
recorded and preserved for comparison with more critical notes to 
be taken later. The following is an illustration of field notes copied 
from Mr. Clark's selection notes of 1895: "No. 1, stalk medium, pod 
medium, bearing close, fairly double, lint fair; No. 2, stalk medium, 
pod medium, bearing good, lint fair; No. 3, stalk large, pod large, 
bearing close and double, lint fine and long; No. 4, stalk large, pod 
medium, bearing extra close and double, lint fine and long; No. 5, 
stalk medium, pod medium, bearing close and double, lint fine and 
long." 

(3) Critical house examinations of the specially selected plants are 
now made at leisure, the fiber being "pulled " and carefully examined 
and graded according to (a) covering of seed; (6) size of seed; (c) 
length of staple; (d) fineness of staple; (e) uniformity in length (an ' 
important feature in preventing loss in manufacture). The following 
table, taken from notes made by Mr. Clark in 1895, the selections being 
.based on critical pulling, shows how carefully the record is kept: 

Results of examinations of specially selected plants. 



Factors used in grading. 



Covering 

Size of seed. 

Length 

Fineness 

Uniformity . 



No.l. 



First... 
Second. 
Third-. 
Fourth. 

1 



No. 2. 



Fifth-. 
Fifth- 
Fifth.. 
Fifth.. 
1 



No. 3. 



Second. 
Fourth. 
Fourth. 
Third.. 
1 



No. 4 



Fourth. 
Third .. 
First... 
First... 
1 



No. 5. 



Third. 
First. 
Second. 
Second. 
1 



Note.— All stalks present good appearance in field except No. 3, which is defective in middle 
of top. 



360 YEARBOOK OP THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

"Valuing the first place as 5 and the fifth place as 1, and in like 
manner intervening. positions, the general grade or rank of stalks, 
valuation of uniformity being omitted, as it is the same in all, would 
be as follows: No. 1, 14 points; No. 2, 4 points; No. 3, 11 points; No. 
4, 15 points; No. 5, 10 points. Nos. 4 and 5 would therefore seein to 
rank first." 

(4) The next step in the selection is the comparison of the ginning 
quality, that is, the actual weight of lint to seed in the individual 
plants selected. The nearer the weight of the lint approaches the 
weight of the seed the better. In the early days of sea island cotton 
growing in the United States the proportion of lint to seed by weight 
stood about as 1 to 5, but under the influence of continuous selection 
the difference in the ratio has been gradually reduced until now it is fre- 
quently about as 1 to 3. In order to obtain values easy to compare, Mr. 
Clark weighs the seed and lint after ginning and determines the weight 
of unginned cotton necessary to produce a standard 300-pound bale. 
This is obtained by the following proportion : Weight of lint is to com- 
bined weight of lint and seed as 300 pounds is to X (X equaling the 
weight of the unginned product necessarj 7 ). To illustrate this point, 
according to Mr. Clark's notes the five plants above referred to ranked 
as follows, as shown by their ginning qualities: No. 5 required 1,001 
pounds to produce a 300-pound bale; No. 4, 1,001 pounds; No. 1, 1,038 
pounds; No. 2, 1,060 pounds, and No. 3, 1,068 pounds. 

(5) To secure further evidence as to the qualities of the selections 
and as a check on individual judgment, the ginned fiber is sent, 
labeled by number, to an expert cotton commission merchant known as 
a factor, who judges the sample from the standpoint of the expert 
marketer. Of the above plants, Mr. Clark's factor selected No. 5 as 
outranking the others. This number being on the whole superior 
to the others, it was finally selected and the seed retained for further 
breeding, the other numbers being discarded. 

SECOND-YEAR SELECTION. 

The seed of the individual plant selected the first year is planted 
in the spring of the second year, and as each cotton plant yields from 
500 to 800 seeds, 500 or more seedlings will probably be produced. 
When these reach the proper stage of maturity, all are carefully 
examined, as in the preceding year's selections, and several chosen 
for further and more careful examination. These specially selected 
individuals of the second generation are put through the same careful 
tests as to covering, size of seed, length of staple, proportion of lint to 
seed, etc. , as those of the first year's selection, and the plant found to 
be of particularly high grade is selected for further breeding. The 
seed from the remaining plants (about 500) resulting from the first 
year's selection are retained for planting the third year in order to 
obtain sufficient seed of a selected strain to plant the general crop. 



IMPROVEMENT OF PLANTS BY SELECTION 



3G1 



THIRD-YEAR SELECTION. 

The seed from the second year's selection is planted in the spring of 
the third year, and when the plants reach maturity each one is exam- 
ined as in the first and second years, and an individual particularly 
good in all respects selected for further breeding, as in the previous 
years. The seed produced by the plants (some 500 individuals) result- 
ing from the single plant selected the second year, and which are not 
specially selected for further breeding, are retained to plant in the 
spring of the fourth year in order to provide sufficient seed the fourth 
year to plant the general crop the fifth year. The seed from the 500 
or more unselected plants of the second year's selections are grown 
this year, being sufficient to plant an area of 5 or G acres and furnish- 
ing enough seed to plant the general crop the fourth year. 



1st year 
2nd year 


3D (Individual plant first seleclea) 

\ 
[500~| -^ 






— ^ 

\ 

| 500 — - 


-~+® 


3rd year 


5 Acres 


500 ( „ pn 


\ 




\ T 


4th year 


General crop 






| 500 (— - 




5 Acres 








\ 




\ 


5th year 


General crop 








5 Acres 

















Fig. 93.— Diagram illustrating method of selecting sea island cotton. 
FOURTH- YEAR SELECTION. 

The seed from the specially selected plant of the third year are 
planted, and from the resulting 500 or more seedlings a particularly 
fine individual is again carefully selected for further breeding, as in 
the preceding years. The seed of the plants descending from the 
individual specially selected the third year is sown to obtain suffi- 
cient seed to plant the general crop of the fifth year. The seed used 
to plant the general crop of the fourth year is that from plants of the 
third year grown from the unselected plants of the second year, and 
thus the general crop this year is derived directly from the first-year 
selection, and so on through succeeding generations. (See fig. 92.) 



PRACTICE OF GROWERS. 



The foregoing description and diagram show that after the selec- 
tion work is under way special selections are made each year from 
the small plats of very select seed, and that the general crop is 



362 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

continually grown from stock descending from a single selected indi- 
vidual plant. In the method of selection above outlined the selection 
of a single individual each year only is considered. In practice, each 
grower generally selects several plants each year from which to breed; 
for example, two being selected for superior excellence of staple, one 
or two for general vigor and productiveness, etc. Each of these, how- 
ever, is chosen from several selected individuals, the same care being 
exercised as in the first-year selection. It is always desirable to 
choose several special plants each year as breeders, as occasionally a 
selected plant may prove erratic and produce seedlings materially dif- 
fering from the type, even after the selection has been carried on for 
a number of years with the same ideal in view. 

Under this continuoiis painstaking selection the quality and length 
of the fiber has been gradually increased (PI. XX VI) and the propor- 
tion of seed to lint gradually decreased. The fiber from unselected 
plants is only from If to 2 inches long, while that from the selected 
strain is about 2 J inches long and is very strong and silky. The finest 
grades are used to adulterate silks. These high-bred strains are 
maintained only by continuous selection, and if for any reason the 
selection is interrupted, there is a general and rapid decline in the 
quality of the staple. The cotton produced by these rigidly selected 
plants commands a much higher price than the general crop and is 
sold direct to manufacturers for special purposes. The price of such 
cotton is governed entirely by the excellence of the crop, so no 
regular quotations for the product of the highly selected plants are 
given in trade journals. The finest grades from the selected plants, 
the writer is informed, sell for from 50 to 60 cents per pound, while 
the ordinaiy sea island cotton is quoted at from 15 to 30 cents per 
pound. 

Different growers select with different ideals in view, and the 
crop of each plantation may differ greatly in quality and value from 
that of adjoining plantations. Mr. Clark selects mainly with a view 
to increasing the fineness and length of the staple, and this is done at 
the expense of quantity. His fine product, however, commands the 
very highest price, and this compensates for the small yield. Mr. 
W. G. Hinson, another careful grower of sea island cotton, selects with 
a different ideal in view and has produced a strain with somewhat 
coarser fiber, but yielding heavier; and although the coarser grade 
may not bring so much per pound, yet it may prove fully as remuner- 
ative because of the greater productiveness of the strain. 

INFLUENCE OF MATURITY OF SEED. 

Gardeners believe that the maturity of the seed has considerable 
influence on the offspring, particularly as to time of ripening, plants 
grown from immature seed being said to ripen their fruit much 
earlier than those grown from mature seed. In 1885 Goodale and later 



IMPROVEMENT OF PLANTS BY SELECTION. 3G3 

Goff observed that certain of the early sorts of market* vegetables 
indicate that they may have originated in this way. Arthur, who has 
given this subject careful attention, says: "Another feature of impor- 
tance is the tendency to an increased earliiiess of ripening the fruit 
on plants raised from immature seeds. In the cumulative trials with 
tomatoes by Goff, the strain from green seed ripened from ten days to 
four weeks earlier in different years than the corresponding series 
from ripe seed." According to C. L. Allen, specialists on Long 
Island who give careful attention to growing cabbage for seed, always 
examine each plant carefully before cutting it when harvesting 
their stock seed, and "if the seed is of large size it is rejected, 
because they hold that such seed will make leaves instead of heads. 
Besides that, these men will not use seed until it is at least three 
years old, for the same reason." He states further that "gardeners 
with keen observation note the fact that the older melon, cucumber, 
and squash seeds are, without having lost their germinating power, 
the better, as the proportion of flesh to the seed is greater and the 
vines are more productive of fruit and less inclined to throw out 
branches." From the evidence at the writer's command it is not clear 
how great an influence the maturity of the seed may have in selection 
experiments for general features. From Arthur's experience, how- 
ever, it is practically certain that while immature seed gives a tend- 
ency to earliness, its use commonly results in lessened vitality and 
smaller fruits, and therefore fully matured seed should commonly be 
used. 

SUITABLE LOCALITY FOR SELECTION EXPERIMENTS. 

It is very desirable that plants for selection purposes be grown in a 
region well suited to the crop under consideration and especially one 
having conditions of soil and climate favorable to the development of 
the feature which the selections are intended to accelerate and render 
stable. According to Allen, cabbage, which is particularly sensitive 
to changed conditions of growth, furnishes a good illustration of the 
necessity of giving attention to these points. "All our improved 
varieties of cabbage have come from careful selections in different 
localities. We have our best early types from light soils, which ai'e 
favorable for early growths, and our large, late varieties from heavy 
soils, which encourage continuous growth, consequently a larger head 
and one better adapted to wintering over." If it is desired to produce 
a bush bean from a twining or pole variety, the best place to conduct 
the selection experiment would be in some locality as far north as the 
sort will grow successfully. Burpee, Wood, and other seedsmen having 
observed that when seed pole beans for the trade are grown in the 
far North without poles, which is a common practice, they to a great 
extent lose their habit of sticking close to the poles. It must not be 
thought, however, that climatic conditions favorable to the best 
growth of the plant should always be secured, for in many cases 



364 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

exactly the' opposite is desirable. In selecting with a view to obtain- 
ing a sort suited to local conditions of soil or climate somewhat 
adverse to the best growth of all existing sorts, the plants for selection 
must be grown in that location in order that they may be subjected 
to the adverse conditions, and those individuals selected which sur- 
vive and prosper best. 

NECESSITY OF CLEARLY DEFINED IDEAL OF TYPE DESIRED. 

The most experienced seedsmen and plant breeders claim that a 
clearly denned ideal of the type desired is of the greatest importance, 
as is also a rigid adherence to this type year after year in making the 
selections. Mr. W. W. Tracy, who has had extensive experience both 
in selecting seed-bearing plants to keep the variety true to type and 
in orignating and improving new sorts by selection, says: "My suc- 
cess in seed breeding has always been in direct proportion to the clear- 
ness of my conception of the ideal I was striving to produce and the 
persistency with which I adhered to that ideal in my annual selection 
of breeding stock." 

'Before beginning a selection experiment, the variety from which 
the selection is to be made should be carefully studied and a definite 
ideal formed of a perfect type of the sort desired. Mr. Tracy described 
an interesting experiment in selecting corn, which forcibly illustrates 
the necessity of adhering to the type in such work : 

The result of the work was that the sixth year I had on that same 5-acre field 
a crop over 50 per cent of which was within the limits of the variation established 
for breeding six years before when not one plant in a thousand came within the 
limit. * * * In the fourth or fifth year of this selection one lot showed a very 
remarkable abilityto resist drought. The plants were fairly true to type, and this 
new quality was so desirable that the seed breeder was tempted to save his 
" breeders'' from that lot, but resisted it, and saved them according to rule, but 
he also saved the ten best plants from the new departure and planted the seed in 
a lot by itself. The result was that only a very few of the plants showed the 
drought-resisting quality so noticeable the year before, and all of the ten blocks 
varied more and had a smaller proportion of plants true to type than had any 
single lot since the first year. 

FIXATION OF SEED RACES BY SELECTION. 

When a desirable variation of any race of plants is obtained by 
hybridization or by changed environment or otherwise it should be 
fixed, that is, it should be so stamped on the strain by selection as to 
render it hereditary and cause it to be produced true through the 
seed. Many of our most valuable sorts of vegetables and agricul- 
tural plants are developed from individuals in the general crop which 
exhibit marked differences from the normal type of the race to which 
they belong and from other known races. The plants from the seeds 
of such individuals usually in greater part resemble the type of the 
original race, but by selecting seed through several generations from 



Yearbook U. S. Dent 


of Agr 


iculture, 1898 




Plate XXVII. 






■ ^B If 






W' 


w 








m m 


Wh 


A. jfl liu 


3^K 


K 






L, ... jjlHL^ 




■fcL; ai ^jl 



f 


t f K f 


1 


? 


t 


t t s # 


e 


# 


t 


f • u t 




5 

r 




Seeds of Klondike, Sea Island, and ordinary Upland Cotton: KK, Seeds of 
the Klondike, with and without Lint; S, Seeds of Sea Island; UU, 
Tufted Seeds of ordinary Upland (the variety from which the Klon- 
dike was developed), with and without Lint. (Natural size.) 



THE HELIOTYPE PRINTING CO., BOSTON 



IMPROVEMENT OF PLANTS BY SELECTION. 365 

individuals which most nearly resemble the original variation, the 
changed characters may be rendered hereditary and a new race created. 
In sorts propagated vegetatively by cuttings, suckers, slips, etc., such 
variations may be utilized without waiting for fixation, as in such 
cases simply the portions of the individual showing the variation are 
grown. The original cause of these fortuitous variations, or "seminal 
sports," as they are frequently called, is not definitely known, but 
many of them are probably chance hybrids of a first, second, or later 
generation, or cases of partial reversion to some ancestral type, while 
others may result from environmental conditions. It is difficult to 
trace any connection between such marked variations and the condi- 
tions of environment, however, while they are exactly what would be 
expected to occur in the markedly unlike progeny of a hybrid. All 
the fine races and strains of tomatoes originated by A. W. Livingston, 
such as Acme, Paragon, etc., were selected from accidental variations, 
being simply variations found in large fields of growing tomatoes 
and improved and fixed into stable races by selection. 

The smooth-seeded upland cotton Klondike is an interesting illus- 
tration of the fixation of seed races by selection. Some years ago 
Mr. W. A. Clark, whose methods of selection have been described, 
conceived the idea of producing a finer grade of upland cotton suit- 
able for the finer textiles. In view of the injurious effects of the saw 
gin upon a long-staple cotton and the difficulty of separating the lint 
from a tufted seed with the roller gin, he determined to produce by 
selection an upland cotton growing on a clean, black seed, which 
when once secured could be improved in length and quality of the 
staple by hybridization with the sea island cotton. In the ordinary 
sorts of upland cotton, smooth black seeds, similar to those of the sea 
island eotton (PI. XXVII, 8), are occasionally found mixed with the 
ordinary tufted or green seeds (PI. XXVII, U U). Originally, cer- 
tain upland sorts, such as Peterkin, had smooth seeds, and the pro- 
duction of such seeds in sorts commonly having tufted seeds may be 
due to hybridization of the ancestors of the plant with the sea island 
or some smooth-seeded sorts of the upland. 

Mr. Clark selected at random and planted a quantity of smooth 
black seeds from the ordinary upland cotton, and the great majority 
of the resulting plants produced the ordinary tufted seed, but a few 
had mainly smooth black seed like those from which the plants were 
grown. Seeds were selected from the few plants which produced 
mainly smooth black seed, and were planted the second year. This 
season a much larger proportion of the plants produced smooth black 
seed, but still many produced the ordinary tufted seed. Seeds were 
again selected from the plants producing smooth seed and planted the 
third year, and so on through five generations, when the character was 
fully fixed, and all the plants came true, producing only the smooth 
black seed (PI. XXVII, K K). 



36G YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

To avoid the introduction of any new disturbing elements in the 
fixation of hybrids it is usually necessary to inbreed or close fertilize 
them, and if this, together with careful selection, is carried on through 
several generations hybrids can usually be fixed so that they may be 
depended upon to reproduce themselves in the main true to seed, 
even under different conditions. Hybrids found to be sterile to their 
own pollen, which is not infrequently the case, should be fertilized 
with pollen from hybrids showing the same characteristics, and prefer- 
ably from the same parents. 

As generally understood, the so-called fixation of a seed race is 
simply the strengthening of the inherent stability of the individual 
so that it will impress its characteristics more strongly and surely on 
its .offspring. It may well be asked whether this does not also neces- 
sarily include the character of more or less marked prepotency to its 
own pollen. Most species and natural varieties are more stable than 
cultivated races, principally because they are markedly prepotent to 
their own pollen. It seems quite probable that in some of our most 
stable cultivated races prepotency has also been developed to some 
extent. If, during selection, prepotency could be acquired, it would 
add greatly to the stability of the race. 

After a race is fairly well fixed, as generally understood, it is prob- 
able that the character of prepotency could be acquired by growing 
plants of the race in close proximity to plants of nearly related races 
orjstrains and planting the seeds of each individual the second year 
in separate plats or rows and again close to plants of related races. 
By carefully examining the plants grown the second season it could 
probably be determined which individuals grown the first year were 
least affected by crossing with the related races grown in connection 
with them, and in this way any tendency to prepotency detected. 
The second year the seed to be used for further planting should be 
selected only from the plats of seedlings resulting from plants show- 
ing this tendency to prepotency. Furthermore, the seed from, such 
plats should be selected only from individuals which careful exami- 
nation has shown to be true to the type* of the race. By continuing 
such selection through several generations it is probable that the race 
could be rendered largely prepotent to its own pollen. 

Selection experiments, as normally conducted, and the rigorous 
"roguing" practiced by all good seed firms, have a tendency to pro- 
duce prepotency, all individuals varying from the type (such varia- 
tion being caused largely by hybridization) being in this way 
rejected. The difficulty in such cases, however, is that no attention 
is given to the unity of the individual so far as prepotency is con- 
cerned. Belt says: "Artificial selection is more rapid in its results, 
but less stable than that of nature, because the barriers that man 
raises to prevent intermingling of varieties are temporary and par- 
tial, whilst that which nature fixes when sterility arises is permanent 



IMPROVEMENT OP PLANTS BY SELECTION. 3G7 

and complete.*' By selection, man can render variations hereditary 
through the seed and establish new races as markedly different from 
each other in visible characters as different natural species, but 
unlike these they cross easily and thus are swamped immediately 
when abandoned by man's fostering care. 

If some attention were given to securing prepotency in new races, 
before their introduction to the trade, it is probable that there would 
be less complaint of lack of fixity of type. In sorts which present 
marked characteristic features of value even snch an expensive way 
of securing stability might be justifiable, for by such care the culti- 
vated race could possibly be made to approach natural species and 
varieties in stability. 

EFFECT OF CROSS FERTILIZATION IN SELECTION. 

The effect of cross fertilization on plants grown for selection is a 
factor seldom carefully considered. It is well recognized that the 
greatest source of Variation among plants is the crossing of individ- 
uals, which, though very similar, always show slight differences, and 
doubtless imperceptibly differ in constitution and structure also. 

In the fixation of hybrids inbreeding is apparently very necessary, 
but doubtless results in lessened vigor. In the case of the cotton 
selection described above, however, and in almost all similar cases of 
gradual improvement by selection, no attention is paid to the crossing 
of different individuals further than growing the selected seed by itself 
in a plat isolated from other plants of the same species, to prevent 
the selected individuals from crossing with the unselected. In cases 
of this sort, and in all cases of gradual improvement by selection of 
slightly superior individuals, it is probable that more is gained in 
vigor by allowing the free crossing of the different selected plants 
than is lost by the greater variation introduced thereby into the 
selected strain. Furthermore, in selecting cotton, as described above, 
it is impossible to decide at the time of flowering which of the 500 
seedlings resulting from the single selected individual will prove the 
best, and it is obviously impracticable to carefully inbreed all the 
flowers on each plant, or even a small per cent of them. If ten to 
twenty plants having the best qualities could be selected from the 
500 and bred together, it is probable, considering the greater vigor of 
cross-fertilized plants, that the result would be much better than that 
from the most careful inbreeding. The 500 seedlings resulting from 
the selected individual being planted together and allowed to cross 
freely, it is highly probable that some of the numerous seeds developed 
on the individual plant finally selected from them for further breed- 
ing will have been fertilized with pollen from some similar high-grade 
individual among the 500. In selection experiments of this nature, 
therefore, it seems desirable to plant the seedlings resulting from a 
single plant close together in a square plat, rather than in a single 



368 YEARBOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

long row, as by so doing mixed cross fertilization is favored. It is of 
course highly desirable that plats of selected plants be some distance 
from the general crop to prevent crossing with unselected individuals. 

LIMITATIONS OF SELECTION. . 

• Many horticulturists believe that selection has had the greatest 
influence in the development of the various races and sorts of culti- 
vated plants, and some go so far as to assert that all other factors are 
of minor importance. The skillful plant breeder, however, takes all 
elements into consideration, in order to bring about the amelioration 
desired. Both hybridization and selection have their definite and dis- 
tinct places in every rational system of plant breeding. As explained 
above, hybridization and changing the environment artificially are 
the principal means of securing desired variations, and selection is 
the means by which a variation when once secured is augmented and 
fixed. When used alone in the improvement of plants, selection 
depends upon the adding up of small, unimportant variations through 
many generations^ which in the end may possibly result in marvelous 
differences; but by this method the breeder has no way to force the 
change, and must be satisfied with slight variation and long-continued 
selection. However, when marked changes and new creations are 
desired, it is to hybridization or to chance sports that attention must 
be turned. In the words of Henri de Vilmorin, "Cross breeding 
greatly increases the chance of wide variation, but it makes the task 
of fixation more difficult. It, however, gives the raiser the only 
means in his possession to unite in one the qualities of two different 
plants while discarding their weak points. All the different qualities 
of the two parents seem to unite in the most varied combinations in 
the crossbred products." It would hardly be possible to obtain in 
a lifetime by selection a markedly hardy orange or rose, a fragrant 
pansy, or a new creation like Burbank's hybrid walnut or raspberry- 
blackberry hybrid "Primus," 1 although it is just possible that such 
changes could be ultimately secured by this means. The most feasi- 
ble and by far the quickest way to secure such decided variations and 
new creations is by hybridizing different species or sorts. Where it is 
desired to render a sort hardier, it should be crossed with a hardy 
relative, and where it is desired to render an odorless flower fragrant, 
it should be crossed with a scented related sort. 

DEVELOPMENT OF NEW RACES BY SELECTION. 

The improvements effected by selecting a variation may be slight 
in one generation, but, as before explained, if these slight improve- 
ments are continued year after year, very marked improvements may 
result in the course of time. Bailey says: " It is the slow and patient 

1 Yearbook for 1897, Pis. XVIII and XIX and fig. 12. 



IMPROVEMENT OP PLANTS BY SELECTION. 36£ 

care and selection day by day which permanently ameliorate and 
improve the vegetable world. Nature starts the work; man may 
complete it." 

The origin of our various cultivated plants is doubtless due to the 
cumulative effects of more or less unconscious selection through cen- 
turies. The wild progenitors of important cultivated plants are in 
many instances unknown, and in but very few cases is there any 
knowledge of the early stages in their development. They came down 
to historic times in an advanced stage of development. In some 
instances the fact of the development of cultivated forms from wild 
plants has been proved by experiment. The experiments of Buck- 
man in developing the wild parsnip, those of Louis de Vilmorin in 
developing the wild carrot, and those of Carriere in improving the 
wild radish have become classical. After several years of selection, 
Buckman developed from the wild parsnip an improved form which 
he called the Student. This was further improved by Messrs. Sutton 
& Sqn, and was finally sent out. According to Henslow, "it still 
remains, after more than forty years, the best parsnip in the trade." 
The changes effected by Louis de Vilmorin in the wild carrot clearly 
show what can be accomplished in this manner. He sowed seed of wild 
plants, and found that the offspring flowered continually through the 
summer. By collecting seed from plants producing the latest flowers 
and sowing them late the following season ho encouraged the enlarge- 
ment of the root. In this way the carrot was induced to flower uni. 
formly in the second year of growth, and hence is now a biennial 
instead of an annual, the acquired habit having become hereditary. 
The selection of wild radish or jointed charlock seeds, carried on for 
some time by Carriere, resulted in the prodiiction of several varieties- 
of radish similar to those commonly cultivated. 

A still more interesting case of development from cultivation and 
selection is described by Henri de V